Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Löwenbräu is a brewery in Munich owned by Anheuser-Busch InBev. Its name is German for "lion's brew". Most Löwenbräu beers are marketed as being brewed according to the Reinheitsgebot, the Bavarian beer purity regulation of 1516. Löwenbräu is alleged to have been founded around 1383. In 1524, Jörg Schnaitter, a pierprew, is mentioned in connection with the property at the address 17 Löwengrube; the brewery was first mentioned in 1746 in the Munich tax records. The lion emblem originates from a 17th-century fresco in the brewing house, depicting Daniel in the lions' den. In 1818, Georg Brey, a brewer of peasant origins, bought the brewery, which began to grow under his management. In 1826, brewing operations began moving to a new location on Nymphenburger Strasse. By 1863, Löwenbräu had become the largest brewery in Munich, producing a quarter of the city's beer output; the brewery was formally incorporated in 1872 under the name Aktienbrauerei zum Löwenbräu. As brewer and owner, Ludwig Brey acquired the neighboring properties of a Bierwirt.
By Brey's order in 1882 and 1883, the Rank brothers built the Löwenbräukeller, according to the plans of Albert Schmidt on the brewery's property. The grand opening of the Löwenbräukeller was on 14 June 1883. In 1886, the lion trademark was registered. Around the turn of the century, Löwenbräu was the largest brewery in Germany, though dependent on exports; the export business was affected by World War I, for example the Löwenbräu London Depot closed for the duration, making its employees redundant. In 1921, Löwenbräu merged with Munich Bürgerbräu, two other breweries; these mergers brought Löwenbräu more property, including the Bürgerbräukeller. In 1923, this beer hall became noted as the location of the unsuccessful Beer Hall Putsch which Adolf Hitler led against the government of the German state of Bavaria, of which Munich was the state capital. In 1928, the company's beer production first exceeded a million hectoliters per year; the supervisory board of the new corporation included Wilhelm von Finck, one of the owners of Bürgerbräu, Joseph Schülein, Jewish.
Schülein's tenure as the company's owner led the Nazis to deride Löwenbräu beer as "Jewsbeer". An Allied air raid in 1945 destroyed the brewery. After the war, an agreement was reached with the Schülein heirs, who had fled to the United States, to ensure the survival of the brewery, it resumed the export of beer in 1948—first to Switzerland. Löwenbräu's market position in Upper Bavaria, financing made possible by its large real estate holdings, helped drive worldwide sales of their beer. In North America, Löwenbräu came to be considered the archetype of Munich beer, as shown by its presence at the Montreal Expo in 1967. In 1975, Miller Brewing acquired the North American rights to Löwenbräu. After two years of exports, Miller began brewing Löwenbräu domestically with an Americanized recipe, exports of Munich Löwenbräu to North America ceased. Anheuser-Busch, whose Michelob brand Miller had intended Löwenbräu to compete with, called the attention of regulators and the public to the changes Miller had made to mass-produce the beer for the American market, changes which introduced artificial ingredients that would not have been allowed under the German Reinheitsgebot that Miller had advertised Löwenbräu as being compliant with.
No regulatory action was taken, but sales of Löwenbräu dropped to the point where it was clear the brand would not compete with Michelob for the premium-beer segment. In 1999, the North American rights to Löwenbräu passed to the Labatt Brewing Company, which began to brew Löwenbräu in Canada for both the Canadian and US markets with the same recipe used in Germany. Labatt's production of Löwenbräu ended in 2002 and exports of Munich Löwenbräu to North America resumed, although on a much smaller scale than had been the case before the Miller deal. In 1997, Löwenbräu merged with Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu to form the Spaten-Löwenbräu-Gruppe, sold to Interbrew in 2003. In 2004, Interbrew merged with AmBev to form InBev, which in 2005 acquired Anheuser-Busch to form Anheuser-Busch InBev. Proposals to relocate the Löwenbräu brewery out of the Munich city center have failed, despite the company's international ownership. Today, Löwenbräu has one of the oldest beer gardens in Munich. In 2014, Labatt regained the Canadian rights to Löwenbräu and began brewing Löwenbräu at their London, Ontario brewery, producing a smaller, 473ml, can and soon after releasing a 341ml bottle.
In November 2014, Canadian sommelier, wine consultant and writer Jamie Drummond called for a boycott of the Canadian made Löwenbräu in the online publication "Good Food Revolution", claiming the new product to be inferior, different in taste to the original. Löwenbräu beer has been served at every Oktoberfest in Munich since 1810; because only beers that are brewed in Munich are permitted to be sold at Oktoberfest, Löwenbräu is one of six breweries represented, along with Augustinerbräu, Hofbräuhaus, Hacker-Pschorr and Spaten. For the Oktoberfest, Löwenbräu brews a special Märzen beer called Wiesenbier. Two of the large tents at Oktoberfest, the Löwenbräu-Festhalle and the Schützenfestzelt, are sponsored by Löwenbräu. Oktoberfest beer known as Münchner Bier, is a registered trademark of the Club of Munich Brewers. Löwenbräu Original for Export Löwenbräu Münchner Hell: a Munich Helles Löwenbräu Münchner Dunkel: a dark lager Löwenbräu Triumphator: a doppel
The X-Files: I Want to Believe
The X-Files: I Want to Believe is a 2008 American supernatural thriller film directed by Chris Carter and written by both Carter and Frank Spotnitz. It is the second feature film installment of The X-Files franchise created by Carter, following the 1998 film. Three main actors from the television series, David Duchovny, Gillian Anderson, Mitch Pileggi, reappear in the film to reprise their respective roles as Fox Mulder, Dana Scully, Walter Skinner. Unlike the first film, the plot does not focus on the series' ongoing extraterrestrial-based mytharc themes, but instead works as a standalone thriller horror story, like many of the monster-of-the-week episodes seen in the TV series; the story follows Mulder and Scully who have been out of the FBI for several years, with Mulder living in isolation as a fugitive from the agency and Scully having become a doctor at a Catholic-run hospital, where she has formed a friendly relationship with a ill patient. When an FBI agent is mysteriously kidnapped and a former priest, convicted of being a child molester claims to be experiencing psychic visions of the endangered agent and Scully reluctantly accept the FBI's request for their particular paranormal expertise on the case.
The film was first anticipated in November 2001 to follow the conclusion of the ninth season of the television series, but it remained in development hell for six years before entering production in December 2007 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The film premiered on July 23, 2008, at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood before opening theatrically two days on July 25. Since its release, the film has received mixed reviews from critics. Dana Scully, a former FBI agent, is now a staff physician at a Catholic hospital. FBI agent Mosely Drummy approaches Scully for help in locating her former partner, Fox Mulder, in hiding as a fugitive for several years. Drummy states that the FBI will call off its manhunt for Mulder if he helps investigate the disappearances of several women in West Virginia, the latest of whom is a young FBI agent named Monica Bannan. Scully convinces a reluctant Mulder to help; the duo are taken to Washington, D. C. where Agent Dakota Whitney requests Mulder's expertise with the paranormal as they have been led to a clue, a severed human arm, by Father Joseph Fitzpatrick Crissman.
He is a former priest defrocked for the molestation of thirty-seven altar boys, claims God is sending him visions of the crimes. A second woman, driving home after swimming in a natatorium, is run off the road by a truck driven by Janke Dacyshyn, who abducts her. Father Joe is again recruited for help with the second abducted woman. After a grueling nighttime search in a snow-covered field, he leads the FBI to what turns out to be a frozen burial ground of people and body parts. Analysis of the remains, along with tracking down the recent movements from the second abducted woman's car crash leads them to Dacyshyn, an organ transporter in Richmond and his husband, Franz Tomczeszyn, among the youths Father Joe sexually abused. During an FBI raid on the organ donor facility where Dacyshyn works, he escapes, leaving Bannan's severed head at the scene. Mulder, who accompanied Whitney on the raid, chases Dacyshyn to a building construction site. Whitney is killed when Dacyshyn pushes her down an elevator shaft.
Scully, seeking a resolution, asks Joe, who has not yet heard of the discovery of Bannan's head, if he senses that she is still alive. He replies. Discouraged but still determined, Mulder decides to investigate the incidents further, he drives Scully's car to Nutter's Feed Store in a small town near the abductions, as the human remains contain acepromazine, an animal tranquilizer. When Dacyshyn coincidentally arrives moments Mulder slips out and follows him. Dacyshyn notices him and runs his car off the road. Mulder survives and manages to tail Dacyshyn, who exits his truck after the engine fails, to a small compound in a former barn. Mulder enters, the commotion caused by a two-headed guard dog brings Dacyshyn out from one of the buildings; the compound is being used by an Eastern European medical team, murdering people and stealing their organs for years. The field where Father Joe had earlier discovered the bodies turned out to be their dumping ground. Mulder enters the building to find that the team has been using the organs and body parts to keep Tomczeszyn alive.
At that moment, they attempt to place Tomczeszyn's head on the body of the second abducted woman. Mulder tries to save her from the gruesome fate, but a doctor comes from behind and injects him with a tranquilizer. Helpless, Mulder is taken outside to be murdered by Dacyshyn. Scully, unable to reach Mulder on his cell phone, contacts her old FBI superior, Walter Skinner, for help, they trilaterate the phone's location and find Scully's wrecked car making their way through the snow to find the compound as Mulder is about to be axed by Dacyshyn. Scully attacks him in an ensuing confrontation, incapacitating him, while Skinner breaks up the medical procedure before the young woman is beheaded. Mulder is at home when Scully tells him Father Joe has died, it happened at the same moment, Mulder notes, that Scully disconnected the life support to Tomczeszyn's severed head. Somehow, he surmises, the two men's fates were linked by more than just visions. In a post-credits scene and Scully head across the sea towards a tropical island in a row boat, waving to the camera above.
In November 2001, the creators of the TV series The X-Files decided to pursue a second feature film adaptation of the series, following the 1998 film. Carter was expe
The X-Files (film)
The X-Files is a 1998 American science fiction thriller film directed by Rob Bowman. Chris Carter wrote the screenplay; the story is by Frank Spotnitz. It is the first feature film based on Carter's television series The X-Files, which revolves around fictional unsolved cases called the X-Files and the characters solving them. Five main characters from the television series appear in the film: David Duchovny, Gillian Anderson, Mitch Pileggi, John Neville, William B. Davis reprise their respective roles as FBI agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, FBI Assistant Director Walter Skinner, Well-Manicured Man, the Cigarette-Smoking Man; the film was promoted with the tagline Fight the Future. The film takes place between seasons five and six of the television series, is based upon the series' extraterrestrial mythology; the story follows agents Mulder and Scully, removed from their usual jobs on the X-Files, investigating the bombing of a building and the destruction of criminal evidence. They uncover what appears to be a government conspiracy attempting to hide the truth about an alien colonization of Earth.
Carter decided to make a feature film to explore the show's mythology on a wider scale, as well as appealing to non-fans. He wrote the story with Frank Spotnitz at the end of 1996 and, with a budget from 20th Century Fox, filming began in 1997, following the end of the show's fourth season. Carter assembled cast and crew from the show, as well as some other, well-known actors such as Blythe Danner and Martin Landau, to begin production on what they termed "Project Blackwood"; the film was produced by Daniel Sackheim. Mark Snow continued his role as X-Files composer to create the film's score; the film premiered on June 19, 1998, in the United States, received mixed to positive reviews from critics. Although some enjoyed the style and effects of the film, others found the plot confusing and viewed it as little more than an extended episode of the series. A sequel, titled I Want to Believe, was released ten years later; the film opens in 35,000 B. C. in what will become North Texas. Two cavemen hunters encounter a large extraterrestrial life form in a cave, which kills one and infects the other with a black oil-like substance.
In 1998, in the same area, a boy falls into a hole and is infected by a black substance which seeps from the ground. Firefighters who enter the hole to rescue him do not come out. A team of men wearing hazmat suits extract the bodies of the boy and the firefighters. Meanwhile, FBI Special Agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, while investigating a bomb threat against a federal building in Dallas, discover the bomb in a building across the street; as the building is evacuated, Special Agent in Charge Darius Michaud remains, ostensibly to disarm the bomb. However, he waits for the bomb to detonate. Mulder and Scully are chastised because, in addition to Michaud, four other people were in the building during the bombing; that evening Mulder is accosted by a paranoid doctor, Alvin Kurtzweil, who explains that the "victims" were dead, that the bombing was staged to cover up how they died. At the hospital morgue, Scully is able to examine one of the victims, finding evidence of an alien virus. Meanwhile, the Cigarette Smoking Man goes to Texas, where Dr. Ben Bronschweig shows him one of the lost firefighters, who has an alien organism residing inside his body.
He orders Bronschweig to administer a vaccine to it, but to burn the body if it fails. The alien organism unexpectedly gestates and kills Bronschweig. Mulder and Scully travel to the crime scene in Texas, encountering the boys whose friend fell into the hole. Following their direction, they find; the pair follow some white gasoline tankers to a large cornfield surrounding two glowing domes. Inside the domes, grates in the floor open and swarms of bees fly out; the agents chased by black helicopters, but manage to escape. After returning to Washington, D. C. Scully attends a performance hearing. Mulder is devastated to lose his partner; the two are about to share a kiss when Scully is stung by a bee which had lodged itself under her shirt collar, weakening fast she falls unconsciousness. Mulder calls paramedics. Mulder, not injured, slips out of hospital with the help of The Lone Gunmen and FBI Assistant Director Walter Skinner, he meets a former adversary, the Well-Manicured Man, who gives him Scully's location, along with a vaccine against the virus that has infected her.
As Mulder leaves, the Well-Manicured Man kills himself in a car bomb, before his betrayal of The Syndicate is discovered. Mulder finds Scully underground in Antarctica, in a large facility containing many humans in ice-like enclosures, he breaks Scully's confinement and uses the vaccine to revive her, but this disrupts the facility and cocooned aliens begin trying to escape. Just after the agents escape to the surface, a huge alien vessel emerges from beneath the ice and travels into the sky. Mulder watches it disappear into the distance; some time Scully attends a hearing, where her testimony is disregarded and the evidence covered up. She hands over the only remaining proof of their ordeal, the bee that stung her, noting that the FBI is not capable of investigating this evidence. Outside, Mulder reads an article. At another crop outpost in Tunisia, the Cigarette Smoking Man warns Conrad Strughold that Mulder remains a t
Californication (TV series)
Californication is an American comedy-drama television series created by Tom Kapinos which aired for seven seasons on Showtime from August 13, 2007 to June 29, 2014. The show follows New Yorker Hank Moody, a troubled novelist who moves to California and suffers from writer's block, his drinking and drug abuse complicate his relationships with his longtime lover Karen and their daughter Becca. Hank struggles to find purpose in his life as he passes up multiple opportunities making the right decision for happiness; the show's other main characters are Hank's best friend and agent Charlie Runkle and Charlie's wife Marcy. Recurring themes are sex and rock and roll, all of which are featured as well as the seedier side of Los Angeles; the show has won several awards, including one Golden Globe Award. The series revolves around a novelist plagued by alcoholism, he blames his longtime writer's block on reasons ranging from the hedonism of Los Angeles to the departure of his partner Karen. Hank deals with the consequences of his inability to say "no" to temptation while trying to show his family that he can be a responsible, caring father to Becca and a reliable partner to Karen.
The show was renewed for a second season on September 7, 2007. The Season 1 finale, titled "The Last Waltz" aired on Showtime on October 29, 2007. Season 2 began filming in April 2008, was underway as of June 2008; the premiere episode of Season 2 aired September 28, 2008. The first season was released on DVD in the US on June 17, 2008. Showtime renewed Californication for a third season, which premiered on Sunday September 27, 2009 at 10 pm; the show is laced with rock culture references. It alludes to Warren Zevon and featured Henry Rollins in a guest appearance. Hank's lawyer in Season 4 is called Abby Rhoads; the books Crack the Sky and Blood Mountain by Richard Bates are the names of two Mastodon albums. A Crazy Little Thing Called Love, the movie based on God Hates Us All, is named after the song by the rock band Queen from their album The Game; the segment before the Opening Theme is the intro to The Stooges' song, "I Got a Right". Season 1 followed Hank and the other main characters in the months leading up to Karen's planned marriage to Bill, a Los Angeles publisher.
Hank wallows in self-loathing following the release of A Crazy Little Thing Called Love, a drastically altered and watered-down—yet commercially popular—movie adaptation of his most recent novel, God Hates Us All. Hank spends most of his time drinking and not writing. One day he picks up a young woman in a bookstore. Mia proceeds to harass Hank during his visits to his family, she uses the threat of illegal sex charges to extort stories from him that she passes off as her own for her high-school creative-writing class. The death of Hank's father drives Hank on a sexual encounter with Karen. After the funeral, Hank stays in New York to finish a manuscript for a new novella. Upon returning to L. A. he believes the original copy to be lost when he is carjacked, but Mia had stolen the pot, now she takes credit for it herself and attempts to have it published. On Karen's and Bill's wedding day, Hank chooses to be unselfish and accept the situation so as not to destroy his beloved's wedding day, but that evening, as he and Becca leave the reception, Karen runs out and jumps into his car to resume their life together.
On June 3, 2008, Showtime released the Season 1 soundtrack Temptation: Music From The Showtime Series Californication, which features music from the original series. Included artists are The Rolling Stones, Peeping Tom, My Morning Jacket, The Doors, Tommy Stinson, Bob Dylan, Harvey Danger, Madeleine Martin, Gus Black, Mexican institute of sound, Warren Zevon, The Heavy, Steve Earle, Elton John, two original tracks created for the show by Tyler Bates and Tree Adams. In Season 2, Hank and Karen's relationship seems to be working out, Becca seems happy again, their house is on the market as they plan a move to New York. Hank gets a vasectomy and attends a party thrown by Sonja, a woman he had sex with in Season 1. A mistake and a fight with an obnoxious police officer land Hank in jail, where he meets world-famous record producer Lew Ashby, who commissions Hank to write his biography. Office masturbation costs Charlie Runkle his job. Circumstances lead him to go into the porn industry, as he becomes the agent/paternal-figure of a porn star named Daisy, spends the majority of his and wife Marcy's nest egg financing the artsy porn movie Vaginatown, starring Daisy.
Marcy goes into treatment for her cocaine addiction, Charlie starts an affair with Daisy. Hank proposes to Karen on the night. Karen refuses his proposal, leading him to go back to his old ways and continuing the show's central focus on clandestine sexuality. Hank moves in with Ashby. Becca finds a boyfriend named Damien. Mia's book is a hit and Ashby holds a party in her honor, where Damien cheats on Becca while Charlie announces he wants to le
The X-Files is an American science fiction drama television series created by Chris Carter. The original television series aired from September 1993 to May 19, 2002 on Fox; the program spanned nine seasons, with 202 episodes. A short tenth season consisting of six episodes premiered on January 24, 2016, concluded on February 22, 2016. Following the ratings success of this revival, Fox announced in April 2017 that The X-Files would be returning for an eleventh season of ten episodes; the season premiered on January 3, 2018, concluding on March 21, 2018. In addition to the television series, two feature films have been released: The 1998 film The X-Files, which took place as part of the TV series continuity, the stand-alone film The X-Files: I Want to Believe, released in 2008, six years after the original television run had ended; the series revolves around Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents Fox Mulder, Dana Scully who investigate X-Files: marginalized, unsolved cases involving paranormal phenomena.
Mulder believes in the existence of aliens and the paranormal while Scully, a medical doctor and a skeptic, is assigned to make scientific analyses of Mulder's discoveries to debunk his work and thus return him to mainstream cases. Early in the series, both agents become pawns in a larger conflict and come to trust only each other and a few select people; the agents discover an agenda of the government to keep the existence of extraterrestrial life a secret. They develop a close relationship which begins as a platonic friendship, but becomes a romance by the end of the series. In addition to the series-spanning story arc, "monster of the week" episodes form two-thirds of all episodes; the X-Files was inspired by earlier television series which featured elements of suspense and speculative fiction, including The Twilight Zone, Night Gallery, Tales from the Darkside, Twin Peaks, Kolchak: The Night Stalker. When creating the main characters, Carter sought to reverse gender stereotypes by making Mulder a believer and Scully a skeptic.
The first seven seasons featured Anderson equally. In the eighth and ninth seasons, Anderson took precedence. New main characters were introduced: FBI agents John Doggett and Monica Reyes. Mulder and Scully's boss, Assistant Director Walter Skinner became a main character; the first five seasons of The X-Files were filmed and produced in Vancouver, British Columbia, before moving to Los Angeles to accommodate Duchovny. The series returned to Vancouver to film The X-Files: I Want to Believe as well as the tenth and eleventh seasons of the series; the X-Files was a hit for the Fox network and received positive reviews, although its long-term story arc was criticized near the conclusion. Considered a cult series, it turned into a pop culture touchstone that tapped into public mistrust of governments and large institutions and embraced conspiracy theories and spirituality. Both the series itself and lead actors Duchovny and Anderson received multiple awards and nominations, by its conclusion the show was the longest-running science fiction series in U.
S. television history. The series spawned a franchise which includes Millennium and The Lone Gunmen spin-offs, two theatrical films and accompanying merchandise; the X-Files follows personal lives of FBI Special Agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully. Mulder is a talented profiler and strong believer in the supernatural, he is adamant about the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life and its presence on Earth. This set of beliefs earns him the nickname "Spooky Mulder" and an assignment to a little-known department that deals with unsolved cases, known as the X-Files, his belief in the paranormal springs from the claimed abduction of his sister Samantha Mulder by extraterrestrials when Mulder was 12. Her abduction drives Mulder throughout most of the series; because of this, as well as more nebulous desires for vindication and the revelation of truths kept hidden by human authorities, Mulder struggles to maintain objectivity in his investigations. Agent Scully is a foil for Mulder in this regard.
As a medical doctor and natural skeptic, Scully approaches cases with complete detachment when Mulder, despite his considerable training, loses his objectivity. She is partnered with Mulder so that she can debunk Mulder's nonconforming theories supplying logical, scientific explanations for the cases' unexplainable phenomena. Although she is able to offer scientific alternatives to Mulder's deductions, she is able to refute them completely. Over the course of the series, she becomes dissatisfied with her own ability to approach the cases scientifically. After Mulder's abduction at the hands of aliens in the seventh season finale "Requiem", Scully becomes a "reluctant believer" who manages to explain the paranormal with science. Various episodes deal with the relationship between Mulder and Scully platonic, but that develops romantically. Mulder and Scully are joined by John Doggett and Monica Reyes late in the series, after Mulder is abducted. Doggett replaces him as Scully's partner and helps her search for him involving Reyes, of whom Doggett had professional knowledge.
The initial run of The X-Files ends when Mulder is secretly subjected to a military tribunal for breaking into a top secret military facility and viewing plans for alien invasion and colonization of Earth. He is found guilty, but he escapes punishment with the help of the other agents and he and Scully become fugitives; as the show progress
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur