Upper West Side
The Upper West Side, sometimes abbreviated UWS, is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan, New York City, bounded by Central Park and the Hudson River, West 59th Street and West 110th Street. Like the Upper East Side, the Upper West Side is an affluent residential area with many of its residents working in commercial areas of Midtown and Lower Manhattan, it has the reputation of being New York City's cultural and intellectual hub, with Columbia University and Barnard College located just past the north end of the neighborhood, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts located at the south end. The Upper West Side is considered to be among New York City's wealthiest neighborhoods; the Upper West Side is part of Manhattan Community District 7 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10023, 10024, 10025, 10069. It is patrolled by the 24th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Upper West Side is bounded on the south by 59th Street, Central Park to the east, the Hudson River to the west, 110th Street to the north.
The area north of West 96th Street and east of Broadway is identified as Manhattan Valley. The overlapping area west of Amsterdam Avenue to Riverside Park was once known as the Bloomingdale District. From west to east, the avenues of the Upper West Side are Riverside Drive, West End Avenue, Amsterdam Avenue, Columbus Avenue, Central Park West; the 66-block stretch of Broadway forms the spine of the neighborhood and runs diagonally north/south across the other avenues at the south end of the neighborhood. Broadway enters the neighborhood at its juncture with Central Park West at Columbus Circle, crosses Columbus Avenue at Lincoln Square, Amsterdam Avenue at Verdi Square, merges with West End Avenue at Straus Park. Traditionally the neighborhood ranged from the former village of Harsenville, centered on the old Bloomingdale Road and 65th Street, west to the railroad yards along the Hudson north to 110th Street, where the ground rises to Morningside Heights. With the construction of Lincoln Center, its name, though not the reality, was stretched south to 58th Street.
With the arrival of the corporate headquarters and expensive condos of the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle, the Riverside South apartment complex built by Donald Trump, the area from 58th Street to 65th Street is referred to as Lincoln Square by realtors who acknowledge a different tone and ambiance than that associated with the Upper West Side. This is a reversion to the neighborhood's historical name; the Upper West Side is part of Manhattan Community District 7 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10023, 10024, 10025, 10069. It is patrolled by the 24th Precincts of the New York City Police Department; the long high bluff above useful sandy coves along the North River was little used or traversed by the Lenape people. A combination of the stream valleys, such as that in which 96th Street runs, wetlands to the northeast and east, may have protected a portion of the Upper West Side from the Lenape's controlled burns. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the Upper West Side-to-be contained some of colonial New York's most ambitious houses, spaced along Bloomingdale Road.
It became infilled with smaller, more suburban villas in the first half of the nineteenth century, in the middle of the century, parts had become decidedly lower class. The name "Bloomingdale District" was used to refer to a part of the Upper West Side – the present-day Manhattan Valley neighborhood – located between 96th and 110th Streets and bounded on the east by Amsterdam Avenue and on the west by Riverside Drive, Riverside Park, the Hudson River, its name was a derivation of the description given to the area by Dutch settlers to New Netherland from Bloemendaal, a town in the tulip region. The Dutch Anglicized the name to "Bloomingdale" or "the Bloomingdale District", to the west side of Manhattan from about 23rd Street up to the Hollow Way, it consisted of villages along a road known as the Bloomingdale Road. Bloomingdale Road was renamed The Boulevard in 1868, as the farms and villages were divided into building lots and absorbed into the city. By the 18th century it contained numerous farms and country residences of many of the city's well-off, a major parcel of, the Apthorp Farm.
The main artery of this area was the Bloomingdale Road, which began north of where Broadway and the Bowery Lane join and wended its way northward up to about modern 116th Street in Morningside Heights, where the road further north was known as the Kingsbridge Road. Within the confines of the modern-day Upper West Side, the road passed through areas known as Harsenville, Strycker's Bay, Bloomingdale Village. With the building of the Croton Aqueduct passing down the area between present day Amsterdam Avenue and Columbus Avenue in 1838–42, the northern reaches of the district became divided into Manhattan Valley to the east of the aqueduct and Bloomingdale to the west. Bloomingdale, in the latter half of the 19th century, was the name of a village that occupied the area just south of 110th street. Much of the riverfront of the Upper West Side was a shipping and manufacturing corridor; the Hudson River Railroad line right-of-way was granted in the late 1830s to connect New York City to Albany, soon ran along the riverbank.
One major non-industrial deve
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
New York Philharmonic
The New York Philharmonic the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc. globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City. It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five"; the Philharmonic's home is David Geffen Hall, located in New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. Founded in 1842, the orchestra is one of the oldest musical institutions in the United States and the oldest of the "Big Five" orchestras, its record-setting 14,000th concert was given in December 2004. The New York Philharmonic was founded in 1842 by the American conductor Ureli Corelli Hill, with the aid of the Irish composer William Vincent Wallace; the orchestra was called the Philharmonic Society of New York. It was the third Philharmonic on American soil since 1799, had as its intended purpose, "the advancement of instrumental music." The first concert of the Philharmonic Society took place on December 7, 1842 in the Apollo Rooms on lower Broadway before an audience of 600.
The concert opened with Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, led by Hill himself. Two other conductors, German-born Henry Christian Timm and French-born Denis Etienne, led parts of the eclectic, three-hour program, which included chamber music and several operatic selections with a leading singer of the day, as was the custom; the musicians operated as a cooperative society, deciding by a majority vote such issues as who would become a member, which music would be performed and who among them would conduct. At the end of the season, the players would divide any proceeds among themselves. After only a dozen public performances and four years old, the Philharmonic organized a concert to raise funds to build a new music hall; the centerpiece was the American premiere of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9, to take place at Castle Garden on the southern tip of Manhattan. About 400 instrumental and vocal performers gathered for this premiere, conducted by George Loder; the chorals were translated into. However, with the expensive US$2.00 ticket price and a war rally uptown, the hoped-for audience was kept away and the new hall would have to wait.
Although judged by some as an odd work with all those singers kept at bay until the end, the Ninth soon became the work performed most when a grand gesture was required. During the Philharmonic's first seven seasons, seven musicians alternated the conducting duties. In addition to Hill, Timm and Étienne, these were William Alpers, George Loder, Louis Wiegers and Alfred Boucher; this changed in 1849. Eisfeld along with Carl Bergmann, would be the conductor until 1865; that year, Eisfeld conducted the Orchestra's memorial concert for the assassinated Abraham Lincoln, but in a peculiar turn of events which were criticized in the New York press, the Philharmonic omitted the last movement, "Ode to Joy", as being inappropriate for the occasion. That year Eisfeld returned to Europe, Bergmann continued to conduct the Society until his death in 1876. Leopold Damrosch, Franz Liszt's former concertmaster at Weimar, served as conductor of the Philharmonic for the 1876/77 season, but failing to win support from the Philharmonic's public, he left to create the rival Symphony Society of New York in 1878.
Upon his death in 1885, his 23-year-old son Walter took over and continued the competition with the old Philharmonic. It was Walter who would convince Andrew Carnegie that New York needed a first-class concert hall and on May 5, 1891, both Walter and Russian composer Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducted at the inaugural concert of the city's new Music Hall, which in a few years would be renamed for its primary benefactor, Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie Hall would remain the orchestra's home until 1962; the Philharmonic in 1877 was in desperate financial condition, caused by the paltry income from five concerts in the 1876/77 season that brought in an average of only $168 per concert. Representatives of the Philharmonic wished to attract the German-born, American-trained conductor Theodore Thomas, whose own Theodore Thomas Orchestra had competed directly with the Philharmonic for over a decade and which had brought him fame and great success. At first the Philharmonic's suggestion offended Thomas because he was unwilling to disband his own orchestra.
Because of the desperate financial circumstances, the Philharmonic offered Theodore Thomas the conductorship without conditions, he began conducting the orchestra in the autumn of 1877. With the exception of the 1878/79 season – when he was in Cincinnati and Adolph Neuendorff led the group – Thomas conducted every season for fourteen years, vastly improving the orchestra's financial health while creating a polished and virtuosic ensemble, he left in 1891 to found taking thirteen Philharmonic musicians with him. Another celebrated conductor, Anton Seidl, followed Thomas on the Philharmonic podium, serving until 1898. Seidl, who had served as Wagner's assistant, was a renowned conductor of the composer's works. During his tenure, the Philharmonic enjoyed a period of unprecedented success and prosperity and performed its first world premiere written by a world-renowned composer in the United States – Antonín Dvořák's Ninth Symphony "From the New World". Seidl's sudden death in 1898 from food poisoning at the age of 47 was mourned.
Twelve thousand people applied for tickets to his funeral at the Metropolitan Opera House at 39th Street and Broadway and the streets were jammed for blocks with a "surging mass" of his admirers. According to Joseph Horowitz, Sei
Singapore Symphony Orchestra
The Singapore Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra based in Singapore. Its principal concert venue is the Esplanade Concert Hall; the orchestra gives concerts at the Victoria Concert Hall, overall performs about 100 concerts per year. The orchestra's current music director is Shui Lan, since 1997. Several orchestras were formed after independence. One of these named the Singapore Symphony Orchestra, was formed in 1945 by the Scottish composer Erik Chisholm in his capacity as ENSA Music Director for South East Asia; some of its members were from the British army or air force bands, though it was short-lived, it gave over fifty concerts and played with such soloists as the violinist Szymon Goldberg. Subsequently, until 1979, all orchestras in Singapore were composed of amateur musicians. Orchestras of the early periods included the orchestras of Singapore Musical Society, Singapore Chamber Ensemble, Singapore Youth Orchestra, as well as the short-lived Singapore National Orchestra formed by National Theatre Trust in the 1970s.
In 1973, at the opening ceremony of the Japanese Garden in Jurong, the then-defence minister Dr. Goh Keng Swee described the absence of a professional symphony orchestra in Singapore as "a minor scandal". An initial proposal to establish a national symphony orchestra was not accepted, as it did not plan for the inclusion of Singaporean musicians. In 1977, a amateur Singapore Philharmonic Orchestra was formed under the leadership of Yoshinao Osawa, its success spurred further interest in the idea of a national symphony orchestra. After consulting with conductor Choo Hoey about the feasibility of setting up an orchestra that would include Singaporean musicians, Goh Keng Swee persuaded the Cabinet to support the establishment of a professional orchestra; the orchestra would be supported by public funds, was intended to serve as a flagship arts company for the enrichment of the local culture scene. In 1978, with the support of the Cabinet, the Singapore Symphony Orchestra was registered as Singapore Symphonia Co. and rehearsals began in December, with 8 Singaporean members and 27 members from overseas.
The SSO made its debut with its first performance at the Singapore Conference Hall on 24 January 1979, with its first Resident Conductor Choo Hoey. The orchestra had 41 members; the Singapore Symphony Chorus was formed in 1980. In 1980, the Victoria Concert Hall became home to the orchestra. In 1983, the SSO gave its first outdoor concert at the Istana. In 1985, the SSO made its first European tour, visiting ten cities within Scandinavia, performed at the Singapore Botanic Gardens for the first time, conducted by Lim Yau. From 1986 to 1991, the SSO created a series of concerts entitled New Music Forum which focused on highlighting Singaporean composers. Additionally, in 1995, Okko Kamu was named principal guest conductor of the SSO. Choo Hoey stepped down as music director in July 1996 and took up the title of conductor emeritus, while Lan Shui became the orchestra's next music director in 1997. In 1999, the SSO performed at the National Day Parade. In 2003, the orchestra moved to the Esplanade.
The SSO expanded to its target of about 90 musicians by the early 1990s. In January 2017, the SSO announced that Lan Shui would be standing down as music director in January 2019. In 2019, the SSO celebrated its 40th anniversary with a gala concert; the main performing venue for the orchestra is the Esplanade Concert Hall, but concerts are held at the Victoria Concert Hall. It gives the occasional free performances, for example at the Botanic Gardens and Gardens by the Bay, it performs in school and colleges, has a Community Outreach programme to promote classical music to the wider community. The orchestra has toured around the world, notable concerts include performances at the Berlin Philharmonie, New York's Avery Fisher Hall, Beijing's Poly Theatre, The Proms in London; the repertoire of the orchestra includes Western classical music ranging from early baroque to contemporary classical music as well as Chinese works composed or arranged for a Western orchestra. This is reflected in the program for its inaugural concert that includes Rossini's Overture, Beethoven's Piano Concerto No.
5, Charles Ives' The Unanswered Question, the Chinese orchestral piece Dance of the Yao People. The SSO has made many recordings with other labels; these include the first recording of the complete cycle of Alexander Tcherepnin's six piano concertos and four symphonies on BIS. Other releases include recordings of works by Rachmaninov released in 2012 and 2013 with Yevgeny Sudbin, the 2007 recordings of Claude Debussy's La Mer. Choo Hoey Lan Shui Okko Kamu Andrew Litton Music of Singapore Official website of the Singapore Symphony Orchestra Jan Yap. "Singapore Symphony Orchestra". Singapore Infomedia. National Library Board Singapore. Rob Barnett,'Review: Alexander Tcherepnin Complete Symphonies and Piano Concertos' MusicWeb International blog, 11 March 2011
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is a 16.3-acre complex of buildings in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It hosts many notable performing arts organizations, which are nationally and internationally renowned, including the New York Philharmonic, the Metropolitan Opera, the New York City Ballet and the New York City Opera. A consortium of civic leaders and others led by, under the initiative of, John D. Rockefeller III built Lincoln Center as part of the "Lincoln Square Renewal Project" during Robert Moses' program of urban renewal in the 1950s and 1960s. Respected architects were contracted to design the major buildings on the site, over the next thirty years the diverse working class area around Lincoln Center was replaced with a conglomeration of high culture to please the tastes of the consortium. Rockefeller was Lincoln Center's inaugural president from 1956 and became its chairman in 1961, he is credited with raising more than half of the $184.5 million in private funds needed to build the complex, including drawing on his own funds.
The center's three buildings, David Geffen Hall, David H. Koch Theater and the Metropolitan Opera House were opened in 1962, 1964 and 1966, respectively. While the center may have been named because it was located in the Lincoln Square neighborhood, it is unclear whether the area was named as a tribute to U. S. President Abraham Lincoln; the name was bestowed on the area in 1906 by the New York City Board of Aldermen, but records give no reason for choosing that name. There has long been speculation that the name came from a local landowner, because the square was named Lincoln Square. City records from the time show only the names Johannes van Bruch, Thomas Hall, Stephan de Lancey, James de Lancey, James de Lancey, Jr. and John Somerindyck as area property owners. One speculation is that references to President Lincoln were omitted from the records because the mayor in 1906 was George B. McClellan Jr. son of General George B. McClellan, general-in-chief of the Union Army early in the American Civil War and a bitter rival of Lincoln's.
Architects who designed buildings at the center include: Diller Scofidio + Renfro: Public spaces, Hypar Pavilion and Lincoln Ristorante, The Juilliard School, Alice Tully Hall, School of American Ballet, Josie Robertson Plaza, Revson Fountain, President's Bridge and Infoscape Max Abramovitz: David Geffen Hall, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza Pietro Belluschi: The Juilliard School. Modified by Diller Scofidio + Renfro in association with FXFOWLE Architects Gordon Bunshaft: The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Wallace Harrison: the center's master plan, the Metropolitan Opera House, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza Lee S Jablin: 3 Lincoln Center, the adjacent condominium built by a private developer Philip Johnson: New York State Theater, now known as the David H. Koch Theater, original design of Josie Robertson Plaza and original Revson Fountain Eero Saarinen: Vivian Beaumont Theater Davis and Associates: The Samuel B. and David Rose Building. Billie Tsien, Tod William: The David Rubenstein Atrium Hugh Hardy/H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture LLC: The Claire Tow Theater WET Design: Revson Fountain The first structure to be completed and occupied as part of this renewal was the Fordham Law School of Fordham University in 1962.
Located between Columbus and Amsterdam Avenues, from West 60th to 66th Streets in Lincoln Square, on Manhattan's Upper West Side, the complex was the first gathering of major cultural institutions into a centralized location in an American city. The development of the condominium at 3 Lincoln Center, completed in 1991, designed by Lee Jablin of Harman Jablin Architects, made possible the expansion of The Juilliard School and the School of American Ballet; the center's cultural institutions make use of facilities located away from the main campus. In 2004, the center expanded through the addition of Jazz at Lincoln Center's newly built facilities, the Frederick P. Rose Hall, at the new Time Warner Center, located a few blocks to the south. In March 2006, the center launched construction on a major redevelopment plan that modernized and opened up its campus. Redevelopment was completed in 2012 with the completion of the President's Bridge over West 65th Street; when first announced in 1999, Lincoln Center's campuswide redevelopment was to cost $1.5 billion over 10 years and radically transform the campus.
The center management held an architectural competition, won by the British architect Norman Foster in 2005, but did not approve a full scale redesign until 2012, in part because of the need to raise $300 million in construction costs and the New York Philharmonic's fear that it might lose audiences and revenue while it was displaced. Among the architects that have been involved were Frank Gehry. In March 2006, the center launched the 65th Street Project – part of a major redevelopment plan continuing through the fall of 2012 – to create a new pedestrian promenade designed to improve accessibility and the aesthetics of that area of the campus. Additionally, Alice Tully Hall was modernized and reopened to critical and popular acclaim in 2009 and the Film Society of Lincoln Center expanded with the new Elinor Bunin Munroe Film Center. Top
London Symphony Orchestra
The London Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1904, is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras. It was set up by a group of players who left Henry Wood's Queen's Hall Orchestra because of a new rule requiring players to give the orchestra their exclusive services; the LSO itself introduced a similar rule for its members. From the outset the LSO was organised on co-operative lines, with all players sharing the profits at the end of each season; this practice continued for the orchestra's first four decades. The LSO underwent periods of eclipse in the 1930s and 1950s when it was regarded as inferior in quality to new London orchestras, to which it lost players and bookings: the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic in the 1930s and the Philharmonia and Royal Philharmonic after the Second World War; the profit-sharing principle was abandoned in the post-war era as a condition of receiving public subsidy for the first time. In the 1950s the orchestra debated whether to concentrate on film work at the expense of symphony concerts.
By the 1960s the LSO had recovered its leading position. In 1966, to perform alongside it in choral works, the orchestra established the LSO Chorus a mix of professional and amateur singers a wholly amateur ensemble; as a self-governing body, the orchestra selects the conductors with. At some stages in its history it has dispensed with a principal conductor and worked only with guests. Among conductors with whom it is most associated are, in its early days, Hans Richter, Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Thomas Beecham, in more recent decades Pierre Monteux, André Previn, Claudio Abbado, Sir Colin Davis, Valery Gergiev. Since 1982 the LSO has been based in the Barbican Centre in the City of London. Among its programmes there have been large-scale festivals celebrating composers as diverse as Berlioz and Bernstein; the LSO claims to be the world's most recorded orchestra. At the turn of the twentieth century there were no permanent salaried orchestras in London; the main orchestras were those of the Philharmonic Society and the Queen's Hall.
As there were competing demands for the services of the finest players it was an accepted practice that though under contract to play for a concert, a player was at liberty to accept a better-paid engagement if it were offered. He would engage another player to deputise at him for the original concert and the rehearsals for it; the treasurer of the Philharmonic Society described the system thus: "A, whom you want, signs to play at your concert. He sends B to the first rehearsal. B, without your consent, sends C to the second rehearsal. Not being able to play at the concert, C sends D, whom you would have paid five shillings to stay away." There was much competition for good orchestral players, with well-paid engagements offered by more than fifty music halls, by pit bands in West End musical comedies, by grand hotels and restaurants which maintained orchestras. In 1904, the manager of the Queen's Hall, Robert Newman and the conductor of his promenade concerts, Henry Wood, agreed that they could no longer tolerate the deputy system.
After a rehearsal in which Wood was faced with dozens of unfamiliar faces in his own orchestra, Newman came to the platform and announced: "Gentlemen, in future there will be no deputies! Good morning!" This caused a furore. Orchestral musicians were not paid, removing their chances of better-paid engagements permitted by the deputy system was a serious financial blow to many of them. While travelling by train to play under Wood at a music festival in the north of England in May 1904, soon after Newman's announcement, some of his leading players discussed the situation and agreed to try to form their own orchestra; the principal movers were a trumpeter, John Solomon. Busby organised a meeting at St. Andrew's Hall, not far from the Queen's Hall. Invitations were sent to former members of the Queen's Hall Orchestra. About a hundred players attended. Busby explained the scheme: a new ensemble, the London Symphony Orchestra, to be run on co-operative lines, "something akin to a Musical Republic", with a constitution that gave the organisation independence.
At concerts promoted by the LSO the members played without fee, their remuneration coming at the end of each season in a division of the orchestra's profits. This worked well in good years, but any poorly-patronised series left members out of pocket, reliant on the LSO's engagements to play for provincial choral societies and other managements; the proposal was approved unanimously, a management committee was elected, comprising the four original movers and Alfred Hobday and E F James. Busby was appointed chief executive, a post variously titled "Secretary", "Managing Director", "General Secretary" and "General Manager" over the years. Borsdorf was a player of international reputation, through his influence, the orchestra secured Hans Richter to conduct its first concert. Newman made the Queen's Hall available to them, he and Wood attended the LSO's first concert, on 9 June 1904. The programme consisted of the prelude to Die Meistersinger, music by Bach, Mozart and Liszt, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.
In a favourable review in The Times, J A Fuller Maitland noted that 49 members
Alice Tully Hall
Alice Tully Hall is a concert hall at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Upper West Side, New York City. It is named for Alice Tully, a New York performer and philanthropist whose donations assisted in the construction of the hall. Tully Hall is located within the Juilliard Building, a Brutalist structure, designed by renowned architect Pietro Belluschi, completed and opened in 1969. Since its opening, it has hosted numerous performances and events, including the New York Film Festival. Tully Hall seats 1,086 patrons; as part of the Lincoln Center 65th Street Development Project, the Juilliard School and Tully Hall underwent a major renovation and expansion by architects Diller Scofidio + Renfro and FXFOWLE completed in 2009. The building utilizes new interior materials, state-of-the-art technologies, updated equipment for concerts, film and dance; the expansion of the Juilliard Building created a three-story all-glass lobby and sunken plaza beneath a new, cantilevered extension, “projecting a newly visible public identity to Broadway.”
Before the construction of Alice Tully Hall, most of the chamber music performances in New York City were held at The Town Hall on West 43rd Street, built in 1921. The founders of Lincoln Center wished to have a chamber music hall in the complex, as there was still a need for a dedicated space. Before construction on Lincoln Center began, the architects considered placing a chamber music hall in the basement of Philharmonic Hall. However, as the Juilliard School needed a concert hall, equal in size to a chamber music hall, Lincoln Center decided to build one in the Juilliard building. Construction on the Juilliard building began in 1965 — on a site one block north of the original Lincoln Center complex and part of the parcel designated for improvement through urban renewal; the cost of the chamber music hall was $4.2 million, all of, covered by donations from Alice Tully, a New York chamber music patron and former singer. Tully Hall was designed by architect Pietro Belluschi, associate architects Eduardo Catalano and Helge Westermann.
Renowned acoustician Heinrich Keilholz designed the hall's acoustics. Alice Tully played an influential role in the design of the hall. "She was very particular and meticulous about her choices of colors and what she wanted in the hall that would bear her name," said Patrick McGinnis, former director of operations and manager of Alice Tully Hall, in a 1992 interview. Tully insisted on there being ample space between the rows of seats, wishing concertgoers of all heights to be comfortable. Tully Hall opened on September 11, 1969, its opening night showcased the first concert of the new Lincoln Center Chamber Music Society. The New York Times praised the “restrained, elegant interior” of basswood, deep lavender carpeting, raspberry seats,” and Mildred Schmertz of Architectural Record stated that Alice Tully Hall and the other auditoriums in the Juilliard School building “prove that it is possible to create elegant halls in contemporary terms without resorting to skimpy evocations of the gilt and crystal décor of the great halls of the past.”
Since its opening, Tully Hall has served as a venue for numerous events, including Mostly Mozart, Great Performers, the New York Film Festivals, Jazz at Lincoln Center. In 1975, a cathedral-sized, 4,192-pipe organ was installed. In April 2004, Lincoln Center unveiled the designs by Diller Scofidio + Renfro and FXFOWLE for the first phase of its redevelopment project, which included the expansion of the Juilliard building and the redesign of Alice Tully Hall; the plan received final approval and construction began in March 2006. The plan was praised by many architecture critics, but it received criticism from preservationists who wished to see the original Belluschi building remain intact. A 2005 proposal for landmark status was declined by the Landmarks Preservation Commission. Docomomo International, an organization that works to protect twentieth-century Modernist buildings and sites was a leading organization protesting the renovation; the majority of the controversy has been focused on changes being made to other parts of Lincoln Center, in phase two of the redevelopment project.
By June 2006, Lincoln Center, Inc. had raised $339 million, 75% of the $459 million it was responsible for raising for the project. The total goal for the project was $650 million, the remainder of the money was provided by the federal government and the governments of New York City and State. Lincoln Center received 20 gifts of $5 million or more, nine of which were at $10 million and above. Donors were represented among individuals and foundations, including Morgan Stanley, Credit Suisse, Bank of New York Mellon. Construction was completed and Tully Hall was re-opened in February 2009 with a two-week opening celebration; the Juilliard expansion and renovation was projected to cost around $100 million, but is reported to have cost as much as $360 million. The entire West 65th Street project was projected to cost $325 million. Charles Renfro, a partner at Diller Scofidio + Renfro, stated that the sum was twice as high as it would have cost to tear down Belluschi's building and build anew. Alice Tully Hall was designed as part of the Juilliard School building by Pietro Belluschi.
Belluschi became involved with the Lincoln Center project in October 1956, when he participated in a two-week conference devoted to discussing the planning of the center. The president of the Juilliard School consulted with Belluschi on which architect to choose for the project, though Bel