The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Piura is a city in northwestern Peru located in the Sechura Desert on the Piura River. It is the capital of the Piura Province, its population is 484,475 as of 2017. It was here that Spanish Conqueror Francisco Pizarro founded the third Spanish city in South America and first in Peru, San Miguel de Piura, in July 1532. Piura declared its independence from Spain on 4 January 1821. Like most of northern Peru, the territory of Piura has been inhabited by their autochthonous group of natives called tallanes and yungas; these groups lived without an organization or single leader to rule until the Muchik culture took control, the mixture of these evolved into the Vicús culture. Centuries Piura came under the rule of Tupac Inca Yupanqui for at least 40 years before the Spanish arrived. With the arrival of the Spanish in 1532, the current mestizo and creole cultures of Piura were born; this mestizo culture includes influences from Spanish Andalucia. The Spanish named the city from the Quechuan word pirhua, meaning "abundance".
Nowadays, Piura is known as the "Ciudad del eterno calor" meaning "The city of eternal heat" because it is hot all year round. Piura Department has a desert and semi-desert climate on the coast and the western slopes of the Andes, whereas on the eastern slopes the climate is subtropical. Precipitation is sparse except during El Niño events, when rainfall is abundant and water flows through dry watercourses, causing flooding and large-scale land movements; the hydrography of Piura Department is determined by the amount of rainfall originating in the Pacific Ocean. This rainfall is itself determined by the meeting of two ocean currents on the southern coast of the department, around the bay of Sechura: the cold Humboldt current at 13-19 °C, the warm El Niño at 21-27 °C; these conditions lead to fluctuations in offshore sea temperatures, which are 18-23 °C in winter and spring, 23-27 °C in summer and sometimes in autumn. The mean annual humidity is 66%; the mean atmospheric pressure is 1008.5 hPa, while winds are from the north at an average speed of 3 m/s.
Annual rainfall varies between 200 mm at altitudes of 100-500 m. Most of the region is arid, with rainfall concentrated in the high Andean areas, while on the wide plains the main water sources are seasonal rivers flowing from the north: the Chira and the Piura; the southern half of the plain consists of the Sechura Desert. The main rivers are the Huancabamba and the Chira; the reservoir of Poechos has been created within the course of the Chira. It irrigates large portions of the coastal region; the river Quiroz, a tributary of the Piura, supplies the huge artificial lake of San Lorenzo. On the Huancabamba, in the mountains, there is a hydroelectric power station supplying energy to the region. One of the best-known tourist attractions in Piura is La Esmeralda beach, known as Colan beach for it is located near the town of Colan, it is a long beach with warm waters. Local people like to go there during holidays. There are great spots for surfers, like Playa Cangrejos, Mancora Beach and Cabo Blanco.
Cabo Blanco made be famous by visitor Ernest Hemingway in 1956, where he supervised the filming of "The Old Man and the Sea". Piura is served by the Cap. FAP Guillermo Concha Iberico International Airport. Piura is host to a stunning mestizo culture most famous for gastronomical dishes like Seco de chabelo, algarrobina-based drinks, many types of seafood and fish, like ceviche and Natilla Sweets. Popular crafts are the Chulucana Pottery and Catacaos is famous for its "Hats" and "Silversmith" arts; the small town of Simbila, is popular for its handcrafts and pottery. The tondero and cumanana are the traditional music of mestizo Piura and northern parts of Lambayeque. There are several famous Peruvian Waltz that came from these regions. Piura will be one of the five host cities of the 2019 FIFA U-17 World Cup. University of Piura National University of Piura Branches of: Peruvian Wings University César Vallejo University The Angels of Chimbote University Antenor Orrego Private University Saint Peter University Iglesia Catedral de Piura was founded in 1588, located in the Plena Plaza de Armas, is an icon of the city Iglesia San Francisco was founded by the Franciscan Order Iglesia San Sebastian was founded in 1911 Iglesia Alianza Cristiana and Missionary of Piura Iglesia Maria auxiliadora Powerhouse Peru Powerhouse Peru Bahía Blanca, Argentina.
Trujillo, Spain. Empalme, Mexico. Salt Lake City, United States. Loja, Ecuador. Piura travel guide from Wikivoyage "Piura". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Piura". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Dadnapped is a Disney Channel Original Movie which premiered February 16, 2009. Starring actors from Disney Channel Original Series, the movie had 4.6 million viewers for its premiere. Although the story centers on a hostage situation, the kidnappers are inept and the film "practically oozes kid-pleasing content". Melissa Morris tries to gain more attention from her always preoccupied father, Neal, a best-selling author. Melissa lives in the shadow of Tripp Zoome, the adventurous and clever hero from her father's popular spy novels. Before a long overdue father-daughter vacation, her father gets kidnapped by obsessive fans: Wheeze with his friend and his brother, Andre. However, the tables turn when she must team up with them to find and rescue him from Merv and his brothers and Skunk, it turns out Merv is just using Skunk and Maurice as part of a plan to get Neal to write one final book and uses his daughter as a hostage. Wheeze and Sheldon get all of the Trip Zoome fans in town to gather together to rescue Melissa and Neal and they attack when Melissa manages to signal them.
The fans attack Merv and Skunk and they try to run but are stopped by more fans. Merv sneaks out with Neil while Maurice go after Melissa who escapes. Melissa ties them up. Merv nearly gets away, but Sheldon, trying to find where everyone went, spots him and alerts everyone else. Neil is rescued; as he runs, still tied up, come out and see this and, regretting what they've done, use the floss they're bound in to trip Merv, knocking him down and ending his escape. The police arrest Maurice and Skunk while Neil thanks his fans. Wheeze gives his number to Melissa before her father leave on their long-overdue vacation. Emily Osment as Melissa Morris David Henrie as Wheeze Jason Earles as Merv Kilbo Moisés Arias as Andre Denzel Whitaker as Sheldon Phill Lewis as Maurice Charles Halford as Skunk Jonathan Keltz as Tripp Zoome George Newbern as Neal Morris Jennifer Stone as Debbie Its premiere attracted 4.6 million viewers, outshining Nickelodeon's movie, Spectacular!, which premiered at the same time, by 39%.
Despite its commercial success and positive fan response, it was negatively received by critics. David Nusair called the movie "typically underwhelming Disney Channel fare." Dadnapped: Junior Novel is a book based on the movie, due to be released September 30, 2008 in the United States and October 21, 2008 in the UK, but the release date was changed to February 2009 to coincide with the movie's release. Official website Dadnapped on IMDb
Wizards of Waverly Place
Wizards of Waverly Place is an American fantasy teen sitcom which ran from October 12, 2007 to January 6, 2012 on Disney Channel. The series was created by Todd J. Greenwald, stars Selena Gomez, David Henrie and Jake T. Austin as three wizard siblings with magical abilities competing to win sole custody of the family powers. Further main cast includes Jennifer Stone, Maria Canals Barrera, David DeLuise; the series won "Outstanding Children's Program" at the 61st Primetime Emmy Awards in 2009. A film adaptation of the series, Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie, premiered as a Disney Channel Original Movie on August 28, 2009; the film adaptation won "Outstanding Children's Program" at the 62nd Primetime Emmy Awards earning the series its second consecutive Emmy. The farewell season won "Outstanding Children's Program" at the 64th Primetime Emmy Awards bringing the franchise's total to three Emmy awards. Wizards of Waverly Place ended with 106 episodes over four seasons, its series finale averaged nearly 10 million viewers, which made that episode the most-watched series finale in Disney Channel's history.
On March 15, 2013, The Wizards Return: Alex vs. Alex premiered as a one-hour television special. Wizards of Waverly Place chronicles the adventures of the Russo Family; the Russos live on Waverly Place in Manhattan's Greenwich Village, above a sandwich shop which they own and run. The family consists of siblings Alex and Max; the three teenagers are wizards and live with their Italian father, Jerry, a former family wizard, their mortal Mexican mother, Theresa. When the Russo siblings complete their wizard training, they have to participate in a competition to decide who will become the Family Wizard of their generation, while the others lose their powers and become mortals; because of this, Jerry tries to teach his children to not become dependent on magic. Since one of them gets to keep their powers, Jerry gives his children wizard lessons; the storage room of the Russo family's sub station is a wizard's lair. In the lair is a Portal which allows them to visit the wizard world, other creatures to visit them.
The headmaster of the wizard council, Professor Crumbs pays visits to the Russo home. The Russo siblings attend Tribeca Preparatory School with Harper Finkle and encounter their Old West style principal, Mr. Laritate; because they live in the mortal world, the Russos are required to keep the existence of wizardry a secret. So, Alex's best friend, Harper Finkle, discovers the secret in Season 2's episode "Harper Knows". Justin's best friend, Zeke Beakerman finds out in Season 4's episode "Zeke Finds Out", along with Alex's boyfriend, Mason Greyback, a werewolf and Justin's girlfriend, Juliet van Heusen, a vampire. Selena Gomez as Alex Russo David Henrie as Justin Russo Jake T. Austin as Max Russo Jennifer Stone as Harper Finkle Maria Canals Barrera as Theresa Russo David DeLuise as Jerry Russo Dan Benson as Ezekiel "Zeke" Beakerman Ian Abercrombie as Professor Crumbs Bill Chott as Mr. Laritate Jeff Garlin as Uncle Kelbo Paulie Litt as Frankie/Joey Josh Sussman as Hugh Normous Amanda Tepe as security guard, information desk lady, museum security guard and hot dog vendor Skyler Samuels as Gertrude "Gigi" Hollingsworth Lucy Hale as Miranda Hampson Bridgit Mendler as Juliet van Heusen Daniel Samonas as Dean Moriarty Andy Kindler as Chancellor Rudy Tootietootie Gregg Sulkin as Mason Greyback Moisés Arias as Conscience Hayley Kiyoko as Stevie Nichols Kari Wahlgren as Helen Bailee Madison as Maxine Russo Frank Pacheco as Felix Leven Rambin as Rosie John Rubinstein as Gorog Fred Stoller as Dexter Cameron Sanders as Nelvis McKaley Miller as Talia Robinson The episode "Cast-Away" is the first part of a three-way crossover that continues on The Suite Life on Deck and concludes on Hannah Montana.
Justin takes Max on a cruise to Hawaii aboard the SS Tipton when he wins tickets. He pretends to be a doctor to impress London Tipton while Alex uses magic to bring Harper on the ship. During the cruise, Alex pulls a prank on Justin that turns him blue while Hannah Montana boards the ship to attend a concert in Hawaii, leading Cody to try to get tickets for himself and Bailey; the Disney Channel Original Movie, based on the series, premiered on August 28, 2009 on Disney Channel. Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie was filmed in Puerto Rico in the caribe Hilton hotel, Los Angeles, New York City from February 16 to March 27, 2009; the movie received 11.4 million viewers on its premiere, making it the second-most-viewed DCOM premiere in the US after High School Musical 2. It was the seventh-most-watched basic cable telecast in 2009, it won a Primetime Emmy Award in 2010 for "Outstanding Children's Program". On Friday, January 6, 2012, Wizards of Waverly Place aired its one-hour series finale, "Who Will Be The Family Wizard?", which averaged nearly 10 million viewers to up to 11.3 million.
Although it was not the series' most-watched special, being behind Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie, Cast Away, it was the most-watched finale for a Disney Channel Original Series. Excluding the crossover programming special, it was the franchise's most-watched episode; the closer se
Paul Blart: Mall Cop 2
Paul Blart: Mall Cop 2 is a 2015 American comedy film directed by Andy Fickman and written by Kevin James and Nick Bakay. It is the sequel to 2009's Paul Blart: Mall Cop, stars James as the eponymous mall cop, Paul Blart, along with Neal McDonough, David Henrie, Daniella Alonso. Filming began in April 2014 at the Wynn Las Vegas casino resort, it was released the following year on April 17, 2015. Paul Blart: Mall Cop 2 was the first film shot on the Steve Wynn property, it was the first film to receive Nevada's film tax credit enacted in 2013, receiving a $4.3 million break after spending $40.49 million in the state. The film grossed $107 million worldwide at the box office and has a 5% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes. Paul Blart narrates his hard recovery, his wife Amy divorced him six days into their marriage and to feel better, Paul takes pride in patrolling the West Orange Pavilion Mall. Two years his mother Margaret was killed after being hit by a milk truck. Four years after that, as Paul narrates "he had peaked", he receives an invitation to a security officers' convention in Las Vegas and begins to believe his luck is about to change.
His daughter Maya Blart discovers that she was accepted into UCLA and plans to move across the country to Los Angeles, but in light of her father's invitation, she decides to withhold the information for now. After arriving in Las Vegas and his daughter meet the general manager of Wynn Hotel, a pretty young woman named Divina Martinez, to whom Paul is attracted, he learns that she's dating the hotel's head of security, Eduardo Furtillo. Meanwhile and the hotel's valet, Lane become attracted to each other. A security guard from the Mall of America attending the convention, Donna Ericone, is aware of Paul's earlier heroics in the West Orange Pavilion Mall incident and believes Paul will be the keynote speaker at the event. However, Paul discovers that Nick Panero, is giving the speech. In the midst of the convention, a criminal named Vincent Sofel and a gang of accomplices disguised as hotel employees are secretly plotting to steal priceless works of art from the hotel and replace them with replicas sell the real ones at auction.
In the meantime, Paul has become overprotective of Maya after discovering her flirting with Lane and spies on their conversations. He is mocked by Eduardo for his lack of professionalism in an event where hotel security was notified when Maya turns up missing. In an ensuing argument with her father, Maya boldly claims she's attending UCLA despite Paul's wishes that she remain close to home at a junior college. At the convention, Paul and three other security guards, Saul Gundermutt, Khan Mubi, Gino Chizzeti check out the non-lethal security equipment on display. Paul finds Panero drunk hitting on a woman at the bar. Paul attempts to defuse the situation and Panero passes out, giving Paul a chance to be the event's speaker, he contacts Maya asking her to attend. As Paul prepares his speech and his cohorts put their plan into motion. Maya absentmindedly is taken hostage. Lane is kidnapped as well. After a brief fight with an ill-tempered bird in the hotel garden, Paul gives a rousing speech that moves everyone at the convention, as well as Divina, who inexplicably finds herself becoming more attracted to Paul with each passing moment.
Following the speech, Paul learns about Maya and Lane's situation and rushes to help but passes out due to his hypoglycemic condition that has plagued him for years. After recovering, Paul is able to take down several of Vincent's thugs and gathers intel on the group's intentions. Using non-lethal equipment from the convention, he is able to take out more of Vincent's crew. Meanwhile and Lane overhear Vincent adamantly refusing an oatmeal cookie due to a severe oatmeal allergy, leading to said cookie being thrown from a window. Working with a team – Donna, Saul and Gino – Paul is able to clumsily dismantle Vincent's operation, with Maya incapacitating Vincent by rubbing oatmeal-infused concealer on his face. Afterward, Paul convinces Divina that her attraction for him is misplaced, Eduardo is whom she should be with. Paul accepts Maya going to UCLA, funding her tuition with the reward money he obtained from Steve Wynn for stopping Vincent. After dropping off Maya at UCLA, Paul falls in love with a passing Mounted Police Officer who reciprocates his advances.
In January 2009, Sony expressed an interest in making a sequel to Paul Blart: Mall Cop. It was revealed on January 7, 2014 that Andy Fickman was in talks to direct the film while Kevin James, who co-wrote the script with Nick Bakay, would be back to star as Blart. James produced the film along with Happy Madison's Adam Sandler; the cast includes David Henrie, Raini Rodriguez, Eduardo Verástegui, Nicholas Turturro, Gary Valentine, Neal McDonough, Daniella Alonso, D. B. Woodside, starring alongside James. On March 14, 2014, the Nevada Film Office announced that Sony Pictures had been awarded the first certificate of eligibility for a new tax credit enacted in 2013, in regard to the filming of Paul Blart: Mall Cop 2. Nevada Film Office Director, Eric Preiss, indicated that the production would get $4.3 million in tax credits based on the proposal in their application. On April 2, 2014, Columbia Pictures announced that the film would be released on April 17, 2015. In an October 2012 interview, James sai
Mission Viejo, California
Mission Viejo is a commuter city located within Orange County, United States in the Saddleback Valley. Mission Viejo is considered one of the largest master-planned communities built under a single project in the United States and is rivaled only by Highlands Ranch, Colorado in its size, its population as of 2014 was estimated at 96,346. Mission Viejo is suburban in nature and culture; the city is consists of residential property, although there are a number of offices and businesses within the limits of the city. The city is known for its tree-lined neighborhoods, receiving recognition from the National Arbor Day Foundation; the city's name is a reference to Rancho Mission Viejo, a large Spanish land grant from which the community was founded. Mission Viejo was purchased by John Forster known as "Don Juan," an Englishman by birth who became a Mexican citizen. During the Mexican–American War, Forster provided fresh horses to United States military forces which were used on the march of San Diego to retake Los Angeles.
Mission Viejo was a hilly region used as cattle and sheep grazing land, since it was of little use to farmers. This city was one of the last regions of Orange County to be urbanized due to its geologic complexity. In 1960, early developers dismissed most of the land in Mission Viejo as "undevelopable". Donald Bren, an urban planner who became the president of the Irvine Company, drafted a master plan which placed roads in the valleys and houses on the hills, contoured to the geography of the area; the plan worked, by 1980 much of the city of Mission Viejo was completed. During the late 1970s and the 1980s, houses in Mission Viejo were in such high demand that housing tracts sold out before construction began on them; the houses and shopping centers in the city are uniformly designed in a Spanish mission style, with "adobe"-like stucco walls and barrel-tile roofs. Many point to Mission Viejo as the first and largest manifestation of Bren's obsession with Spanish architecture. Bren's company was the creator of the developments in Irvine and Newport Beach.
The company expanded its operations and went on to build the Lakes project in Tempe, Mission Viejo Aurora in Colorado and was the initial master planner of Highlands Ranch, both in the Denver Metropolitan area. The seal of the city of Mission Viejo was designed and drawn by Carl Glassford, an artist and former resident of the city. Mission Viejo is located at 33°36′46″N 117°39′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.1 square miles, 17.7 square miles of, land and 0.4 square miles is water. A significant portion of the surface water is held in Lake Mission Viejo, an artificial lake stretching one mile from Olympiad Road to Alicia Parkway along Marguerite Parkway. Mission Viejo is located 49 miles southeast of Los Angeles, 73 miles northwest of San Diego, it is bordered by Lake Forest on the northwest, Trabuco Canyon on the northeast, Rancho Santa Margarita and Ladera Ranch on the east, San Juan Capistrano on the south, Laguna Niguel and Laguna Hills on the west.
Mission Viejo enjoys a borderline semi-arid/Mediterranean climate, with mild temperatures and plentiful sunshine year-round. Rainfall totals, which average around 14 inches annually are focused in the months from November to March. Summer is dry and rainless, however thunderstorms do occur. Due to the city's proximity to the ocean and morning clouds are common in the months of May and June, a weather phenomenon known as June Gloom or May Gray. Like most of Southern California, the city is prone to dry Santa Ana winds, which bring hot air from inland and punctuate the mild temperatures with noticeable jumps. For example, temperatures have reached highs of 90 °F and above throughout many months of the year into the autumn months. Snowfall within city limits is rare, however the nearby Santa Ana Mountains receive a dusting of snow every few winters. From 2012-2016, California experienced the worst drought in a century. However, California ended most of the drought. Orange County was the last to have drought restrictions lifted.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Mission Viejo had a population of 93,305. The population density was 5,148.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Mission Viejo was 74,493 White, 1,210 African American, 379 Native American, 8,462 Asian, 153 Pacific Islander, 4,332 from other races, 4,276 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15,877 persons; the Census reported that 92,363 people lived in households, 859 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 83 were institutionalized. There were 33,208 households, out of which 11,767 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 20,792 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,967 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,306 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,211 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 225 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,314 households were made up of individuals and 2,949 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78.
There were 25,065 families. The population was spread out with 21,270 people under the age of 18, 7
The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv