David Hilbert

David Hilbert was a German mathematician and one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory, the calculus of variations, commutative algebra, algebraic number theory, the foundations of geometry, spectral theory of operators and its application to integral equations, mathematical physics, foundations of mathematics. Hilbert warmly defended Georg Cantor's set theory and transfinite numbers. A famous example of his leadership in mathematics is his 1900 presentation of a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century. Hilbert and his students contributed to establishing rigor and developed important tools used in modern mathematical physics. Hilbert is known as one of the founders of mathematical logic. Hilbert, the first of two children and only son of Otto and Maria Therese Hilbert, was born in the Province of Prussia, Kingdom of Prussia, either in Königsberg or in Wehlau near Königsberg where his father worked at the time of his birth.

In late 1872, Hilbert entered the Friedrichskolleg Gymnasium. Upon graduation, in autumn 1880, Hilbert enrolled at the University of Königsberg, the "Albertina". In early 1882, Hermann Minkowski, returned to Königsberg and entered the university. Hilbert developed a lifelong friendship with the gifted Minkowski. In 1884, Adolf Hurwitz arrived from Göttingen as an Extraordinarius. An intense and fruitful scientific exchange among the three began, Minkowski and Hilbert would exercise a reciprocal influence over each other at various times in their scientific careers. Hilbert obtained his doctorate in 1885, with a dissertation, written under Ferdinand von Lindemann, titled Über invariante Eigenschaften spezieller binärer Formen, insbesondere der Kugelfunktionen. Hilbert remained at the University of Königsberg as a Privatdozent from 1886 to 1895. In 1895, as a result of intervention on his behalf by Felix Klein, he obtained the position of Professor of Mathematics at the University of Göttingen. During the Klein and Hilbert years, Göttingen became the preeminent institution in the mathematical world.

He remained there for the rest of his life. Among Hilbert's students were Hermann Weyl, chess champion Emanuel Lasker, Ernst Zermelo, Carl Gustav Hempel. John von Neumann was his assistant. At the University of Göttingen, Hilbert was surrounded by a social circle of some of the most important mathematicians of the 20th century, such as Emmy Noether and Alonzo Church. Among his 69 Ph. D. students in Göttingen were many who became famous mathematicians, including: Otto Blumenthal, Felix Bernstein, Hermann Weyl, Richard Courant, Erich Hecke, Hugo Steinhaus, Wilhelm Ackermann. Between 1902 and 1939 Hilbert was editor of the Mathematische Annalen, the leading mathematical journal of the time. "Good, he did not have enough imagination to become a mathematician". Around 1925, Hilbert developed pernicious anemia, a then-untreatable vitamin deficiency whose primary symptom is exhaustion; those forced out included Hermann Weyl, Emmy Noether and Edmund Landau. One who had to leave Germany, Paul Bernays, had collaborated with Hilbert in mathematical logic, co-authored with him the important book Grundlagen der Mathematik.

This was a sequel to the Hilbert-Ackermann book Principles of Mathematical Logic from 1928. Hermann Weyl's successor was Helmut Hasse. About a year Hilbert attended a banquet and was seated next to the new Minister of Education, Bernhard Rust. Rust asked whether "the Mathematical Institute suffered so much because of the departure of the Jews". Hilbert replied, "Suffered? It doesn't exist any longer, does it!" By the time Hilbert died in 1943, the Nazis had nearly restaffed the university, as many of the former faculty had either been Jewish or married to Jews. Hilbert's funeral was attended by fewer than a dozen people, only two of whom were fellow academics, among them Arnold Sommerfeld, a theoretical physicist and a native of Königsberg. News of his death only became known to the wider world six months; the epitaph on his tombstone in Göttingen consists of the famous lines he spoke at the conclusion of his retirement address to the Society of German Scientists and Physicians on 8 September 1930.

The words were given in response to the Latin maxim: "Ignoramus et ignorabimus" or "We do not know, we shall not know": Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen. In English: We must know. We will know; the day before Hilbert pronounced these phrases at the 1930


Overlawyered is a law blog on the subject of tort reform run by author Walter Olson. Founded in 1999, it is "widely considered to be the oldest legal blog and is one of the most popular", according to The subject of the site is alleged absurdities and abuse of the American tort law system, its regular readership includes thousands of lawyers in the United States, as well as physicians, readers in other countries considering American-style tort systems. On April 26, 2013, Olson announced the blog had affiliated itself with the Cato Institute, where he is a senior fellow. In 2010, aviation tort lawyer Arthur Alan Wolk sued Overlawyered and contributors Ted Frank and David Nieporent for libel over a post written by Frank. Judge Mary A. McLaughlin ruled that Overlawyered is a "mass medium" and dismissed the case because Wolk did not file within the one-year statute of limitations. Wolk appealed his loss. In 2011, Wolk and Overlawyered reached a settlement. Official website

Máel Sechlain Mac Áeda

Máel Sechlain Mac Áeda was the Archbishop of Tuam 1312 – 10 August 1348. Máel Seachlainn Mac Áeda was a member of a Connacht family associated with the Kings of Connacht, they were natives of Maigh Seóla, near Tuam, of the Clann Cosgraigh, a branch of the Uí Briúin and kin to the Muintir Murchada. The surname is nowadays rendered McHugh, or more McCoy. Mac Áeda was elected archbishop of Tuam about March 1312, but not translated from Elphin until 19 December 1312, did not receive possession of the temporalities until 1 April 1313. Known as Malachais Tuamensis or Malachi MacHugh, he died in 1348, he wrote what was described by O'Reilly as "a large volume of miscellaneous matter in Irish, amongst other things, a catalogue of Irish kings from Niall Naoighiallach to Roderick O'Conor. Sir James Ware, in his account of Irish writers, says, it was extant in his time, called the Book of Mac Aodha. We can not say where it is to be found at present." His death does not seem to be recorded in any of the extant Irish annals.

The cause of his death is unknown, but it may be related to The Black Death, prevalent in Ireland at the time. The Annals of Connacht state that "A great plague raged in Ireland... by which great numbers were carried off." Genealach Mec Aodha/The genealogy of Mac Aodha: Donnchadh s. Maol Eachlainn, the archbishop, s. Maol Eachlainn s. Donnchadh s. Aodh s. Tadhg s. Muireadhach s. Aodh s. Ruaidhrí s. Coscrach s. Flann Abhradh s. Gamhnán s. Conaing s. Muirgheas s. Coscrach Mór s. Donn s. Cumasach s. Dúnghal s. Ceann Faoladh s. Colga s. Aodh s. Seanach s. Duach Teangumha s. Fearghus s. Muireadhach Mál s. Eóghan Sréabh s. Duach Galach s. Brian. From Leabhar na nGenealach, 201.6, pp. 442–43, volume I. McHugh Crichaireacht cinedach nduchasa Muintiri Murchada Ruaidhri Mac Aedha, Lord of Clan Cosgraigh, died 1170 Máelsechlain Mac Áeda, died 1270 Denis Mac Áeda, son of Aedh Mac Áeda, Dean of Tuam, died 1339 Paddy McHugh, Independent T. D. born 1953 Ann Maire McHugh, 9/11 victim A Chronological Account of Nearly Four Hundred Irish Writers, Edward O'Reilly, Dublin, 1820.

The Surnames of Ireland, Edward MacLysaght, 1978. Http://