Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A film studio is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, handled by the production company. The majority of firms in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies. There are independently owned studio facilities, who have never produced a motion picture of their own because they are not entertainment companies or motion picture companies; the largest film studio in the world is Ramoji Film City, in India. In 1893, Thomas Edison built the first movie studio in the United States when he constructed the Black Maria, a tarpaper-covered structure near his laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey, asked circus and dramatic actors to perform for the camera, he distributed these movies at vaudeville theaters, penny arcades, wax museums, fairgrounds. The first film serial, What Happened to Mary, was released by the Edison company in 1912; the pioneering Thanhouser film studio was founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by American theatrical impresario Edwin Thanhouser.
The company produced and released 1,086 films between 1910 and 1917 distributing them around the world. In the early 1900s, companies started moving to California. Although electric lights were by widely available, none were yet powerful enough to adequately expose film; some movies were shot on the roofs of buildings in Downtown Los Angeles. Early movie producers relocated to Southern California to escape Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company, which controlled all the patents relevant to movie production at the time; the first movie studio in the Hollywood area was Nestor Studios, opened in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley. In the same year, another 15 independents settled in Hollywood. Other production companies settled in the Los Angeles area in places such as Culver City and what would soon become known as Studio City in the San Fernando Valley; the Big 5 By the mid-1920s, the evolution of a handful of American production companies into wealthy motion picture industry conglomerates that owned their own studios, distribution divisions, theaters, contracted with performers and other filmmaking personnel, led to the sometimes confusing equation of "studio" with "production company" in industry slang.
Five large companies, 20th Century Fox, RKO Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer came to be known as the "Big Five," the "majors," or "the Studios" in trade publications such as Variety, their management structures and practices collectively came to be known as the "studio system." The Little 3 Although they owned few or no theaters to guarantee sales of their films, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists fell under these rubrics, making a total of eight recognized "major studios". United Artists, although its controlling partners owned not one but two production studios during the Golden Age, had an often-tenuous hold on the title of "major" and operated as a backer and distributor of independently produced films. Smaller studios operated with "the majors." These included operations such as Republic Pictures, active from 1935, which produced films that matched the scale and ambition of the larger studio, Monogram Pictures, which specialized in series and genre releases.
Together with smaller outfits such as PRC TKO and Grand National, the minor studios filled the demand for B movies and are sometimes collectively referred to as Poverty Row. The Big Five's ownership of movie theaters was opposed by eight independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Walt Disney, Hal Roach, Walter Wanger. In 1948, the federal government won a case against Paramount in the Supreme Court, which ruled that the vertically integrated structure of the movie industry constituted an illegal monopoly; this decision, reached after twelve years of litigation, hastened the end of the studio system and Hollywood's "Golden Age". By the 1950s, the physical components of a typical major film studio had become standardized. Since a major film studio has been housed inside a physically secure compound with a high wall, which protects filmmaking operations from unwanted interference from paparazzi and crazed fans of leading movie stars. Movement in and out of the studio is limited to specific gates, where visitors must stop at a boom barrier and explain the purpose of their visit to a security guard.
Studio premises feature multiple sound stages along with an outside backlot, as well as offices for studio executives and production companies. There is a studio "commissary", the traditional term in the film industry for what other industries call a company cafeteria. Early nitrate film was notoriously flammable, sets were and are still flammable, why film studios built in the early-to-mid 20th century have water towers to facilitate firefighting. Halfway through the 1950s, with television proving to be a lucrative enterprise not destined to disappear any time soon—as many in the film industry had once hoped—movie studios were being used to produce programming for the burgeoning medium; some midsize film companies, such as Republic Pictures sold their studios to TV production concerns, which were bought by larger studios, such as the American Broadcasting Company, purchased by The Walt Disney Company i
Nestor Film Company
The Nestor Film Company known as the Nestor Motion Picture Company, was an American motion picture production company. It was founded in 1909 as the West Coast production unit of the Centaur Film Company located in Bayonne, New Jersey. On October 27, 1911, Nestor established the first permanent motion picture studio in Hollywood and produced the first Hollywood films; the company merged with its distributor, the Universal Film Manufacturing Company, on May 20, 1912. Nestor became a brand name Universal used until at least mid-1917; the Nestor Film Company was founded in 1909 as the West Coast production unit of the Centaur Film Company located in Bayonne, New Jersey and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley. On October 27, 1911, Nestor opened the first movie studio located in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles, it was at the Blondeau Tavern building on the northwest corner of Gower Street. The first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern. Other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestor's move west.
The California weather allowed for year-round filming and the ambitious studio operated three principal divisions under its Canadian-born general manager, Al Christie. Christie moved permanently to Southern California from the East, where he had been working with the Horsleys creating the popular silent-era Mutt and Jeff comedy shorts. One division at the Hollywood location, under director Milton H. Fahrney, made a one-reel Western picture every week while the second division, under director Tom Ricketts, turned out a one-reel drama every week. In addition to running the operation, Christie oversaw a weekly production of a one-reel Mutt and Jeff episode; the Horsley brothers remained in New Jersey, where their laboratory and offices handled the Hollywood studio's film processing and distribution. Other filmmakers began opening studios in the Hollywood area. On May 20, 1912, the Nestor Film Company merged with the Universal Film Manufacturing Company, headed by Carl Laemmle. Several other motion picture companies, including Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures, merged with Universal, founded in April 1912.
Nestor became a brand name that Universal used until at least mid-1917. History of the San Fernando Valley Rancho Providencia Providencia Ranch Forest Lawn Memorial Park Photo of Universal City Nov. 24 1913 by Bailey, Chas. Z. Universal Image collection on Flickr
Bayonne, New Jersey
Bayonne bay-OWN is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Located in the Gateway Region, Bayonne is situated on a peninsula located between Newark Bay to the west, the Kill Van Kull to the south, New York Bay to the east; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 63,024, reflecting an increase of 1,182 from the 61,842 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 398 from the 61,444 counted in the 1990 Census. Bayonne was formed as a township on April 1, 1861, from portions of Bergen Township. Bayonne was reincorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 10, 1869, replacing Bayonne Township, subject to the results of a referendum held nine days later. At the time it was formed, Bayonne included the communities of Bergen Point, Constable Hook, Centreville and Saltersville. Bayonne is east of Newark, the state's largest city, north of Elizabeth in Union County and west of Brooklyn, it shares a land border with Jersey City to the north and is connected to Staten Island by the Bayonne Bridge.
While somewhat diminished, traditional manufacturing and maritime activities remain a driving force of the economy of the city, a portion of the Port of New York and New Jersey is located there. Inhabited by Native Americans, the region presently known as Bayonne was claimed by the Netherlands after Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River, named after him. According to Royden Page Whitcomb's 1904 book, First History of Bayonne, New Jersey, the name Bayonne is speculated to have originated with Bayonne, from which Huguenots settled for a year before the founding of New Amsterdam. However, there is no empirical evidence for this notion, considered apocryphal. Whitcomb gives more credence to the idea that Erastus Randall, E. C. Bramhall and B. F. Woolsey, who bought the land owned by Jasper and William Cadmus for real estate speculation, named it Bayonne for purposes of real estate speculation, because it was located on the shores of two bays and New York. Significant civil unrest arose during the Bayonne refinery strikes of 1915–1916, in which Polish American workers staged labor actions against Standard Oil of New Jersey and Tidewater Petroleum, seeking improved pay and working conditions.
Four striking workers were killed. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 11.082 square miles, including 5.804 square miles of land and 5.278 square miles of water was water. The city is located south of Jersey City on a peninsula earlier known as Bergen Neck surrounded by Upper New York Bay to the east, Newark Bay to the west, Kill Van Kull to the south. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include: Bergen Point, Constable Hook and Port Johnson; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 63,024 people, 25,237 households, 16,050.732 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,858.3 per square mile. There were 27,799 housing units at an average density of 4,789.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.21% White, 8.86% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 7.71% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.00% from other races, 3.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25.79% of the population.
Non-Hispanic Whites were 56.8% of the population. There were 25,237 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.16. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.4 years. For every 100 females there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 87.9 males. The U. S. Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $53,587 and the median family income was $66,077. Males had a median income of $51,188 versus $42,097 for females; the per capita income for the city was $28,698.
About 9.9% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 61,842 people, 25,545 households, 16,016 families residing in the city; the population density was 10,992.2 people per square mile. There were 26,826 housing units at an average density of 4,768.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.8% White, 5.50% African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 7.46% from other races, 4.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.81% of the population. As of the 2000 Census, the most common reported ancestries of Bayonne residents were Italian and Polish. There were 25,545 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone who wa
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Mutt and Jeff
Mutt and Jeff is a long-running and popular American newspaper comic strip created by cartoonist Bud Fisher in 1907 about "two mismatched tinhorns". Historians regard Mutt and Jeff titled A. Mutt, as the first American newspaper cartoon published as a strip of panels, as opposed to a single panel, making it the first "comic strip" to pioneer that since-common format. Mutt and Jeff remained in syndication until 1983, employing the talents of several cartoonists, chiefly Al Smith who drew the strip for nearly fifty years; the series became a comic book published by All-American Publications and published by DC Comics, Dell Comics and Harvey Comics. It was published as cartoons, pop culture merchandise and reprints. Harry Conway "Bud" Fisher was a sports cartoonist for the San Francisco Chronicle in the early 1900s, a time when a newspaper cartoon was single panel, his innovation was to tell a cartoon gag in a sequence, or strip, of panels, creating the first American comic strip to pioneer that since-common format.
The concept of a newspaper strip featuring recurring characters in multiple panels on a six-day-a-week schedule had been created by Clare Briggs with A. Piker Clerk four years earlier, but that short-lived effort did not inspire further comics in a comic-strip format; as comics historian Don Markstein explained, Fisher's comic strip was similar to A. Piker Clerk, which cartoonist Clare Briggs... had done in the same daily format for The Chicago American in 1903. But tho Fisher was born in Chicago, it's unknown whether or not he saw the Briggs strip, so let's give him the benefit of the doubt and say he had an idea. Despite the Briggs primacy, A. Mutt is considered the first daily strip because it's the one that sparked a trend in that direction, which continues to this day. A. Mutt, the comic strip that would be better known by its title and Jeff, debuted on November 15, 1907 on the sports pages of the San Francisco Chronicle; the featured character had appeared in sports cartoons by Fisher, but was unnamed.
Fisher had approached his editor, John P. Young, about doing a regular strip as early as 1905, but was turned down. According to Fisher, Young told him, "It would take up too much room, readers are used to reading down the page, not horizontally."This strip focused on a single main character, until the other half of the duo appeared on March 27, 1908. It appeared only in the Chronicle, so Fisher did not have the extended lead time that syndicated strips require. Episodes were drawn the day before publication, referred to local events that were making headlines, or to specific horse races being run that day. A 1908 sequence about Mutt's trial featured a parade of thinly-disguised caricatures of specific San Francisco political figures, many of whom were being prosecuted for graft. On June 7, 1908, the strip moved off the sports pages and into Hearst's San Francisco Examiner where it was syndicated by King Features and became a national hit, subsequently making Fisher the first celebrity of the comics industry.
Fisher had taken the precaution of copyrighting the strip in his own name, facilitating the move to King Features and making it impossible for the Chronicle to continue the strip using another artist. A dispute between Fisher and King Features arose in 1913, Fisher moved his strip on September 15, 1915, to the Wheeler Syndicate, who gave Fisher 60% of the gross revenue, an enormous income in those times. Hearst responded by launching a lawsuit which failed. By 1916, Fisher was earning in excess of $150,000 a year. By the 1920s, merchandising and growing circulation had increased his income to an estimated $250,000. In 1918, Mutt and Jeff added a Sunday strip, as success continued, Fisher became dependent on assistants to produce the work. Fisher hired Billy Liverpool and Ed Mack, artists Hearst had at one point groomed to take over the strip, who would do most of the artwork. Other assistants on the strip included Ken Kling, George Herriman, Maurice Sendak. Fisher appeared to lose all interest in the strip during the 1930s, after Mack died in 1932, the job of creating the strip fell to Al Smith.
In c. 1944, the new Chicago-based Field Syndicate took over the strip. Mutt and Jeff retained Fisher's signature until his death, however, so it wasn't until December 7, 1954, that the strip started being signed by Smith. Al Smith received the National Cartoonists Society Humor Comic Strip Award in 1968 for his work on the strip. Smith continued to draw Jeff until 1980, two years before it ceased publication. In the introduction to Forever Nuts: The Early Years of Mutt & Jeff, Allan Holtz gave the following reason for the strip's longevity and demise: The strip's waning circulation got a shot in the arm in the 1950s when President Eisenhower sang its praises, again in the 1970s when a nostalgia craze swept the nation, it took the 1980s, a decade focused on the here and now, a final creative change on the strip when Al Smith had had enough, to allow the strip the rest it had deserved for decades. During this final period it was drawn by George Breisacher. Andrews McMeel Universal continues to syndicate Mutt and Jeff under the imprint Classic Mutt and Jeff under the copyright of Pierre S. de Beaumont, founder of the Brookstone catalog and retail chain.
De Beaumont inherited ownership of the strip from his mother, Aedita de Beaumont, who married Fisher in 1925. Augustus Mutt is a tall, dimwitted racetrack character—a fanatic horse-race gambler, motivated b