Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray
Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray was an important soldier and diplomat in the Wars of Scottish Independence, who served as regent of Scotland. Thomas was the son of another Thomas, who was Chamberlain of Scotland and Sheriff of Roxburgh, and it is known that the younger Thomas was the nephew of King Robert the Bruce, but it is uncertain which of Roberts sisters was his mother. The traditional view is that she was of the first marriage of Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, however it is now believed that the Kings father Robert married again after Marjories death and had with his second wife a daughter, who married the elder Thomas. Thomas supported Robert in his attempt to take the throne, and was present at his uncles coronation in 1306 and he was probably knighted by the king or shortly after. After the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Methven, he was prisoner by the English, coming first under the custody of Sir Adam Gordon. During his confinement he joined the English cause, and remained attached to them until he was captured by Sir James Douglas in 1308 and his defection came to the attention of Edward II of England, who forfeited all his lands, bestowing them on his favourite Hugh le Despencer.
In 1312 Robert created him Earl of Moray, and he became ruler of a swathe of land in the north of Scotland. He was lord of the Isle of Man, in exchange for a reddendo of six ships of 26 oars and 100 silver marks. Around this time he became one of Roberts most trusted lieutenants and his most famous achievement took place on 14 March 1314 when he carried out a daring attack on Edinburgh Castle. This was one of a handful of castles in Scotland still in English hands, amongst Morays men was William Francis, the son of a former governor of the castle, who knew of a secret path up the rock. Moray used this path to reach the castle, and successfully retook it for the Scots, in 1315 Moray accompanied Edward Bruce, the kings brother, during his invasion of Ireland. He was one of the leaders in the war against the English settlers in Ireland. He returned twice to Scotland during the war to obtain reinforcements, Morays name appears directly after Roberts on the famous Declaration of Arbroath, which was sent to the Pope by the nobles of Scotland to persuade him to recognise Scotland as an independent nation.
Later, in 1324, he was sent to meet the Pope in person at his court in Avignon, at this meeting he successfully persuaded the Pope to recognise Robert as King of Scots. The next year the Pope wrote to Moray declaring his hope, Moray was again sent to France in 1325, this time to persuade King Louis X to sign the Treaty of Corbeil renewing the Franco-Scottish alliance, which he did successfully. After his return to Scotland he had a role in the Battle of Stanhope Park against the English. The English suffered a defeat, and were forced to sign the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton. During the Kings final years, Moray had been a constant companion, before his death, Robert decreed that Moray would serve as regent for David, who was only five years old when he succeeded as king
Andrew Murray (Scottish soldier)
He held the lordships of Avoch and Petty in north Scotland, and Bothwell in west-central Scotland. In 1326 he married Christina Bruce, a sister of King Robert I of Scotland, Murray was twice chosen as Guardian of Scotland, first in 1332, and again from 1335 on his return to Scotland after his release from captivity in England. He held the guardianship until his death in 1338, Andrew Murray was born in the spring of 1298, around Pentecost. He was the son of Andrew Moray, William Wallaces companion-in-arms, during his campaign of 1303 Edward I marched his army north reaching as far as Kinross. He took the 5 year old Andrew Murray hostage, and the boy spent the next 11 years in English captivity, the following year he attended the Scottish Parliament at Ayr when the succession to the throne was decided. Murray acceded his father to the lordship of Petty and his uncle, Sir William Murray and he appears to have been in receipt of an annuity in 1329-1330. A peace which would last only 4 years, in July 1326 at a ceremony at Cambuskenneth Abbey, Murray married Christina Bruce, sister of King Robert I, widow of Gartnait, Earl of Mar, and Sir Christopher Seton.
Insofar as his wife was probably beyond child bearing years it has been conjectured that his two sons, were from a previous marriage or relationship. But Randolph died suddenly in June 1332, a period of turmoil befell the Scots. Domhnall, Earl of Mar was next chosen as Regent in a hasty gathering of the Scottish Nobles at Perth on 2 August and he would be killed 9 days at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. While endeavouring to rescue Ralph Golding he was taken, refusing to be the prisoner of any one but the king of England, was carried to Durham, no sooner was he set at liberty, in 1334, than he raised armed opposition to the English. With Alexander de Mowbray he marched into Buchan, and besieged Henry de Beaumont in his castle of Dundarg, by cutting the water pipes he compelled his foe to surrender, but he permitted him to return to England. Murray was present at the parliament convened at Dairsie Castle in April 1335, by the steward of Scotland and the returned Earl of Moray. In the subsequent surrender to Edward, and in the making of the treaty of Perth, Murray had no part, when the David of Strathbogie laid siege to Kildrummy castle, which was held by Murrays wife.
Murray led an army of eleven hundred men north to raise the siege and they surprised and slew Strathbogie in the forest of Kilblain or Culbleen. Murray assembled a parliament at Dunfermline, and was made warden. Edward marched into Scotland, and vainly endeavoured to bring him to action, during the winter, 1335-6, Murray kept an army in the field, and laid siege to the castles of Cupar-Fife and Lochindorb in Cromdale, in the latter of which was Catherine, Atholes widow. He retired from Lochindorb on the approach of Edward, no sooner had Edward returned to England than he assumed the offensive, captured the castles of Dunnottar and Kinclevin, and laid waste the lands of Kincardine and Angus
Berkshire is a county in south east England, west of London. It was recognised as the Royal County of Berkshire because of the presence of Windsor Castle by the Queen in 1957, Berkshire is a county of historic origin and is a home county, a ceremonial county and a non-metropolitan county without a county council. Berkshire County Council was the main county governance from 1889 to 1998 except for the separately administered County Borough of Reading, in 1974, significant alterations were made to the countys administrative boundaries although the traditional boundaries of Berkshire were not changed. The towns of Abingdon and Wantage were transferred to Oxfordshire, Slough was gained from Buckinghamshire, since 1998, Berkshire has been governed by the six unitary authorities of Bracknell Forest, Slough, West Berkshire and Maidenhead and Wokingham. It borders the counties of Oxfordshire, Greater London, according to Asser, it takes its name from a large forest of box trees that was called Bearroc.
Berkshire has been the scene of notable battles through its history. Alfred the Greats campaign against the Danes included the Battles of Englefield, Newbury was the site of two English Civil War battles, the First Battle of Newbury in 1643 and the Second Battle of Newbury in 1644. The nearby Donnington Castle was reduced to a ruin in the aftermath of the second battle, another Battle of Reading took place on 9 December 1688. It was the only military action in England during the Glorious Revolution. Reading became the new county town in 1867, taking over from Abingdon, boundary alterations in the early part of the 20th century were minor, with Caversham from Oxfordshire becoming part of the Reading county borough, and cessions in the Oxford area. On 1 April 1974 Berkshires boundaries changed under the Local Government Act 1972, Berkshire took over administration of Slough and Eton and part of the former Eton Rural District from Buckinghamshire. 94 Signal Squadron still keep the Uffington White Horse in their insignia, the original Local Government White Paper would have transferred Henley-on-Thames from Oxfordshire to Berkshire, this proposal did not make it into the Bill as introduced.
On 1 April 1998 Berkshire County Council was abolished under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, unlike similar reforms elsewhere at the same time, the non-metropolitan county was not abolished. Berkshire divides into two distinct sections with the boundary lying roughly on a north-south line through the centre of Reading. The eastern section of Berkshire lies largely to the south of the River Thames, in two places the county now includes land to the north of the river. Tributaries of the Thames, including the Loddon and Blackwater, increase the amount of low lying land in the area. Beyond the flood plains, the land rises gently to the county boundaries with Surrey, much of this area is still well wooded, especially around Bracknell and Windsor Great Park. In the west of the county and heading upstream, the Thames veers away to the north of the county boundary, leaving the county behind at the Goring Gap
Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with boundaries to Perth and Kinross. By custom it is held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib. It is an area, and was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was very occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents, a person from Fife is known as a Fifer. Fife was a government region divided into three districts, Dunfermline and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council. Fife is Scotlands third largest local authority area by population and it has a resident population of just under 367,000, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline and Glenrothes. The historic town of St Andrews is located on the northeast coast of Fife and it is well known for the University of St Andrews, one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf.
Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay, the earliest known reference to the common epithet The Kingdom of Fife dates from only 1678, in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife. The notion of a kingdom may derive from a misintrepretation of an extract from Wyntoun, the name is recorded as Fib in A. D.1150 and Fif in 1165. It was often associated with Fothriff, the hill-fort of Clatchard Craig, near Newburgh, was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD. Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey. The Abbey replaced Iona as the resting place of Scotlands royal elite. The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, linen and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past, the distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the previously thatched roofs.
This endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie. Fife became a centre of industry in the 19th century
Dunfermline Abbey is a Church of Scotland Parish Church located in Dunfermline, Scotland. The minister is the Reverend MaryAnn R. Rennie, the church occupies the site of the ancient chancel and transepts of a large medieval Benedictine abbey, which was sacked in 1560 during the Scottish Reformation and permitted to fall into disrepair. Part of the old church continued in use at that time and some parts of the abbey infrastructure still remain to this day. Dunfermline Abbey is one of Scotlands most important cultural sites, Malcolm III or Malcolm Canmore, and his queen, St Margaret of Scotland. At its head was the Abbot of Dunfermline, the first of which was Geoffrey of Canterbury, former Prior of Christ Church, the Kent monastery that probably supplied Dunfermlines first monks. At the peak of its power it controlled four burghs, three courts of regality, and a portfolio of lands from Moray in the north south to Berwickshire. The foundations of the earliest church, namely the Church of the Holy Trinity, are under the superb Romanesque nave built in the 12th century.
During the winter of 1303 the court of Edward I of England was held in the Abbey, during the Scottish Reformation, the abbey church was sacked in March 1560. Some parts of the infrastructure still remain, principally the vast refectory. The nave was spared and it was repaired in 1570 by Robert Drummond of Carnock and it served as the parish church till the 19th century, and now forms the vestibule of a new church. Also of the monastery there still remains the south wall of the refectory, next to the abbey is the ruin of Dunfermline Palace, part of the original abbey complex and connected to it via the gatehouse. Dunfermline Abbey, one of Scotlands most important cultural sites, has received more of Scotland’s royal dead than any place in the kingdom. One of the most notable names to be associated with the abbey is the northern renaissance poet. The tomb of Saint Margaret and Malcolm Canmore, within the walls of the Lady chapel, was restored and enclosed by command of Queen Victoria. The current building on the site of the choir of the old Abbey church is a Parish Church of the Church of Scotland, in 2002 the congregation had 806 members.
The minister is the Reverend Mary Ann R. Rennie, the old building was a fine example of simple and massive Romanesque, as the nave testifies, and has a beautiful doorway in its west front. Another rich Romanesque doorway was exposed in the wall in 1903. A new site was found for this monument in order that the ancient, the venerable structure is maintained publicly, and private munificence has provided several stained-glass windows
Duke of Clarence
Duke of Clarence is a title which has been traditionally awarded to junior members of the British Royal family. All three creations were in the Peerage of England, the title was first granted to Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of King Edward III, in 1362. Since he died without sons, the title became extinct, the title was again created in favour of Thomas of Lancaster, the second son of King Henry IV, in 1412. Upon his death, the title became extinct, the last creation in the Peerage of England was for George Plantagenet, brother of King Edward IV, in 1461. The Duke forfeited his title in 1478, after he had convicted of treason against his brother. He allegedly met his end by being drowned in a butt of Malmsey, she was deposed before this could take effect. Two double dukedoms, of Clarence and St Andrews and of Clarence, the title took the form of an earldom for Queen Victorias son Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, and his son Prince Charles Edward, the Clarence earldom being a subsidiary title.
The title is said to originate from the town of Clare, which was owned by the first Duke of Clarence, Lionel of Antwerp. His wife, Elizabeth, 4th Countess of Ulster, was a descendant of the previous owners, the de Clares. After the Union of the Crowns in 1603, the holders of the title were given titles including Scottish place names, St Andrews. His legitimate male line ended with the death in 1499 of his only son Edward Plantagenet, william IV, who became king in 1830, at which point the title merged with the Crown. For heirs to the peerages, see Duke of Albany Prince Albert Victor, 1st Duke of Clarence
Joan of the Tower
Joan of England, known as Joan of the Tower because she was born in the Tower of London, was the first wife and Queen consort of David II of Scotland. The youngest daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France and her siblings were the future Edward III of England, John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall and Eleanor of Woodstock. In accordance with the Treaty of Northampton, Joan was married on 17 July 1328 to David II of Scotland at Berwick-upon-Tweed and she was seven years old, he was only four. Their marriage lasted 34 years, but it was childless and apparently loveless, on 7 June 1329, Robert I of Scotland died and David became king. He was crowned at Scone Abbey in November 1331, after the victory of Edward III of England and his protégé Edward Balliol at the Battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333, David and Joan were sent for safety to France. They reached Boulogne-sur-Mer in May 1334, where they were received by Philip VI, little is known about the life of the Scottish King and Queen in France, except that they took up residence at Château Gaillard and Philip treated them with regard.
Meanwhile, Davids representatives had obtained the hand in Scotland, and David and Joan were thus enabled to return in June 1341. David II was taken prisoner at the Battle of Nevilles Cross in County Durham on 17 October 1346, although Edward III allowed Joan to visit her husband in the Tower of London a few times, she did not become pregnant. After his release in 1357, she decided to remain in England, Joan was close to her mother, whom she nursed during her last days. Joan died in 1362, aged 41, at Hertford Castle and she was buried in Christ Church Greyfriars, London. No trace of her tomb now survives
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its association with the English and British royal family. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror, since the time of Henry I, it has been used by the reigning monarch and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St Georges Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be one of the achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic design. Gradually replaced with stone fortifications, the castle withstood a siege during the First Barons War at the start of the 13th century. Edwards core design lasted through the Tudor period, during which Henry VIII and Elizabeth I made increasing use of the castle as a royal court and centre for diplomatic entertainment. Windsor Castle survived the period of the English Civil War, when it was used as a military headquarters for Parliamentary forces.
At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II rebuilt much of Windsor Castle with the help of the architect Hugh May, Queen Victoria made a few minor changes to the castle, which became the centre for royal entertainment for much of her reign. Windsor Castle was used as a refuge for the family during the Luftwaffe bombing campaigns of the Second World War. It is a popular tourist attraction, a venue for hosting state visits, more than 500 people live and work in Windsor Castle, making it the largest inhabited castle in the world. Windsor Castle occupies 13 acres, and combines the features of a fortification, a palace, the present-day castle was created during a sequence of phased building projects, culminating in the reconstruction work after a fire in 1992. It is in essence a Georgian and Victorian design based on a medieval structure, since the 14th century, architecture at the castle has attempted to produce a contemporary reinterpretation of older fashions and traditions, repeatedly imitating outmoded or even antiquated styles.
Although there has some criticism, the castles architecture and history lends it a place amongst the greatest European palaces. At the heart of Windsor Castle is the Middle Ward, a formed around the motte or artificial hill in the centre of the ward. The motte is 50 feet high and is made from chalk originally excavated from the surrounding ditch, the Round Tower is in reality far from cylindrical, due to the shape and structure of the motte beneath it. The western entrance to the Middle Ward is now open, the eastern exit from the ward is guarded by the Norman Gatehouse. Wyatville redesigned the exterior of the gatehouse, and the interior was converted in the 19th century for residential use. The Upper Ward of Windsor Castle comprises a number of major buildings enclosed by the bailey wall
Perth is a city in central Scotland, located on the banks of the River Tay. It is the centre of Perth and Kinross council area. According to the preliminary 2011 census results Perth, including its suburbs, has a population of 50,000. Perth has been known as The Fair City since the publication of the story Fair Maid of Perth by Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott in 1828. During the period the city was called St Johns Toun or Saint Johnstoun by its inhabitants in reference to the main church dedicated to St John the Baptist. This name is preserved by the football team, St Johnstone F. C. The name Perth comes from a Pictish word for wood or copse, there has been a settlement at Perth since prehistoric times, on a natural mound raised slightly above the flood plain of the Tay, where the river could be crossed at low tide. The area surrounding the city is known to have been occupied since Mesolithic hunter-gatherers arrived more than 8000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles exist, dating from about 4000 BC, the presence of Scone Abbey, home of the Stone of Destiny where the King of Scots was crowned, enhanced the early importance of the city.
Perth became known as a capital of Scotland, due to the frequent residence of the royal court, Royal Burgh status was soon given to the city by King William the Lion in the early 12th century. The city became one of the richest burghs in the country, doing trade with France, the Low Countries and Baltic Countries for goods such as Spanish silk and French wine. The Scottish Reformation played a big role in the city with the sacking of the Houses of the Greyfriars and Blackfriars, the Act of Settlement brought about Jacobite uprisings. The city was occupied by Jacobite supporters on three occasions, the founding of Perth Academy in 1760 helped to bring major industries, such as linen, leather and whisky, to the city. Given its location, Perth was perfectly placed to become a key transport centre with the coming of the railways, Perth serves as a retail centre for the surrounding area. Following the decline of the industry locally, the citys economy has now diversified to include insurance. Due to its location, the city is referred to as the Gateway to the Highlands.
The Australian metropolis Perth took its name from the Scottish city, Perth is twinned with Aschaffenburg in the German state of Bavaria. The name Perth derives from a Pictish-Gaelic word for wood or copse, Perth was referred to as St Johns ton up until the mid-1600s with the name Perthia being reserved for the wider area
Avignon is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river. Of the 90,194 inhabitants of the city, about 12,000 live in the ancient town centre enclosed by its medieval ramparts. Between 1309 and 1377, during the Avignon Papacy, seven popes resided in Avignon. Papal control persisted until 1791 when, during the French Revolution, the town is now the capital of the Vaucluse department and one of the few French cities to have preserved its ramparts. The historic centre, which includes the Palais des Papes, the cathedral, the medieval monuments and the annual Festival dAvignon have helped to make the town a major centre for tourism. The commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns, the earliest forms of the name were reported by the Greeks, Аὐενιὼν = Auenion Άουεννίων = Aouennion. The Roman name Avennĭo Cavarum, i. e. Avignon of Cavares accurately shows that Avignon was one of the three cities of the Celtic-Ligurian tribe of Cavares, along with Cavaillon and Orange.
The current name dates to a pre-Indo-European or pre-Latin theme ab-ên with the suffix -i-ōn This theme would be a hydronym - i. e. a name linked to the river, but perhaps an oronym of terrain. The site of Avignon has been occupied since the Neolithic period as shown by excavations at Rocher des Doms and the Balance district. In 1960 and 1961 excavations in the part of the Rocher des Doms directed by Sylvain Gagnière uncovered a small anthropomorphic stele. Carved in Burdigalian sandstone, it has the shape of a tombstone with its face engraved with a stylized human figure with no mouth. On the bottom, shifted slightly to the right is an indentation with eight radiating lines forming a solar representation - a unique discovery for this type of stele. There were some Chalcolithic objects for adornment and an abundance of Hallstatt pottery shards which could have been native or imported, the name of the city dates back to around the 6th century BC. The first citation of Avignon was made by Artemidorus of Ephesus, although his book, The Journey, is lost it is known from the abstract by Marcian of Heraclea and The Ethnics, a dictionary of names of cities by Stephanus of Byzantium based on that book.
He said, The City of Massalia, near the Rhone and this name has two interpretations, city of violent wind or, more likely, lord of the river. Other sources trace its origin to the Gallic mignon and the Celtic definitive article, Avignon was a simple Greek Emporium founded by Phocaeans from Marseille around 539 BC. It was in the 4th century BC that the Massaliotes began to sign treaties of alliance with some cities in the Rhone valley including Avignon and Cavaillon, a century Avignon was part of the region of Massaliotes or country of Massalia. Fortified on its rock, the city became and long remained the capital of the Cavares, with the arrival of the Roman legions in 120 BC. the Cavares, allies with the Massaliotes, became Roman
Pope Urban V
Pope Urban V, born Guillaume de Grimoard, was Pope from 28 September 1362 to his death in 1370 and was a member of the Order of Saint Benedict. He was the sixth Avignon Pope, and the only Avignon pope to be beatified, even after his election as pontiff, he continued to follow the Benedictine Rule, living simply and modestly. His habits did not always gain him supporters who were used to lives of affluence, Urban V pressed for reform throughout his pontificate and oversaw the restoration and construction of churches and monasteries. One of the goals he made upon his election to the Papacy was the reunion of the Eastern and Western Churches and he came as close as some of his predecessors and successors, but did not succeed. Guillaume de Grimoard was born in 1310 in the Castle of Grizac in the French region of Languedoc, the son of Guillaume de Grimoard, Lord of Bellegarde. He had two brothers, Étienne and Anglic, the cardinal, and a sister Delphine. In 1327, Guillaume Grimoard became a Benedictine monk in the small Priory of Chirac, near his home and he was sent to St.
Victor for his novitiate. After his profession of vows, he was ordained a priest in his own monastery in Chirac in 1334. He studied literature and law at Montpellier, and he moved to the University of Toulouse and he earned a doctorate in Canon Law on 31 October 1342. He was appointed Prior of Nôtre-Dame du Pré in the diocese of Auxerre by Pope Clement VI and he began both disciplinary and financial reforms. Prior Grimoard became Procurator-General for the Order of St. Benedict at the Papal Curia and he became a noted canonist, teaching at Montpellier and Avignon. He was appointed by the Bishop of Clermont, Pierre de Aigrefeuille to be his Vicar General, when Bishop Pierre was transferred to Uzès, Guillaume Grimond became Vicar General of Uzès. Guillaume was named abbot of the monastery of Saint-Germain en Auxerre on 13 February 1352 by Pope Clement VI, in 1359 the town and abbey were captured by the English and subjected to heavy imposts. In the summer of 1352 Pope Clement VI summoned Abbot Guillaume for an assignment, northern Italy had been in a chaotic state for some time, thanks to the ambitions of the Visconti of Milan, led by Archbishop Giovanni Visconti.
He had conquered much of Lombardy, seized the Papal city of Bologna, in order to keep a hold on the territory for the Church, the Pope had hit on the scheme of making Archbishop Visconti his Vicar of Bologna for the present. He drew up an agreement on 27 April 1352, which absolved the Visconti of all their transgressions, the Pope even made the first payment on the subsidy which he was going to provide them. On 26 July, Abbot Grimoard and Msgr, azzo Manzi da Reggio, the Dean of the Cathedral of Aquileia, were presented with written instructions by Pope Clement to go to northern Italy as Apostolic nuncios to deal with the situation. This he did on 2 October 1352, Guillaume was allotted 8 gold florins a day for his expenses, his associate Anzo only 4 florins
Scone is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. Hence the modern village of Scone, and the village of Old Scone. Both sites lie in the province of Gowrie, as well as the old county of Perthshire. Old Scone was the capital of the Kingdom of Alba. In the Middle Ages it was an important royal centre, used as a royal residence, around the royal site grew the town of Perth and the Abbey of Scone. Scotland itself was called or shown on maps as the Kingdom of Scone. A comparison would be that Ireland was often called the Kingdom of Tara, like Scone, Scone was therefore the closest thing the Kingdom of Scotland had in its earliest years to a capital. In either 1163 or 1164 King Malcolm IV described Scone Abbey as in principali sede regni nostri, in the principal seat of our kingdom. By this point, the rule of the King of the Scots was not confined to the Kingdom of Scotland, the king ruled in Lothian and the Honour of Huntingdon, and spent much of his time in these localities too. Moreover, the king was itinerant and had little permanent bureaucracy, but in the medieval sense Scone can in many ways be called the capital of Scotland and was often referred to as the Royal City of Scone.
Many comparisons can be drawn between the City of Westminster and the City of Scone, both were medieval epicenters of Royal power. Both were located beside crossing points of major rivers - the highways of the medieval period -, the origins of a settlement of any kind at Scone are unknown, although thought to be early medieval. The origins could be pre-Roman as there is evidence of a well-established and sophisticated Iron Age people flourishing in this part of Scotland. Direct evidence however is lacking and so Scones story is thought to begin in the wake of the Roman exit from Scottish history, Scone at this point played a crucial role in the formation and governance of the ancient Kingdom of Alba and Kingdom of Scotland. In the 12th century, various foreign influences prompted the Scottish kings to transform Scone into a more convincing royal center, many historians have argued that the monastery or Priory was founded specifically in 1114 by Alexander I of Scotland. There is growing evidence that there had been an early Christian cult called the Culdees based at Scone dating from at least the 9th century, the Culdees were eventually merged with the Augustinian canons who arrived from Nostell Priory in Yorkshire as part of the 1114 re-establishment.
Scone at this time lay on a part of the river Tay. This advantage was at times a disadvantage as the Vikings came across the North Sea to launch their lightening raids