David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler, Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and King of Scotland from 1124 to 1153. The youngest son of Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex, David spent most of his childhood in Scotland, but was exiled to England temporarily in 1093. After 1100, he became a dependent at the court of King Henry I. There he was influenced by the Anglo-French culture of the court; when David's brother Alexander I died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland for himself. He was forced to engage in warfare against Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair. Subduing the latter seems to have taken David ten years, a struggle that involved the destruction of Óengus, Mormaer of Moray. David's victory allowed expansion of control over more distant regions theoretically part of his Kingdom. After the death of his former patron Henry I, David supported the claims of Henry's daughter and his own niece, Empress Matilda, to the throne of England.
In the process, he came into conflict with King Stephen and was able to expand his power in northern England, despite his defeat at the Battle of the Standard in 1138. The term "Davidian Revolution" is used by many scholars to summarise the changes which took place in Scotland during his reign; these included his foundation of burghs and regional markets, implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform, foundation of monasteries, Normanisation of the Scottish government, the introduction of feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights. The early years of David I are the most obscure of his life; as there is little documented evidence, historians can only guess at most of David's activities in this period. David was born on a date unknown in 1084 in Scotland, he was the eighth son of King Malcolm III, the sixth and youngest born by Malcolm's second wife, Margaret of Wessex. He was the grandson of the ill-fated King Duncan I. In 1093 King Máel Coluim and David's brother Edward were killed at the River Aln during an invasion of Northumberland.
David and his two brothers Alexander and Edgar, both future kings of Scotland, were present when their mother died shortly afterwards. According to medieval tradition, the three brothers were in Edinburgh when they were besieged by their paternal uncle Donald. Donald became King of Scotland, it is not certain what happened next, but an insertion in the Chronicle of Melrose states that Donald forced his three nephews into exile, although he was allied with another of his nephews, Edmund. John of Fordun wrote, centuries that an escort into England was arranged for them by their maternal uncle Edgar Ætheling. William Rufus, King of England, opposed Donald's accession to the northerly kingdom, he sent the eldest son of David's half-brother Duncan, into Scotland with an army. Duncan was killed within the year, so in 1097 William sent Donnchad's half-brother Edgar into Scotland; the latter was more successful, was crowned King by the end of 1097. During the power struggle of 1093–97, David was in England.
In 1093, he may have been about nine years old. From 1093 until 1103 David's presence cannot be accounted for in detail, but he appears to have been in Scotland for the remainder of the 1090s; when William Rufus was killed, his brother Henry Beauclerc seized power and married David's sister, Matilda. The marriage made David the brother-in-law of the ruler of England. From that point onwards, David was an important figure at the English court. Despite his Gaelic background, by the end of his stay in England, David had become a full-fledged Normanised prince. William of Malmesbury wrote that it was in this period that David "rubbed off all tarnish of Scottish barbarity through being polished by intercourse and friendship with us". David's time as Prince of the Cumbrians and Earl marks the beginning of his life as a great territorial lord, his earldom began in 1113, when Henry I arranged David's marriage to Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon, the heiress to the Huntingdon–Northampton lordship. As her husband, David used the title of earl, there was the prospect that David's children by her would inherit all the honours borne by Matilda's father Waltheof.
1113 is the year when David, for the first time, can be found in possession of territory in what is now Scotland. David's brother, King Edgar, had visited William Rufus in May 1099 and bequeathed to David extensive territory to the south of the river Forth. On 8 January 1107, Edgar died, his younger brother Alexander took the throne. It has been assumed that David took control of his inheritance – the southern lands bequeathed by Edgar – soon after the latter's death. However, it cannot be shown that he possessed his inheritance until his foundation of Selkirk Abbey late in 1113. According to Richard Oram, it was only in 1113, when Henry returned to England from Normandy, that David was at last in a position to claim his inheritance in southern "Scotland". King Henry's backing seems to have been enough to force King Alexander to recognise his younger brother's claims; this occurred without bloodshed, but through threat of force nonetheless. David's aggression seems to have inspired resentment amongst some native Scots.
A Middle Gaelic quatrain from this period complains that: If "divided from" is anything to go by, this quatrain may have been written in David's new territories in southern Scotland. The lands in question consisted of the pre-1975 counties of Roxburghshire, Berwickshire and Lanarkshire. David, gained the title princeps Cumbrensis, "Prince of the Cumbrians", as attested in David's charters from this era. Although this was a large slice of
Smyrna High School is a 9–12 public high school in Smyrna, Delaware. The school graduated its first class in 1894; until the mid-1990s Smyrna was considered a farm community with a small rural school. The town has experienced a wave of economic expansion since then; as of 2017, the Smyrna School District had doubled in population, as a result Smyrna High School had become Delaware's eighth largest high school, with a expanded academic curriculum and facilities. The school moved to its current campus in 1970; the campus underwent a $61 million renovation in 2006. The school was accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools in 1931; the school has a program for students considering a career in education. Smyrna High School competes in the Henlopen Conference of the Delaware Interscholastic Athletic Association, with 42 teams in 23 sports; the boys' school athletics program had been known for its wrestling program, but Smyrna's population growth brought greater success in football and other sports.
A dramatic last-second defensive stop gave Smyrna the 2015 Division 1 state football championship in an upset win over Wilmington's perennial state power Salesianum School. Softball: 1993, 2018 Track and Field: Boys Outdoor Division II: 1990, 1991 Girls Outdoor Division I: 2013 Football: 2015, 2016, 2017 Basketball: 2017 Dual Team Wrestling: Division II: 1993, 1995, 1996, 2003, 2005 Division I: 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 Official website
Mount Maunganui is a major residential and industrial suburb of Tauranga, located on a peninsula to the north-east of Tauranga's city centre. It was an independent town from Tauranga until the completion of the Tauranga Harbour Bridge in 1988, which connects Mount Maunganui to Tauranga's central business district. Mount Maunganui is the name of the large lava dome, formed by the upwelling of rhyolite lava about two to three million years ago, it is known by its Māori name Mauao, but is colloquially known in New Zealand as The Mount. The New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage gives a translation of "large mountain" for Maunganui. Mount Maunganui is located atop a sand bar that connects Mauao to the mainland, a geographical formation known as a tombolo; because of this formation, the residents of Mount Maunganui have both a harbour beach and an ocean beach with great surf, within a short distance. At the base of Mauao, the distance between the harbour and ocean side is a couple of blocks.
The ocean beach has Mauao or Mount Maunganui at its western end, a man made land bridge connecting Moturiki Island at its eastern end. Adjacent to Mount Maunganui on its south-eastern edge is Papamoa Beach, another large suburb of Tauranga. Papamoa Beach has a larger population than Mount Maunganui, but doesn't have as many businesses as Mount Maunganui. Both suburbs are distinctly geographically separate from the rest of Tauranga by the Tauranga Harbour. Mauao is a large lava dome. According to Maori legend, this hill was a pononga to a mountain called Otanewainuku; the conical headland which gives the town its name is 232 metres in height, dominates the flat surrounding countryside. It was a Māori pā, the remains of trenches can be seen in the ridges, as well as ancient shell middens. Today, it is open to the public year-round, is a popular place to either walk around, or climb up. From the summit, a good stretch of coastline can be seen in either direction, as well as the Kaimai Range to the west.
Over the years Mount Maunganui had suffered a number of attacks on its sovereignty by Tauranga but had fought and to remain independent until the 1989 local government reforms. During 1974 Bob Owens was Mayor of both Mount Maunganui and Tauranga, a unique situation in the annals of local government in New Zealand. Mr Owens made no secret of the fact; the election of 1974 was fought on this issue and Owens was defeated in the polls with a landslide victory to Mr L. Kelvin O'Hara, the youngest person elected to the position of Mayor in New Zealand, who challenged him on the issue, other environmental issues with the catch cry "why share a mayor?" It remains controversial in Mount Maunganui whether the transition from an independently administered unit of local government to a minor part of the Tauranga City Council over 20 years ago was beneficial. Some Mount Maunganui residents are still of the opinion Tauranga and Mount Maunganui are separate towns though they amalgamated in 1989. Simon Bridges, the local Member of Parliament for the area, described it in Parliament in 2012 "I have to say that there still is, though—and I have found this when first standing for Parliament—a sense of the "Mounties" and of those who are city-side, and, still present to some extent" Mount Maunganui was known colloquially as'Maunganui' until 1907, when the name was rejected during the application process to name the area when the first subdivision of land was carried out.
One of the early settlers, J. C. Adams suggested three alternative names, which were Te Maire and Rakataura, with the latter name selected by the Survey Department; the official name Rakataura never came into common use as Maunganui had long been the unofficial name of the town. The name Mount Maunganui was a rebranding by early developers; the current name is an example of maunga being a Māori term for mountain. Mount Maunganui fought fiercely and during the 1950s to retain independence from Tauranga failed with the completion of the harbour bridge in 1988; the former Mount Maunganui Borough Council set records in New Zealand as having never had a deficit in its history, something which Tauranga City Council has never achieved. Critics say the town was built by leveraging the commercial and industrial ratepayers, but Mount Maunganui was a forerunner in some areas and applied the user pays philosophy before it was common in New Zealand; the original early 1900s house of early settler J. C. Adams, the first home built at Mount Maunganui, still stands at 4 Adams Avenue.
The circa 1906 house is registered with Heritage New Zealand as a Category II historic building. The local Whareroa Marae and Rauru ki Tahi meeting house is a meeting place for the Ngāi Te Rangi hapū of Ngāti Kuku and Ngāi Tukairangi. Mount Maunganui is regarded by many to be a coastal resort town, although Port of Tauranga, a major facility, is partly located on the western side, it is well known for the quality of its surfing conditions, though parts of the beach are notoriously dangerous. The harbour bridge was opened in 1988; the construction of a duplication bridge was completed in December 2009, forming a vital link in Tauranga and Mount Maunganui's growing m