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David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl

David Klöcker Ehrenstråhl was a Swedish nobleman and portrait painter. David Klöcker was born in Hamburg, he had eight siblings. In 1648, Klöcker traveled to Amsterdam where he learned how to paint following the instructions from Juriaen Jacobsze. In 1652, he left his art studies in the Netherlands and moved to Skokloster Castle on Lake Mälaren, Sweden at the request of Swedish noblemann Carl Gustaf Wrangel. Between 1654 and 1661 he visited the courts of both France and England. On his return he became entitled Court painter in 1661, he was raised to the nobility in 1674. He became court intendant in 1690, he made portraits of, among others, King Charles XI of Sweden, Erik Dahlbergh, Georg Stiernhielm and Agneta Horn. Among his pupils can be found Mikael Dahl and David von Krafft as well as his daughter Anna Maria Ehrenstrahl. Ehrenstrahl painted several ceilings and large wall pieces with allegoric motifs; the great hall ceiling fresco, named The Great Deeds of The Swedish Kings, in the Swedish House of Knights made between 1670 and 1675, is considered to be his greatest work.

A second version was made during 1695 on the ceiling of Ehrenstrahlsalongen at Drottningholm Palace, the home of the Swedish Royal Family. The center piece of the Drottningholm fresco became the motive of the 1000th postage stamp designed by Polish postage stamp and banknote engraver Czesław Słania; the stamp was issued by the PostNord Sverige in March 2000. Ehrenstråhl is known for his proposal, in 1694, that:- "Art presents riddles that could not be solved by everyone". Ehrenstrahl was married to Maria Momma in 1663, he was the uncle of painter David von Krafft. He died during 1698 in Stockholm. Accessed August 6, 2008

Hamiltonian completion

The Hamiltonian completion problem is to find the minimal number of edges to add to a graph to make it Hamiltonian. The problem is NP-hard in general case; the associated decision problem of determining whether K edges can be added to a given graph to produce a Hamiltonian graph is NP-complete. Moreover, Hamiltonian completion belongs to the APX complexity class, i.e. it is unlikely that efficient constant ratio approximation algorithms exist for this problem. The problem may be solved in polynomial time for certain classes of graphs, including series-parallel graphs and their generalizations, which include outerplanar graphs, as well as for a line graph of a tree or a cactus graph. Gamarnik et al. use a linear time algorithm for solving the problem on trees to study the asymptotic number of edges that must be added for sparse random graphs to make them Hamiltonian

Barnabas Oley

Barnabas Oley was an English churchman and academic. A royalist figure of the First English Civil War, he was the first editor of George Herbert and Thomas Jackson, a personal friend of Nicholas Ferrar. In old age he was archdeacon of Ely for a year, he was baptised in the parish church of Wakefield on 26 December 1602, as son of Francis Oley, a clerk, who married Mary Mattersouse on 25 June 1600. He was educated at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, which he entered in 1607. In 1617 he proceeded to Clare College, Cambridge as Cave's exhibitioner from his school, graduated B. A. 1621, M. A. 1625, B. D. A crown mandate for the degree of D. D. to him and two other eminent divines was dated 14 April, published 17 June 1663, but the honour was declined. He was elected probationer-fellow of the foundation of Lady Clare at his college on 28 November 1623, a senior fellow in 1627, filled the offices of tutor and president, one of his pupils being Peter Gunning. Oley was taxor for the university in 1634, proctor in 1635.

In 1633 he was appointed by his college to the vicarage of Great Gransden and held it until his death. The first steps for the rebuilding of the college, begun on 19 May 1638 but not finished until 1715, were taken under his direction; when the university sent its plate to the king at Nottingham to be converted into money for his use, it was entrusted to his care and safely brought to the king's headquarters, August 1642, a mission with John Barwick. For not residing at Cambridge, for not appearing before the commission when summoned to attend, he was ejected by Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester from his fellowship on 8 April 1644, he was plundered of his personal and landed property, forced to leave his benefice. For seven years he wandered through England in great poverty. In 1643 and 1646 he was at Oxford. Early in 1645, when Pontefract Castle was being defended for the king, he was within its walls, preached to the garrison. For some time he lived at Heath, near Wakefield, in 1652-3 he stayed in the north, near Lady Saville's demolished house.

In 1659 Oley returned to Gransden, on 9 July 1660 he was restored to his fellowship by an order of the same Earl of Manchester. Through Gilbert Sheldon he was presented on 3 August 1660 to the third prebendal stall of Worcester Cathedral, on 8 November 1679 he was collated, on the nomination of Gunning, his old pupil, to the archdeaconry of Ely; this preferment he resigned in the following year but he retained the stall at Worcester until his death. Oley died at Gransden on 20 February 1686, was buried there on the night of 22 February, an inscription to his memory being placed on the wall at the west end of the interior of the church. Oley edited in 1652 Herbert's Remains, or sundry pieces of that Sweet Singer, Mr. George Herbert, containing A Priest to the Temple, or the countrey parson, Jacula Prudentum, &c. Prefixed was an unsigned preface by Oley; the second edition appeared in 1671 as A Priest to the Temple or the Country Parson, with a new preface, signed Barnabas Oley. These pieces were reprinted in editions of Herbert's Works.

The manuscript of The Country Parson was the property of Herbert's friend, Arthur Wodenoth, who gave it to Oley. Three volumes of the works of Thomas Jackson appeared under the care of Oley in 1653-57; the three volumes were reissued in 1673, with a general dedication to Sheldon Archbishop of Canterbury, with a preface to the reader enlarged and edited from the three that existed. The Jackson manuscripts were left by Oley to Thomas Lamplugh. Oley was one of those appointed by Gunning to sort Nicholas Ferrar's papers, he endowed the brick school-house of 1664 in Great Gransden, now the Barnabas Oley School. He made many other charitable bequests, one of which deserves a place in the history of the development of libraries in the UK. In 1685, he granted money to 10 poor parishes in the diocese of Carlisle, Cumbria, in order that they should buy a set of 16 divinity books, a set to be placed in each vicarage; this was the first time that libraries had been provided for the poorest parishes, work, taken up in the 1690s by Dr. Thomas Bray both in England and Wales and in the USA.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Oley, Barnabas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Jarbom Gamlin

Jarbom Gamlin was an Indian politician and a leader of the Indian National Congress political party in Arunachal Pradesh and served as the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh. Gamlin was born in Along in West Siang district to Gamde Ete Gamlin, he studied in Sainik School, Goalpara in Assam and during 1976-77 he was the school captain. In 1982, he graduated in History from St. Stephen's College in Delhi and graduated in law from the Campus Law Centre, University of Delhi in 1984, he practiced as a lawyer in Dibrugarh. He was the President of All Arunachal Pradesh Students Union, he was the president of Arunachal Pradesh Bar Association from 1992-2001. Gamlin started off as a student leader of the All Arunachal Pradesh Students Union, he was the president of the AAPSU from 1981-83.. He was the member of the 13th Lok Sabha representing Arunachal West Lok Sabha constituency In 2004, he was elected to the 4th Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly from Liromoba constituency in West Siang district and became the Home Minister in the Gegong Apang led government.

He was dropped from the cabinet due to his differences with Apang. He was instrumental in toppling the Apang ministry and installation of Dorjee Khandu as the chief minister in April 2007. In 2009 he was re-elected to the 5th Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly from the same constituency and became the Power Minister in the Dorjee Khandu led state cabinet on 6 November 2009. On 5 May 2011, Gamlin became the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh after the death of Dorjee Khandu on 30 April 2011. On 31 October 2011, Gamlin government was toppled by Nabam Tuki. According to family sources, he had liver thrombosis, he was being treated at Medanta Hospital in Gurgaon but succumbed to his illness at 11:15 pm on 30 November 2014, aged 53. From Guwahati Airport, his body was flown to Naharlagun helipad at 12.00 noon where it was kept for an hour for the people to pay their last respect before being flown to Aalo where he was laid to rest. Thousands including the President of India Pranab Mukherjee, Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid their respects


The term workload can refer to a number of different yet related entities. Workload is the amount of work. There is a distinction between the actual amount of work and the individual's perception of the workload. Workload can be classified as quantitative or qualitative; the assessment of operator workload has a vital impact on the design of new human-machine systems. By evaluating operator workload during the design of a new system, or iteration of an existing system, problems such as workload bottlenecks and overload can be identified; as the human operator is a central part of a human-machine system, the correction of these problems is necessary for the operation of safe and efficient systems. An operating budget may include estimates of the expected workload for a specific activity. Work loads can vary in many different situations. Workload can refer to the total energy output of a system of a person or animal performing a strenuous task over time. One particular application of this is weight lifting/weights training, where both anecdotal evidence and scientific research has shown that it is the total "workload", important to muscle growth, as opposed to just the load, just the volume, or "time under tension".

In these and related uses of the word, "workload" can be broken up into "work+load", referring to the work done with a given load. In terms of weights training, the "load" refers to the heaviness of the weight being lifted, "work" refers to the volume, or total number of reps and sets done with that weight; this theory was used to determine horse power, defined as the amount of work a horse could do with a given load over time. The wheel that the horse turned in Watt's original experiment put a certain load on the horse's muscles, the horse could do a certain amount of work with this load in a minute. Provided the horse was a perfect machine, it would be capable of a constant maximum workload, so increasing the load by a given percentage would result in the possible work done decreasing by the same percentage, so that it would still equal "1 hp". Horses are not perfect machines and over short time periods are capable of as much as 14 hp, over long periods of exertion output an average of less than 1 hp.

The theory can be applied to automobiles or other machines, which are more "perfect" than animals. Making a car heavier, for instance, increases the load that the engine must pull. Making it more aerodynamic decreases drag, which acts as a load on the car as well. Torque can be thought of as the ability to move load, the revs are how much work it can do with that load in a given amount of time; therefore and revs together create kilowatts, or total power output. Total output can be related to the "workload" of the engine/car, or how much work it can do with a given amount of load; as engines are more mechanically perfect than animals' muscles, do not fatigue in the same way, they will conform much more to the formula that if you apply more load, they will do less work, vice versa. In an occupational setting, dealing with workload can be stressful and serve as a stressor for employees. There are three aspects of workload. Quantitative workload or overload: Having more work to do than can be accomplished comfortably.

Qualitative workload: Having work, too difficult. Underload: Having work that fails to use a worker's skills and abilities. Workload has been linked to a number of strains, including anxiety, physiological reactions such as cortisol, backache and gastrointestinal problems. Workload as a work demand is a major component of the demand-control model of stress; this model suggests that jobs with high demands can be stressful when the individual has low control over the job. In other words, control serves as protective factor when demands or workload is high; this model was expanded into the demand-control-support model that suggests that the combination of high control and high social support at work buffers the effects of high demands. As a work demand, workload is relevant to the job demands-resources model of stress that suggests that jobs are stressful when demands exceed the individual's resources to deal with them. Another aspect to workload is the mathematical predictive models used in human factors analysis.

There is no one agreed definition of workload and not one agreed method of assessing or modelling it. One example definition by Hart and Staveland describes workload as "the perceived relationship between the amount of mental processing capability or resources and the amount required by the task". Workload modelling is the analytical technique used to predict workload; the main objective of assessing and predicting workload is to achieve evenly distributed, manageable workload and to avoid overload or underload. Wickens’ multiple resource theory model is illustrated in figure 1: Wickens’ MRT proposes that the human operator does not have one single information processing source that can be tapped, but several different pools of resources that can be tapped simultaneously; each box in figure 1 indicates one cognitive resource. Depending on the nature of the task, these resources may have to process information sequentially if t

Change Giver

Change Giver is the debut album by British rock band Shed Seven, released via Polydor Records on 5 September 1994. It was produced by Jessica Corcoran and was issued during the formative year of the britpop movement—a scene that dominated British alternative music in the mid-1990s; the album was a moderate chart success in the UK, peaking at number 16 in the UK Albums Chart upon release, while three of the four singles taken from the album charted in the UK Top 40. Formed in 1990, Shed Seven gained a reputation for their live performances, having been banned from playing in a number of local music venues in their hometown of York, due to the "violent" nature of attendees at their gigs, they soon focused their attention on London, playing a handful of live shows in the city's smaller venues—including both the Rock Garden and Bull and Gate—to audiences featuring key members of the British music business, such as BBC Radio 1 DJ Steve Lamacq. In September 1993, they were voted the third best live band at London's Inner City Festival—the first time an unsigned act had placed in the top three—and appeared on BBC Radio 5's Hit The North programme.

In the same month they performed at Manchester's In The City music festival, where they were awarded third place in the convention's Best Unsigned Band contest. Their performance at the festival generated some national exposure, gaining them one of what would become a number of complimentary live reviews in the NME, with the magazine stating: "They are brilliant." Following the positive response to their in the City showcase performance, Shed Seven found themselves amid a record label bidding war, opted to sign a six-album major label deal with Polydor Records in October 1993. A support slot for the Inspiral Carpets soon followed, along with joint headline gigs with bands such as Compulsion and Elastica, as they were labelled "thrashy punk newcomers" and were associated with the short-lived New Wave of New Wave scene. Yet, by the time Change Giver was released five months they were seen in the British music press as being part of a vibrant, new movement in British music, spearheaded by acts like Suede, a band who had invited Shed Seven to open their gig at Blackpool's Tower Ballroom on 11 February 1994.

Writing for The Guardian a month after the release of Change Giver, Caroline Sullivan summarised Shed Seven's role in the emergent scene, dubbed "lad-rock" and would come to be known as britpop. Like Oasis, this York band are defiantly heterosexual, brimming with what in a previous day would have been called arrogance, is now known as'attitude'." Shed Seven enjoyed a copious amount of praise for their music in the run up to the release of Change Giver. In March 1994, NME claimed that they were "worthy carriers of the baton that's passed through the hands of the Buzzcocks, The Smiths and The Stone Roses", The Guardian named them "this week's Next Big Things" in late-October, highlighting the group as an alternative to the "musical thuggery" of other bands. Melody Maker, many of whose writers had championed the band's cause from an early stage, declared them one of "the UK's brightest hopes", whilst The Independent claimed that they were "perhaps the spunkiest new British band". Along with further positive reviews of their live shows, much of the press attention received by the band drew musical comparisons with The Smiths, a band who both Witter and Banks cited as making a "big influence" on them in their youth.

Although they were seen to be musically relevant, Shed Seven were not beyond reproach as they were met with a certain amount of discord in the British music press. Alongside the praise heaped on their live performances, came a wave of non-musical criticism aimed at the "foolish" things they said, their haircuts and unfashionable dress sense, through to their band and singer's names. In a piece titled "Pretenders to the throne", charting British rock music's challengers to the crown then-held by Blur, The Guardian posed the question: "do they expect to make it big with a singer called Rick Witter?". By the time the record was issued in the UK in early September, both critical and public opinion on the band was somewhat divisive; as noted in Change Giver's Melody Maker review. As the release of Change Giver grew nearer, animosity between Oasis and Shed Seven emerged; the two bands—who had played on the same bill in London and were touring France together as part of a small series of shows organised by a French magazine—were seen as contemporaneous rivals and had become embroiled in a war of words via sections of the British music press.

The feud was heightened by a comment from Noel Gallagher in an August 1994 issue of Melody Maker magazine. Due to this growing rivalry, along with the positive response that had greeted the release of their debut double A side single "Mark"/"Casino Girl", the fledgling band were seen to have set themselves a high standard to live up to. Although Change Giver did receive some positive attention, featuring in a number of music publications end-of-year polls, it failed to gain the same scale of universal critical approval as that of Definitely Maybe, was unable to match the unit sales of the then-record breaking debut album. Having signed a record deal with Polydor in autumn 1993, just six weeks the band members had left their regular jobs and headed to London's Greenhouse Studio to begin recording sessions for their debut release. Commenting on these early sessions in July 1999, guitarist Paul Banks revealed that they were overwhelmed by th