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David Koch

David Hamilton Koch was an American businessman, political activist, chemical engineer. In 1970, he joined the family business: Koch Industries, the second-largest held company in the United States, he became president of the subsidiary Koch Engineering in 1979, became a co-owner of Koch Industries in 1983. Koch served as an executive vice president of Koch Industries until he retired due to health issues in 2018. Koch was a libertarian, he was the 1980 Libertarian candidate for Vice President of the United States and helped finance the campaign. He founded Citizens for a Sound Economy and donated to advocacy groups and political campaigns, most of which were Republican. Koch became a Republican in 1984. Koch was the fourth-richest person in the United States in 2012 and was the wealthiest resident of New York City in 2013; as of June 2019, Koch was ranked as the 11th-richest person in the world, with a fortune of $50.5 billion. Known for his philanthropy, Koch contributed to the Lincoln Center, Sloan Kettering, NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital, the Dinosaur Wing at the American Museum of Natural History.

The New York State Theater at Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Ballet, was renamed the David H. Koch Theater in 2008 following Koch's gift of $100 million for the renovation of the theater. Koch was born in Wichita, the son of Mary Clementine and Fred Chase Koch, a chemical engineer. David's paternal grandfather, Harry Koch, was a Dutch immigrant who founded the Quanah Tribune-Chief newspaper and was a founding shareholder of the Quanah and Pacific Railway. David was the third of four sons, with elder brothers Frederick and nineteen-minute-younger twin Bill, his maternal ancestors included an Episcopal bishop. Koch attended the Deerfield Academy prep school in Massachusetts, graduating in 1959, he attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology, earning both a bachelor's and a master's degree in chemical engineering. He was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. Koch played basketball at MIT, averaging 21 points per game at MIT over three years, a school record, he held the single-game scoring record of 41 points from 1962 until 2009, when it was eclipsed by Jimmy Bartolotta.

In 1970, Koch joined Koch Industries under his brother Charles, to work as a technical-services manager. He founded the company's New York City office and in 1979 he became the president of his own division, Koch Engineering, renamed Chemical Technology Group. David's brothers Bill had inherited stock in Koch Industries. In June 1983, after a bitter legal and boardroom battle, the stakes of Frederick and Bill were bought out for $1.1 billion and Charles Koch and David Koch became majority owners in the company. Legal disputes against Charles and David lasted two decades. Frederick and Bill sided with J. Howard Marshall III, J. Howard Marshall II's eldest son, against Charles and David at one point, in order to take over the company. In 2001, Bill reached a settlement in a lawsuit where he had charged the company was taking oil from federal and Indian land. CBS News reported; as of 2010, David Koch owned 42 percent of Koch Industries. He held four U. S patents. Koch served as an executive vice president of Koch Industries until retiring due to health issues in 2018.

His retirement was announced on June 5, 2018. Koch was the Libertarian Party's vice-presidential candidate in the 1980 presidential election, sharing the party ticket with presidential candidate Ed Clark; the Clark–Koch ticket promised to abolish Social Security, the Federal Reserve Board, minimum-wage laws, corporate taxes, all price supports and subsidies for agriculture and business, U. S. Federal agencies including the SEC, EPA, ICC, FTC, OSHA, FBI, CIA, DOE; the ticket received 921,128 votes, 1% of the total nationwide vote, the Libertarian Party national ticket's best showing until 2016 in terms of percentage and its best showing in terms of raw votes until the 2012 presidential election, although that number was surpassed again in 2016. "Compared to what gotten before," Charles said, "and where we were as a movement or as a political/ideological point of view, pretty remarkable, to get 1 percent of the vote."After the bid, according to journalist Brian Doherty's Radicals for Capitalism, Koch viewed politicians as "actors playing out a script."Koch credited the 1976 presidential campaign of Roger MacBride as his inspiration for getting involved in politics: Here was a great guy, advocating all the things I believed in.

He wanted less government and taxes, was talking about repealing all these victimless crime laws that accumulated on the books. I have friends. I know many homosexuals. It's ridiculous to treat them as criminals — and here was someone running for president, saying just that. Koch gave his own vice presidential campaign $100,000 a month after being chosen as Ed Clark's running mate. "We'd like to abolish the Federal Elections Commission and all the limits on campaign spending anyway," Koch said in 1980. When asked why he ran, he replied: "Lord knows I didn't need a job, but I believe in what the Libertarians are saying. I suppose if they hadn't come along, I could have been a big Republican from Wichita, but hell — everybody from Kansas is a Republican."In 1984, Koch broke with the Libertarian Party when it supported eliminati

Paul Kalmanovitz

Paul Kalmanovitz was a millionaire brewing and real estate magnate best known for owning all or part of several national breweries and their products, including Falstaff Brewing Company and Pabst Brewing Company. Most of the Kalmanovitz Estate was left to create a charitable foundation for hospitals and universities. Kalmanovitz was born to a Jewish family in Poland. While Paul emigrated to Egypt at the end of the World War I, his father and brothers remained in Lodz, he worked for Sir Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby. Kalmanowitz arrived in the United States in the 1926 by jumping a merchant marine ship and jumped from job to job, working for several notable people such as Franklin D. Roosevelt, William Randolph Hearst, Louis B. Mayer. In 1945 Paul Kalmanovitz received a letter from his niece, Sonia Kalmanowicz, the daughter of his oldest brother Joseph Kalmanowicz, in this letter she informed Paul that his brother had died in Auschwitz in 1944 and that she and her brother Stanislas had survived Auschwitz.

He arranged to apply for a visa number for them to enter the United States, by 1946 Stanislas was granted a visa, Sonia by had decided to remain in France. Stanislas departed from Le Havre in April 1946 in steerage on the SS Oregon a ship of WWI vintage. You will notice that Paul when he entered the United States changed the spelling of the family name from Kalmanowicz to Kalmanovitz, so when Stanilas arrived in New York he changed his name to Stanley Kalmanovitz. Paul was in New York to accompany him to his home in Tarzana, California. In 1950 Kalmanovitz acquired the Maier Brewing Company in Los Angeles and entered the brewing industry. Maier Brewing, makers of Brew 102, struggled for a number of years, in 1958 faced a strong push to be bought out by the Falstaff Brewing Company. Kalmanovitz refused to be bought out after being threatened by Falstaff to either sell or Falstaff would bury the Maier Brewery. Within a few years Kalmanovitz began making a profit. Along with the brewery and numerous other investments, Kalmanovitz's net worth began to swell.

In 1970 Kalmanovitz purchased Lucky Lager and merged it with his Maier Brewing Company to form the General Brewing Company with S&P Corporation as its parent. By 1974 Falstaff was in need of cash. Falstaff's purchase of the Ballantine brands in 1972 had proven to be a major mistake and stretched the company a little too thin. Falstaff sold Kalmanovitz its San Francisco brewery; the cash couldn't save Falstaff, in 1975 the company was once again in trouble. Kalmanovitz offered to inject $20 million into Falstaff for 100,000 shares of preferred stock. On 28 April 1975, Paul Kalmanovitz gained the controlling interest in the Falstaff Brewing Company. Kalmanovitz more than quadrupled his brewery interests and became a major force on the American beer market. With the purchase of Falstaff, Kalmanovitz moved the Falstaff headquarters from St Louis, Missouri to San Francisco to combine it with General Brewing Company's headquarters. By June, more than 175 of Falstaff's corporate employees were laid off.

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission opened an investigation of the Falstaff purchase, found it provided shareholders with false and misleading information. Kalmanovitz was prohibited from committing further securities laws violations and Falstaff stock was barred from trading and removed from the New York Stock Exchange. Falstaff lost. Falstaff workers unhappy with the new direction of the company staged a company lockout, which Kalmanovitz and General Brewing called a strike. Things settled down with Falstaff and production resumed. Kalmanovitz's plans to make a profit off Falstaff were not to turn the company around and reestablish its brand strength in the market, but rather to cut costs drastically throughout; the biggest change was the advertising budget. Falstaff's market share continued resulting in plants closing and employees out of work. Falstaff was profitable for the S&P Corporation, but at a cost to works and the communities around the breweries. Kalmanovitz acquired an ailing brewery, fired the corporate personnel, reduced budgets, sold off equipment, stopped plant maintenance, eliminated product quality control.

Kalmanovitz established a standard with Falstaff, repeated as he purchased Stroh's, National Bohemian, Olympia and Pabst. Breweries were not Kalmanovitz's only interests, he was involved in helping Guide Dogs for the Blind and several other charitable organizations. Upon his death, Kalmanovitz's net worth was said to be in excess of $250 million. A sizable portion of his wealth was donated to numerous California hospitals. In addition, his estate donated the money for the Paul and Lydia Kalmanovitz Library at the University of California, San Francisco, Kalmanovitz Hall at the University of San Francisco, the Paul and Lydia Kalmanovitz Appellate Courtroom at the University of California, Davis School of Law. Kalmanovitz specialized in leveraged buy-outs, which take over businesses to sell off their parts for profit, closing plants and laying off employees. After a takeover in St. Louis, brewery employees flew the American flag at half-staff and upside down. In 1975, after Kalmanovitz gained control of Falstaff, most of its 175 corporate office employees were laid off.

Some of the employee's severance checks bounced. "Kalmanovitz thought nothing of throwing hundreds of brewery workers out onto the streets, cutting off their pension and health benefits … " according to one historian

Pouched rat

Pouched rats are a group of African rodents in the subfamily Cricetomyinae. They are members of the family Nesomyidae, which contains other African muroids such as climbing mice, Malagasy mice, the white-tailed rat. All nesomyids are in the superfamily Muroidea, a large and complex clade containing 1/4 of all mammal species. Sometimes the pouched rats are placed in the family Muridae along with all other members of the superfamily Muroidea. Pouched rats are found throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa with the exception of southern Africa, they are characterized by having a distinctive molar morphology. The molars are similar to the type seen in the subfamily Murinae, but pouched rats evolved this similarity through convergent evolution. There are three different genera of pouched rats; the giant pouched rat is notable for being the largest of the muroids. A giant pouched rat was implicated as a carrier in a small outbreak of monkeypox in the USA; the subfamily Cricetomyinae contains eight species.

Subfamily Cricetomyinae - pouched rats Genus Beamys Lesser hamster-rat, Beamys hindei Greater hamster-rat, Beamys major Genus Cricetomys - giant pouched rats Southern giant pouched rat, Cricetomys ansorgei Gambian pouched rat, Cricetomys gambianus Emin's pouched rat, Cricetomys emini Kivu giant pouched rat, Cricetomys kivuensis Genus Saccostomus - pouched mice South African pouched mouse, Saccostomus campestris Mearns's pouched mouse, Saccostomus mearnsi Jansa, S. A. and M. Weksler. Phylogeny of muroid rodents: relationships within and among major lineages as determined by IRBP gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31:256-276. Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Limited, London. Steppan, S. J. R. A. Adkins, J. Anderson. 2004. Phylogeny and divergence date estimates of rapid radiations in muroid rodents based on multiple nuclear genes. Systematic Biology, 53:533-553

Queen Victoria's journals

Queen Victoria's journals are the personal diaries and journals kept by Queen Victoria. She maintained them throughout her life, filling 122 volumes which were expurgated after her death by her youngest daughter. Extracts were sold well; the collection is stored in the Royal Archives and, in 2012, was put online in partnership with the Bodleian Libraries. Victoria started a daily journal in 1832, when she was just thirteen years old, her first words were, "This book, Mamma gave me, that I might write the journal of my journey to Wales in it." The keeping of such journals was common at that time. She was instructed in this by her governess, Louise Lehzen, her mother inspected the journals each day until she became queen, she continued writing until just ten days before her death, 69 years filling 121 volumes. She wrote many letters and, with the journals, it is estimated that she wrote over two thousand words a day — about sixty million words during her lifetime. Extracts of her journals were published during her lifetime such as Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, published in 1868.

The first edition sold twenty thousand copies, a great success. Further editions were printed and a sequel was published — More Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands. Extracts of her journals appeared in the Theodore Martin's biography of Prince Albert — The Life of His Royal Highness the Prince Consort —, published in five volumes from 1875 to 1880; when she died, her daughter, Princess Beatrice, was her literary executor. She went through all the journals and, as instructed by the Queen, removed anything which might upset the royal family; the expurgated version created by Beatrice filled 111 hand-written volumes. Most of the originals from 1840 onwards were destroyed, despite the opposition of Queen Victoria's grandson King George V and his wife, Queen Mary; the nature of Beatrice's editing can be judged by comparison with the typescript copies which were made earlier by Lord Esher for his book, The Girlhood of Queen Victoria. These cover the period from 1832 to 1840; this incident does not appear in Beatrice's copy: The journals are stored in the Royal Archives in Windsor Castle.

In 2012, they were scanned and made available online as a special project for the diamond jubilee of Victoria's great-great-granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth. Although made available for free worldwide, since mid-2013 free access to the diaries has been restricted to users within the United Kingdom only. Coronation of Queen Victoria with extracts from her long account Citations Sources Queen Victoria's Journals — online site maintained by the Bodleian Libraries and the Royal Archives, available to readers in the United Kingdom. Global readers were able to access the site until the end of June, 2013. Royal Archives — official website of the British monarchy


Agastheeswaram is a panchayat town in Kanniyakumari district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Agasteeswaram is named after Sage Agastya. Most of the people from this village are well educated when compared with other districts in Tamil Nadu. Vivekanandha college is located in Agasteeswararam. Before 1956, it was a part of Kerala state. Below are the words extracted from the Travancore state manual about the Agastisvaram Nadan rich chieftain who enjoyed special benefits from the Trovancore Rajah, that family belonged to the sub-caste Nadan an endogamous group among the Nadars; the Travancore state manual says "This is the headquarters of the Shanar tribe, where their Nadan or chieftain resides, allowed the privileges of having a fort, of riding in a palanquin and of retaining a hundred armed attendants." Ref: The Travancore state manual, Volume 2 Page 57 Kottaram is one of the Panchayat town in the Agastheeswaram Taluk. It is situated 6 km from Kanyakumari. People of different religions like Hindus and Muslims live here.

CSI, Catholic, AG, IPC and many other independent Christian churches can be found here. As of 2001 India census, Agastheeswaram had a population of 8978. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Agastheeswaram has an average literacy rate of 84%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Poongani the traditional musical story teller was born near here in 1934. Dr. P. H. Daniel - Doctor who first started employee union in South Indian Tea Estates. Paradesi movie is based on his novel Red Tea. Dr. J. C. Daniel Nadar - Father of Malayalam Cinema, lived here until he died in 1975. Kumari Ananthan, his brother H. Vasanthakumar, daughter Tamilisai Soundarrajan - Political and entrepreneurial dynasty. Mangavilai

Paralichthys lethostigma

Paralichthys lethostigma, the southern flounder, is a species of large-tooth flounders native to the eastern and gulf coasts of the United States. It is a popular sports fish and is the largest and most commercially valuable flounder in the western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, it is a "left-eyed flounder", meaning the left side is pigmented and is the "up side". The body color is brown with unocellated spots and blotches; this species grows to around 12-14 inches in length. Larval and postlarval southern flounder feed on zooplankton; as juveniles, the southern flounder's diet consists of small invertebrates, shifts to larger invertebrates and fish as they reach adult size. Southern flounder feed on the bottom of the ocean and in the water column, are considered to be near top predators. Adult fish breed and spend the warmer season in coastal embayments and nearshore shelf waters, where the eggs develop until they are late stage larvae, which are pushed by currents into the estuaries where the fish settle into the sediment and grow into juveniles.

The juveniles stay in the estuaries until they leave to spawn. The southern flounder can survive in lower salinities and have been found to use freshwater habitats both as juveniles and as adults. Juvenile southern flounder stay in estuaries, most leave to spawn offshore during the fall and winter as adults. Young fish are pushed into the estuaries by ocean currents to mature. Southern flounder reach sexual maturity around two years of age. Older, larger fish tend to begin the spawning migration earlier. Female fish both grow faster and live longer than males; the annual growth cycle of the southern flounder starts in the spring and ends in the fall as the water temperature decreases. Males live for around 5 years, females live for around 7–8 years; the southern flounder is distributed across the Gulf of Mexico. This species is listed by the IUCN as near threatened due to both commercial and recreational overfishing, mortality from the shrimp trawl industry; this species is affected by habitat destruction from human causes.

Southern flounders are a major and valuable species in the important commercial and recreational flounder fishery in the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the commercial catch in the Gulf of Mexico is incidental to the catch by shrimp trawlers. Recreationally, they can be caught by anglers on a line with either a lure or live bait. Another popular form of collecting flounders is by night gigging. In this sport, anglers use a gig, or a multi-pronged spear, to impale the fish after using a flashlight to spot it in the waters at night. Southern flounder are considered valuable as an aquaculture species because of their ability to live in water of varying salinities. Research has been conducted on using soy based protein sources rather than fish meal to grow the fish to reduce environmental impact; the genus name, Paralichthys, is interpreted as "parallel fish" in reference to the compressed body shape. However, some interpret it as "close to the sea", from the Greek word, meaning beside or near; this can be in reference to the way it buries itself in the sand and lies flat as if it is a part of the sea floor itself.

The species name, comes from the Latin word, meaning death, the Greek word, meaning spots. The meaning "forgotten spots" or "death of spots" refers to the absences of conspicuous large occellaed spots, common in other species of flatfish. Southern flounder, a family of species known as "southern flounders" Flatfish Lefteye flounder, the former family of the southern flounder, Bothidae Paralichthyidae, the current family of the southern flounder FishBase entry for Southern Flounder