David Lange

David Russell Lange was a New Zealand politician who served as the 32nd Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. A lawyer by profession, Lange was first elected to the New Zealand Parliament in the Mangere by-election of 1977, he soon gained a reputation for cutting eloquence. Lange became the Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition in 1983, succeeding Bill Rowling; when Prime Minister Robert Muldoon called an election for July 1984 Lange led his party to a landslide victory, becoming, at the age of 41, New Zealand's youngest prime minister of the 20th century. Lange took various measures to deal with the economic problems he had inherited from the previous government; some of the measures he took were controversial. He fulfilled a campaign promise to deny New Zealand's port facilities to nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered vessels, making New Zealand a nuclear-free zone. Lange and his party were re-elected in August 1987, he retired from Parliament in 1996. Prime Minister Helen Clark described New Zealand's nuclear-free legislation as his legacy.

Lange was born on 4 August 1942 in a small industrial borough since absorbed into Auckland. He was the oldest of four children of Eric Roy Lange, a general practitioner and obstetrician and grandson of a German settler, Phoebe Fysh Lange, who trained as a nurse in her native Tasmania before she migrated to New Zealand; the family had lived in New Zealand for so long that the original pronunciation of their surname, lan-ge, "had all but been forgotten". Lange's autobiography suggests that he admired his soft-spoken and dryly humorous father, while his demanding and sometimes overbearing mother tested his tolerance, his cousin Michael Bassett reflected that Roy "knew how to avoid trouble rather than confront it", David developed a similar aversion to conflict. Lange received his formal education at Fairburn Primary School, Otara Intermediate School and Otahuhu College at the University of Auckland in 1960, where he graduated in law in 1966, he attributed his talents with oratory to the need to compensate for his clumsiness during his intermediate school days.

Lange held a number of jobs. In the third form he performed a paper-round for the New Zealand Herald in Mangare East, changed from deliver-boy to collecting the money; the following year he delivered telegrams, before applying to work at the Westfield Freezing Works in the role that would pay his way through university. The poor work conditions at the freezing works provided an opportunity to identify with the misery of fellow workers, an appreciation for the impact of strikes on ordinary workers. In 1961 he started a job as a law clerk at Haigh and Carthy, a role that had varied work and clients, including the Communist Party. On 13 March 1967 Lange was admitted as a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court of New Zealand. On 3 August 1968, he married Naomi Crampton, he gained a Master of Laws in 1970 with first-class honours, specialising in criminal law and medico-legal issues. Lange practised law in Northland and Auckland for some years giving legal representation to the most dispossessed members of Auckland society – he assisted the Polynesian Panther Party to disseminate legal rights information and legal aid during the'70s Dawn Raids.

Lange joined the Labour Party in 1963, helped in the campaigns of Phil Amos in 1963 and Norman Douglas in 1966. In 1974 his cousin Michael Bassett suggested that Lange should stand on the Labour ticket for the Auckland City Council; the Council was dominated by conservative interests and the only Labour candidates elected were Jim Anderton and Catherine Tizard. Which was better than I expected." Lange's father Roy, a doctor at Otahuhu, had delivered Bassett. The two would have strong disagreements, prompting Lange to remark, "My father had delivered him, it became plain in days that he must have dropped him."Lange stood for Labour in Hobson in 1975, came third. Lange entered the New Zealand Parliament as the Labour MP for Mangere, a working-class Auckland electorate with a large Māori population, in 1977 in the Mangere by-election. On becoming an MP, Lange made an impression in the House as a debater, a wit, the scourge of Prime Minister Robert Muldoon. In his maiden speech, he suggested that New Zealand children had fewer rights than animals received under the Animals Protection Act 1960, complained of "appalling" rail service from Auckland to Mangere.

In 1980 Lange and a group consisting of Roger Douglas, Michael Bassett, Richard Prebble and Mike Moore tried to remove Bill Rowling as leader of the Labour Party. After Labour lost the 1981 general election, the group known as the "Fish and Chip Brigade" succeeded in their second attempt in 1983. Lange succeeded Rowling as parliamentary leader of the Labour Party and as Leader of the Opposition on 3 February 1983. Significant debate emerged within the Labour Party on the party's economic direction, following a paper by Roger Douglas to the party's policy council. A compromise was drafted by Geoffrey Palmer, which Lange described as "A manifesto which appealed to the right, the left, the centre and the bewildered, it was, in fact, anodyne."Muldoon unexpectedly called a snap election in 19

Zachary Claman DeMelo

Zachary Claman DeMelo is a Canadian professional race car driver from Montreal, Quebec. He has competed in Formula Renault 2.0, the IndyCar Series and other open-wheel series, most competing for Belardi Auto Racing in Indy Lights in 2019. Claman DeMelo began competing in various regional and national karting events in 2008. In 2010, at the age of 12, he clinched his first Canadian National Karting Championship as well as his first Eastern Canadian Karting Championship. By the age of 16, he had won 3 Canadian National Karting Championships, 5 consecutive Eastern Canadian National Championships, earned a 3rd-place finish at the Rotax Karting World Championships. Claman DeMelo made his car racing debut in the 2014–15 Formula Skip Barber winter series, where he won two of the four races. In 2015 Claman DeMelo moved to Europe and participated in a handful of races in several Formula Renault 2.0 series including Formula Renault 2.0 NEC, Formula Renault 2.0 Eurocup, Formula Renault 2.0 Alps. From there, he moved on to the Invitational class of the MSV F3 Cup, where he claimed a win in all 8 races he drove in.

In 2016 he entered Indy Lights as the youngest driver on the grid with defending championship team Juncos Racing. In his rookie campaign, Claman DeMelo put up 9 finishes in the top 10 and 3 finishes in the top 5. In 2017, Claman DeMelo raced for Carlin Motorsport, he captured his first series captured a pair of podium finishes in Toronto. He finished fifth just four points behind teammate Matheus Leist in fourth. Unable to secure a full-time ride in the NTT IndyCar Series, Claman DeMelo chose to return to Indy Lights for the 2019 season, this time with Belardi Auto Racing. After winning the season-opening round at St. Petersburg, the season went south for the team, budget issues ended Claman DeMelo's season before the Freedom 100. In July 2016, Claman DeMelo participated in a IndyCar Series test with Schmidt Peterson Motorsports, he made his IndyCar debut in the 2017 season finale at Sonoma Raceway with Rahal Letterman Lanigan Racing. In February 2018, Claman DeMelo was named a part-time driver of the No. 19 Paysafe Honda for Dale Coyne Racing in the 2018 IndyCar Series.

One of Claman DeMelo's grandmothers spent time in a Nazi concentration camp. She was freed on a Friday the 13th, the tattoo numbers added up to 13, he has used number 13 on his racecars during most of his career. In 2016, Claman DeMelo and his sister launched. Focused on its women's division, ZCD Montreal shoes have been featured in People magazine and The Wall Street Journal. Celebrities such as Victoria's Secret model Devon Windsor and actresses Margot Robbie and Elisha Cuthbert have been seen wearing ZCD shoes. * Season still in progress. Zachary Claman DeMelo career summary at


Kjárr, or Kíarr, is a figure of Norse mythology, believed to be the reflection of the Roman Emperors. In Old Norse sources, he appears as a king of the Valir. Many scholars have suggested that the name is derived from Caesar, but the route it took to Scandinavia is not clear. In his Skáldskaparmál, Snorri Sturluson lists Kjárr as a descendant of Auði, the founder of the Ödling dynasty: In the genealogy section of Hversu Noregr byggðist, further information is provided about Auði and Kjarr, it presents Auði as the grandfather of Kjarr and as an early ruler of the Celtic/Romance southerners: Kjárr and his daughter Ölrún appear in the Völundarkviða, where she is a Valkyrie who marries the master archer Egil, the brother of Wayland the Smith: There are two other references which both place Kjarr far back in time as a contemporary of the Huns during the Age of Migrations. One of these is a poem in the Poetic Edda named Atlakviða: The second reference is in the Hervarar saga which contains a reference to Kíarr in a poem in fornyrðislag which lists the great kings of old: The few appearances of Kjárr stand out from the general lack of references to the Romans in the literary sources of the Germanic peoples before the arrival of Christianity.

Many scholars have suggested that the name is derived from Caesar, but the route it took to Scandinavia is not clear. It may have been transmitted through a West Germanic language, but since Scandinavia and the Goths had close connections, it may have been borrowed from the Gothic language and from Greek; the evolution of the name would have been καισαρ → kaisar → *kēsar → Kíarr → Kiárr. A third possibility is that it originates from contacts with Rome beside the early borrowing Rúm in words such as Rúmverjar. A less common theory is that it stems from Cearbhall of Valland. Dukljan