David Niven

James David Graham Niven was an English actor and novelist. His many roles included Squadron Leader Peter Carter in A Matter of Life and Death, Phileas Fogg in Around the World in 80 Days, Sir Charles Lytton in The Pink Panther, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance in Separate Tables. Born in London, Niven attended Heatherdown Preparatory School and Stowe School before gaining a place at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. After Sandhurst, he joined the British Army and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Highland Light Infantry. Having developed an interest in acting, he left the army, travelled to Hollywood and had several minor roles in film, he first appeared as an extra in the British film. From there, he hired an agent and had several small parts in films from 1933 to 1935, including a non-speaking role in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Mutiny on the Bounty; this brought him to wider attention within the film industry and he was spotted by Samuel Goldwyn. Upon the outbreak of the Second World War, Niven returned to Britain and rejoined the army, being recommissioned as a lieutenant.

In 1942 he co-starred in the morale-building film about the development of the Supermarine Spitfire fighter, The First of the Few, enthusiastically endorsed by Winston Churchill. Niven resumed his acting career after his demobilisation, was voted the second-most popular British actor in the 1945 Popularity Poll of British film stars, he appeared in A Matter of Life and Death, The Bishop's Wife with Cary Grant, Enchantment, all of which received critical acclaim. Niven appeared in The Elusive Pimpernel, The Toast of New Orleans, Happy Go Lovely, Happy Ever After and Carrington V. C. before scoring a big success as Phileas Fogg in Michael Todd's production of Around the World in 80 Days. Niven appeared in nearly a hundred films, many shows for television, he began writing books, with considerable commercial success. In 1982 he appeared in Blake Edwards' final "Pink Panther" films Trail of the Pink Panther and Curse of the Pink Panther, reprising his role as Sir Charles Lytton. James David Graham Niven was born in Belgrave Mansions, London, to William Edward Graham Niven and his wife, Henrietta Julia Niven.

He was named David after his birth on 1 March. Niven claimed that he was born in Kirriemuir, in the Scottish county of Angus in 1909, but his birth certificate shows this was not the case. David Niven's mother, was of French and Welsh ancestry, she was born in Wales, the daughter of army officer William Degacher, married to Julia Caroline Smith, the daughter of Lieutenant General James Webber Smith. Niven's maternal grandfather, William Degacher, was killed in the Battle of Isandlwana, during the Zulu War. Born William Hitchcock, he and his brother Henry had followed the lead of their father, Walter Henry Hitchcock, in assuming their mother's maiden name of Degacher in 1874. David Niven's father, William Niven, was of Scottish descent. William served in the Berkshire Yeomanry in the First World War and was killed during the Gallipoli campaign on 21 August 1915, he was buried in Green Hill Cemetery, Turkey, in the Special Memorial Section in Plot F. 10. Niven's mother, Henrietta Niven, remarried Sir Thomas Comyn-Platt in London in 1917.

Graham Lord and biographer, suggested in Niv: The Authorised Biography of David Niven, that Comyn-Platt and Mrs Niven had been having an affair for some time before her husband's death. Furthermore, some believe; this supposition has some support among Henrietta's children. A reviewer of Lord's book stated that its photographic evidence showing a strong physical resemblance between Niven and Comyn-Platt "would appear to confirm these theories, though photographs can be misleading."David Niven had three elder siblings: Margaret Joyce Henry Degacher Grizel Rosemary Graham. English private schools at the time of Niven's boyhood were noted for their strict and sometimes brutal discipline. Niven suffered many instances of corporal punishment owing to his inclination for pranks, which led to his expulsion from Heatherdown Preparatory School at the age of 10½; this ended his chances for a significant blow to his family. After failing to pass the naval entrance exam because of his difficulty with maths, Niven attended Stowe School, a newly created public school led by headmaster J. F. Roxburgh, unlike any of Niven's previous headmasters.

Thoughtful and kind, he addressed the boys by their first names, allowed them bicycles, encouraged and nurtured their personal interests. Niven wrote, "How he did this, I shall never know, but he made every single boy at that school feel that what he said and what he did were of real importance to the headmaster." He attended the Royal Military College, graduating in 1930 with a commission as a second lieutenant in the British Army. He did well at Sandhurst, which gave him the "officer and gentleman" bearing, his trademark, he requested assignment to the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders or the Black Watch jokingly wrote on the form, as his third choice, "anything but the Highland Light Infantry" (because the HLI wore tartan trews rather than


Eupolis was an Athenian poet of the Old Comedy, who flourished during the time of the Peloponnesian War. Nothing whatsoever is known of his personal history. There are few sources on. A short history of Greek Comedy, written by an anonymous writer of antiquity, reports that Eupolis first produced in the year where Apollodorus was the Eponymous archon, which would be 430/429 BC; the same source claims Phrynichus debuted that year. The Chronicon of Eusebius of Caesarea instead places his debut in 428/427 BC and adds that Aristophanes started producing that year; this is the version preserved in the Latin translation by Jerome. But the Armenian translation places the event in 427/426 BC. Cyril of Alexandria placed the debut of Eupolis at some point between 428 and 424 BC, placing the debuts of Aristophanes and Plato the comic poet within the same period. George Syncellus gives the same dates, but states that Eupolis and Aristophanes were becoming prominent, not when they debuted. Syncellus extends the phrase to include Sophocles.

Sophocles had become the pre-eminent playwright in Athens c. 456 BC, when Aeschylus died. Based on the primary sources above, modern historians conclude that Eupolis debuted in the 420s BC in 429 BC, his first production was at the Lenaia, the lesser theatrical festival of his time. The Lenaia are thought to have allowed novices to compete, so they could prove themselves before presenting plays at the Dionysia festival, his first known play was either Heilotes. Surviving fragments from the Prospaltioi include allusions to, near-quotations of, Sophocles' Antigone. Scholars are convinced the play targeted Pericles, due to a famous reference to Aspasia; this makes it that Pericles, who died in 429 BC, was still alive when Eupolis was working on the text. The Suda claims. Sources claim Aristophanes and Menander were adolescents at the start of their own careers; this suggests a tradition concerning the precociousness of poets. Although he was at first on good terms with Aristophanes, their relations subsequently became strained, they accused each other, in most virulent terms, of imitation and plagiarism.

Eupolis obtained first prize seven times, but only fragments remain of the 19 titles attributed to him. Of these, the best known are: Kolakes, in which he pilloried the spendthrift Callias, who wasted his money on sophists and parasites; this play won first prize in the City Dionysia of 421 BC. Maricas, an attack on Hyperbolus, the successor of Cleon, under a fictitious name. Baptai, against Alcibiades and his groups, at which profligate foreign rites were practised; the word Baptai was a name given to the priests of the Thracian goddess Cotytto. Demoi and Poleis were political plays, dealing with the desperate condition of the state and with the allied cities. Other people he attacked in his plays were Socrates and Cleon; the following 14 titles are ascribed to Eupolis: Storey estimates a total output of 14 or 15 works for Eupolis, noting the doubtful paternity of some of the works attributed to the poet. He considers his career to have lasted from 429 to a period of 18 years. Ian Storey notes that there are "four ancient traditions" on the manner of death and burial of Eupolis, each with details impossible to reconcile to each other.

The first tradition is "the well-known story" concerning Alcibiades. Eupolis targeted that politician in his play Baptai, but found himself serving under Alcibiades in the Sicilian Expedition. Alcibiades retaliated by having the poet drowned on the way to Sicily; this would place Eupolis' death in "the late spring or early summer" of 415 BC. The story, with small variations, can be found in the writings of Juvenal, Aelius Aristides, Platonios, John Tzetzes and the Anonymus Crameri; the latter two add two new details. First, that Eupolis made fun of Alcibiades' rhotacism. Second, that soldiers dunked the poet in the sea, making it unclear if the poet drowned or survived the experience; the story was reported in several ancient sources, but it had its detractors. Eratosthenes pointed out that there were works by Eupolis which were produced following the Sicilian Expedition. Cicero considered him a reliable source on the matter; the second tradition is recorded by Pausanias the geographer. He reported that Eupolis was buried away from Athens, his tomb being located in the vicinity of Sicyon and the river Asopus.

Pausanias never explains the reason for a burial away from home. But it might point to Eupolis having a family connection with Sicyon. Storey notes that there was one Athenian family with known connections to this city: the Alcmaeonidae; the third tradition is recorded by Claudius Aelianus. He first narrates a tale concerning Augeas, a Molossus dog owned by Eupolis, how it protected the property of its master from a thief, he mentions that Eupolis died and was buried in Aegina. Augeas maintained constant vigil and lamented over the grave of its master until passing away himself; the location was named "Dog's Lament" following that event. Modern scholars have pointed out that this account follows a familiar pattern in ancient literary biography of adding in a tale concerning a faithful dog and how its presence benefited its master. Storey suggests. Writer

24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was convened in Moscow from 30 March to 9 April 1971. The Congress brought together 4,963 delegates, with 102 foreign delegations from 91 countries as observers; the Congress agenda consisted of: The Report of the CPSU Central Committee delivered by General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev. The Report of the Central Auditing Commission of the CPSU delivered by G. Sizov, Chairman of the Auditing Commission; the Report on the Directives for the Five-Year Economic Development Plan of the USSR for 1971-1975 delivered by A. Kosygin, Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. Elections of central Party organs; the 24th Congress was to have authorized implementation of Victor Glushkov's OGAS information network plan, but endorsed only expansion of local information management systems. Voices of Tomorrow: The 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union