Civil Service (United Kingdom)
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive. As in other states that employ the Westminster political system, Her Majesty's Home Civil Service forms an inseparable part of the British government; the executive decisions of government ministers are implemented by HM Civil Service. Civil servants are employees of the Crown and not of the British parliament. Civil servants have some traditional and statutory responsibilities which to some extent protect them from being used for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may be called to account to Parliament.
In general use, the term civil servant in the United Kingdom does not include all public sector employees. As such, the civil service does not include government ministers, members of the British Armed Forces, the police, officers of local government authorities or quangos of the Houses of Parliament, employees of the National Health Service, or staff of the Royal Household; as at the end of March 2018 there were 430,075 civil servants in the Home Civil Service, this is up 2.5% on the previous year. There are two other administratively separate civil services in the United Kingdom. One is for Northern Ireland; the heads of these services are members of the Permanent Secretaries Management Group. The Offices of State grew in England, the United Kingdom; as in other countries, they were little more than secretariats for their leaders, who held positions at court. They were chosen by the king on the advice of a patron, replaced when their patron lost influence. In the 18th century, in response to the growth of the British Empire and economic changes, institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board grew large.
Each had its own system and staff were appointed by purchase or patronage. By the 19th century, it became clear that these arrangements were not working. In 1806, the East India Company, a private company that ruled only in India, established a college, the East India Company College, near London; the purpose of this college was to train administrators. The civil service, based on examination similar to the Chinese system, was advocated by a number of Englishmen over the next several decades. William Ewart Gladstone a junior minister, in 1850 sought a more efficient system based on expertise rather than favouritism; the East India Company provided a model for Stafford Northcote, the private Secretary to Gladstone, who with Charles Trevelyan drafted the key report in 1854. A permanent and politically neutral civil service, in which appointments were made on merit, was introduced on the recommendations of the Northcote–Trevelyan Report of 1854, which recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine work, those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an "administrative" class.
The report was not implemented, but it came at a time when the bureaucratic chaos in the Crimean War demonstrated that the military was as backward as the civil service. A Civil Service Commission was set up in 1855 to end patronage. Prime Minister Gladstone took the decisive step in 1870 with his Order in Council to implement the Northcote-Trevelyan proposals; this system was broadly endorsed by Commissions chaired by Playfair, MacDonnell and Priestley. The Northcote–Trevelyan model remained stable for a hundred years; this was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services, responding to political change. Patrick Diamond argues: The Northcote-Trevelyan model was characterised by a hierarchical mode of Weberian bureaucracy; this bequeathed a set of theories and practices to subsequent generations of administrators in the central state. The Irish Civil Service was separate from the British civil service; the Irish Office in Whitehall liaised with Dublin Castle. Some British departments' area of operation extended to Ireland, while in other fields the Dublin department was separate from the Whitehall equivalent.
Following the Second World War, demands for change again grew. There was a concern that technical and scientific expertise was mushrooming, to a point at which the "good all-rounder" culture of the administrative civil servant wit
President of the European Union
The official title President of the European Union does not exist, but there are a number of presidents of European Union institutions, including: the President of the European Council the President of the European Commission the President of the European Parliament Alongside these the Council of the European Union containing 28 national ministers, one of each nation, rotates its presidency by country. This presidency is held by a country, not a person; the Presidency of the Council of the European Union has been held by Romania since 1 January 2019. According to protocol, it is the President of the Parliament who comes first, as it is listed first in the treaties. However, on the world stage, the principal representative of the EU is considered to be the President of the European Council, but the President of the European Commission, as head of the executive branch of the European Union, takes part in the G7 and other international summits as well. All four offices have been described as the President of Europe, but none are analogous to the President of the United States.
Comparisons with other political system have attempted to explain the complex nature of the European institutions. As each institution has its own leader, it has been suggested that the terms "Speaker" of the European Parliament, "Governor" of the European Central Bank, "Chairman" of the Council of the European Union, "President" of the European Council and "Prime Commissioner" would give a clearer indication of their respective roles. During the height of the Commission President's powers in the late-1980s and 1990s, the Commission President was sometimes referred to as the Europe's Prime Minister and the role of the President is similar to that of a national Prime Minister chairing a cabinet; the formulation of titles is not without precedent in Europe. The Presidents of each institution are chosen in a different way; the President of the European Council is elected by the leaders in the Council every 2.5 years. The President of the European Commission is appointed by the European Council, taking into account the latest Parliament elections and with Parliament's approval.
However, a stronger direct link between elections and the President is emerging. The Presidency of the Council of the European Union rotates automatically between the governments of each member state. Whilst distinct, each president is required to co-operate with one another in a complex political system. Under the ordinary legislative procedure of the European Union, the Commission proposes legislation with the Parliament and Council of the European Union coming to a co-decision on amendments and adoption of the law; the president of each of these organs is held responsible their functioning and direction. The president of the European Council is considered the principal representative of the EU internationally and diplomatically, they are required to lead the Council, which works to set the EU's general political direction and promote compromise and consensus within the Council. They are appointed by the appropriate national leaders in the European Council. Prior to the Treaty of Lisbon, each member state in turn took the responsibilities of both the Presidency of the European Council and the Presidency of the Council of the European Union,the latter held by its Prime Minister or President.
The press summarised these responsibilities to the shorthand tag "EU Presidency" or "EU President", both for the country holding it or its political leader. The president of the European Commission leads the Commission, the executive and cabinet of the European Union; the president, as part of this institution, is responsible for the political direction and implementation of European law and held accountable to both the European Parliament and Council of the European Union. They are required to make a State of the Union address to the European Parliament, modelled after the United States; the role gives the holder the right to allocate portfolios to, dismiss and reshuffle European Commissioners and direct the Commission's civil service. The president is appointed by the European Parliament, it is customary that the European Council uses the result of the last European elections to guide their nomination. The president of the European Parliament ensures proper parliamentary procedure is followed and is responsible for representing the Parliament in both legal and diplomatic settings.
The president must give final assent to the EU budget. List of presidents of the institutions of the European Union Presidency of the Council of the European Union Nedergaard, Peter. "Uno, trio? Varieties of trio presidencies in the Council of Ministers". Journal of Common Market Studies. 52: 1035–1052. Doi:10.1111/jcms.12130. EU website - European Union Presidents
Damian Howard Green is a British politician, the Conservative Member of Parliament for Ashford since 1997 and was the First Secretary of State and Minister for the Cabinet Office from 11 June 2017 to 20 December 2017. Green was born in Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales and studied PPE at Oxford. Before entering politics, Green worked as a journalist for Channel 4 and The Times. Green entered Parliament in the 1997 election by winning the seat of Ashford in Kent, he served in several shadow ministerial positions, including Transport Secretary and Immigration Minister. Green came to national prominence in November 2008 after being arrested and having his parliamentary office raided by police, although no case was brought, he was the Minister of State for Police and Criminal Justice until 14 July 2014. He was appointed as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions by Prime Minister Theresa May in July 2016. Following the June 2017 general election, he was appointed First Secretary of State and Minister for the Cabinet Office.
After the results of an inquiry into allegations that he sexually harassed a woman and viewed pornography on a work computer were published, it was found that he had breached the ministerial code and he was instructed to resign from the Cabinet. Damian Green was born in Barry, Wales, he grew up in Reading and was educated at Reading School and at Balliol College, Oxford where he was awarded a BA degree in Philosophy and Economics in 1977. He was President of the Oxford Union in 1977 and was the vice-chairman of the Federation of Conservative Students from 1980 until 1982. During his time at Oxford, Green broke a wrist after a group of fellow students ambushed him and threw him into the River Cherwell; the group included Dominic Grieve, to serve alongside Green as a Cabinet Minister. In 1978 he was appointed by BBC Radio as a financial journalist, before joining Channel 4 News as a business producer in 1982, he joined The Times for a year in 1984 as the business news editor before returning to television journalism and Channel 4 as the business editor in 1985.
He became the City editor and a television presenter on Channel 4's Business Daily television programme in 1987 until he left television to join Prime Minister John Major's Policy Unit in 1992. Green had acted as an occasional speechwriter for Major since 1988, he left 10 Downing Street in 1994 to run his own consultancy in public affairs. He stood against Labour's Ken Livingstone in Brent East at the 1992 general election, but lost by 5,971 votes, he was elected to the House of Commons for the Kent seat of Ashford at the 1997 general election following the retirement of Tory MP Keith Speed. Green held the seat with a majority of 5,345 and has remained the constituency's MP, he made his maiden speech on 20 May 1997. While a backbencher, he was a member of the Culture and Sport Select Committee from 1997 until his appointment to the frontbench by William Hague in 1998 as a spokesman on education and employment, he spoke on the environment from 1999 and was promoted to the Shadow Cabinet by Iain Duncan Smith in 2001 as the Shadow Secretary of State for Education and Skills.
In 2003, Michael Howard gave him the position of Shadow Secretary of State for Transport. In September 2004, he left the frontbench altogether of his own accord and joined the Home Affairs Select Committee, was a member of the Treasury Committee after the 2005 general election. Whilst sitting as an MP he was a non-executive director of Mid Kent Water from 2005 to 2007, of the successor company South East Water until 2010. Between July 2009 and February 2010, Green was paid £16,666.64 for 112 hours by South East Water for "attending meetings and offering advice" according to the House of Commons Record of Members Interests. He returned to the frontbench under the leadership of David Cameron in 2005 as a spokesman on home affairs and shadow minister for immigration. Green is Chairman of Parliamentary Mainstream, a vice-president of the Tory Reform Group and is a vice-chairman of the John Smith Memorial Trust. During the UK parliamentary expenses scandal The Daily Telegraph newspaper revealed that, although Green's constituency is a mere 45-minute commute from Westminster, he claimed expenses for a designated second home in Acton, west London.
Green has claimed expenses up to the maximum of £400 for food. He has claimed for the interest on his mortgage, for his council tax, for his phone bills. Green was arrested by the Metropolitan Police at his constituency home on 27 November 2008 on suspicion of "aiding and abetting misconduct in public office" and "conspiring to commit misconduct in a public office"; the documents were reported to include information politically embarrassing to the then-Labour Government. He was released on bail. In a statement to Parliament on 3 December, Michael Martin, Speaker of the House of Commons, responsible for the security of the Palace of Westminster, stated that although the police undertaking the search had neither presented a search warrant nor given "the requisite advice that such a warrant was necessary", the search of the Parliamentary office had been undertaken with the express written consent of the Serjeant-at-Arms, who had signed a consent form without consulting the Clerk of the House; the arrest led to speculation about the apparent coincidence that it was authorised on the last day in office of Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Ian Blair.
It was criticised by political journalists. It was reported in The Andrew Marr Show that he believed he was the subject of a bugging operation, which would have required the authorisation of the Home Secretary. Jacqui Smith stated that she had not gran
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
First Civil Service Commissioner
The First Civil Service Commissioner heads the Office of Civil Service Commissioners, which ensures that the Civil Service in the United Kingdom is effective and impartial and that appointments are made on merit, hears appeals under the Civil Service Code. The post was created in 1855 following publication of the Northcote–Trevelyan Report by Charles Trevelyan and Stafford Northcote that advocated the decoupling of appointments of senior civil servants from ministers to insure the impartiality of the Civil Service. Following a report of the Committee on Standards in Public Life, "Defining the Boundaries within the Executive: Ministers, special advisers and the permanent Civil Service" in 2003, the appointment of the First Civil Service Commissioner is made by Government after consultation with the leaders of the main opposition parties, they are appointed by the Queen under Royal Prerogative. Sir Edward Ryan John Pakington, 1st Baron Hampton George Byng, Viscount Enfield... William Courthope Lord Francis Hervey Sir Stanley Leathes Sir Roderick Meiklejohn, K.
B. E. C. B Sir Percival Waterfield Sir Paul Sinker Laurence Helsby, Baron Helsby Sir George Mallaby Sir George Abell John Hunt K. H. Clucas Dr Fergus Allen Angus Fraser Dennis Trevelyan John Holroyd Dame Ann Bowtell Sir Michael Bett Usha Prashar, Baroness Prashar Janet Paraskeva Mark Addison Sir David Normington Kathryn Bishop Ian Watmore Chapman, Richard A; the Civil Service Commission, 1855-1991: From Patronage to Proficiency. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-5340-2. Office of the Civil Service Commissioners
Dame Helen Frances Ghosh, DCB is a British civil servant, Master of Balliol College, Oxford since 2018. She was Director-General of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, following her career as British civil servant, where until November 2012 was Permanent Secretary at the Home Office and was at the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs until the end of 2010. On appointment at DEFRA, she was the only female permanent secretary to head a major department of the British Government. From April 2018, she is Master of Oxford. Ghosh was born in Farnborough, Hampshire, to a civil service scientist and a librarian, she was educated at an all-girls independent Catholic school. She studied modern history at St Hugh's College, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1976, she undertook postgraduate study at Hertford College, graduating with a Master of Letters in 1980. She is married with one son, she was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the Bath in the Queen's Birthday Honours list in June 2008.
In 2010, The Tablet named her. Ghosh joined the Department of the Environment in 1979 as an Administration Trainee and held a series of policy roles, she was appointed Private Secretary to the Minister for Environment and Housing in 1986–88 and Head of the Housing Policy and Home Ownership Team in 1992. In July 1995, she joined the Cabinet Office on loan as Deputy Director of the Efficiency Unit moved to a more operationally focused role in 1997 in the Government Office for London, where she worked as Director for London East and European Programmes, which brought her into contact with a variety of EU bodies, in particular those administering regeneration funds. Between May 1999 and November 1999, she was Head of the New Deal for Communities Programme at the Department of the Environment and the Regions, working on cross-cutting and delivery issues, she joined the Department for Work and Pensions as Director of the Children's Group, which had responsibility for child benefit, child support, child poverty issues and the Tax Credit Programme.
She rejoined the Cabinet Office on 22 October 2001, as Head of Central Secretariat and, in 2003, became Director General for Corporate Services at HM Revenue & Customs, where she played an important part in the transformation programme merging the Inland Revenue and Customs & Excise to form the new department. She was appointed Permanent Secretary at Defra on 7 November 2005, she replaced Sir David Normington as Permanent Secretary at the Home Office in January 2011. In November 2012, she stepped down from her role at the Home Office to become Director General at the National Trust. In April 2018 Ghosh became Master of Balliol College, Oxford in succession to Professor Sir Drummond Bone. Ghosh is a former board member of the National School for Government, a committee member and former chair of the Blackfriars Overseas Aid Trust, based in Oxford, she was elected a Rhodes Trustee in 2011
Secretary of State for Employment
The Secretary of State for Employment was a position in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. In 1995 it was merged with Secretary of State for Education to make the Secretary of State for Education and Employment. In 2001 the employment functions were hived off and transferred to the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions; the office was merged with the Department of Social Security to form the Department of Work and Pensions in 2001