University of Southern California academics
The academics of the University of Southern California center on The College of Letters and Sciences, the Graduate School, its 17 professional schools. USC is a member of the Association of American Universities, joining in 1969; the University of Southern California houses professional schools offering a number of varying disciplines among which include communication, dentistry, business, journalism, public policy, music and cinematic arts. USC's academic departments fall either under the general liberal arts and sciences of the College of Letters and Sciences for undergraduates, the Graduate School for graduates, or the university's 17 professional schools; the USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters and Sciences, the oldest and largest of the USC schools, grants undergraduate degrees in more than 130 majors and minors in the humanities, social sciences, natural/physical sciences, offers doctoral and masters programs in over 20 fields. USC College is responsible for the general education program for all USC undergraduates, houses a full-time faculty of 700, more than 6,500 undergraduate majors, 1,200 doctoral students.
In addition to 30 academic departments, the College houses dozens of research centers and institutes. In 2007, Howard Gillman, Professor of Political Science and Law, was appointed the 20th Dean of the College. In the 2008-2009 academic year, 4,400 undergraduate degrees and 5,500 advanced degrees were awarded. All Ph. D. degrees awarded at USC and most master's degrees are under the jurisdiction of the Graduate School. Professional degrees are awarded by each of the respective professional schools. In 2011, the college changed its name from College of Letters and Sciences to the USC Dana and David Dornsife College of Letters and Sciences due to a donation of $200 million to the school made by Dana and David Dornsife; this gift is the largest in USC history. All Ph. D. degrees awarded at USC and most master's degrees are under the jurisdiction of the Graduate School. Professional degrees are awarded by each of the 17 professional schools, it was announced in 2012. The Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry is composed of seven divisions, including the Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy and the Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy.
In 2006, The USC School of Fine Arts was renamed in honor of Gayle Roski, the wife of billionaire developer Edward P. Roski, after a $23-million donation to the school. Both are USC alums. Founded in 1905, the USC School of Pharmacy has played a key leadership role in both the advancement of the field of pharmacy and in the education of new generations of pharmacists, remains one of the nation’s foremost schools of pharmacy today. USC developed the nation’s first Doctor of Pharmacy degree in 1950 and it was among the first schools of pharmacy to establish a clinical curriculum, beginning in 1968; those were radical advances at the time but are now considered foundational training for all pharmacists throughout the US. The School helped transform the pharmacist’s role from a traditional dispenser of medicines to a direct provider of patient care. USC led a key pilot project in the 1970s to explore prescriptive authority for pharmacists that, in 1981, led to California being the first state to enact legislation allowing pharmacists to prescribe drug therapy in collaboration with physicians.
USC played a key role in the successful legislation in California that recognized pharmacists as healthcare providers in 2014. The top-ranked private school of pharmacy, the School continues to be an innovative force in pharmacy education to meet the needs of a changing world, launching the nation’s first PharmD/MBA dual degree in 1990, the first PhD in pharmaceutical economics and policy in 1994, the first professional doctorate in regulatory science in 2008, a translational science graduate program that merges science with clinical expertise. USC is the only private school of pharmacy on a major health sciences campus; this affords its students a unique environment of professionalism and opens the doors for clinical opportunities on campus, including those at the Keck Hospital of USC, USC Norris Cancer Hospital, the four pharmacies owned and operated by the School. USC School of Pharmacy students find a rich professional and social atmosphere on the Health Sciences Campus, interacting with colleagues and faculty from various health profession schools.
The mission of the USC Sol Price School of Public Policy is to improve the quality of life for people and their communities, in Southern California and abroad. It offers five master's level programs: Public Policy, Public Administration, Urban Planning, Real Estate Development, Health Policy and Management. Graduate students at USC Price have considerable latitude to pursue their specialized areas of interest. Undergraduates pursue a more general Bachelor of Science in Public Policy and Planning/ For mid-career professionals, USC Price offers the Executive Master of Health Administration, the Executive Master of Leadership, the International Public Policy and Management program; the mission of the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work is to promote social justice and well-being at every social level through advanced education, community engagement, interdisciplinary scientific activity and professional leadership. The school advances its mission through its three academic centers, each of which reflects all of the components of the school’s rich learning environment, with opportunities for value-driven educatio
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, Evangeline. He was the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy and was one of the Fireside Poets from New England. Longfellow was born in Portland, still part of Massachusetts, he studied at Bowdoin College and, after spending time in Europe, he became a professor at Bowdoin and at Harvard College. His first major poetry collections were Voices of Other Poems. Longfellow retired from teaching in 1854 to focus on his writing, he lived the remainder of his life in a former Revolutionary War headquarters of George Washington in Cambridge, Massachusetts, his first wife Mary Potter died in 1835 after a miscarriage. His second wife Frances Appleton died in 1861 after sustaining burns. After her death, Longfellow had difficulty writing poetry for a time and focused on translating works from foreign languages, he died in 1882. Longfellow wrote many lyric poems known for their musicality and presenting stories of mythology and legend.
He became the most popular American poet of his day and had success overseas. He has been criticized, for imitating European styles and writing for the masses. Longfellow was born on February 27, 1807 to Stephen Longfellow and Zilpah Longfellow in Portland, Maine a district of Massachusetts, he grew up in -- Longfellow House. His father was a lawyer, his maternal grandfather was Peleg Wadsworth, a general in the American Revolutionary War and a Member of Congress, his mother was descended from a passenger on the Mayflower. He was named after his mother's brother Henry Wadsworth, a Navy lieutenant who had died three years earlier at the Battle of Tripoli, he was the second of eight children. Longfellow's ancestors were English colonists, they included Mayflower Pilgrims Richard Warren, William Brewster, John and Priscilla Alden, as well as Elizabeth Pabodie, the first child born in Plymouth Colony. Longfellow attended a dame school at the age of three and was enrolled by age six at the private Portland Academy.
In his years there, he earned a reputation as being studious and became fluent in Latin. His mother encouraged his enthusiasm for reading and learning, introducing him to Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote, he published his first poem in the Portland Gazette on November 17, 1820, a patriotic and historical four-stanza poem called "The Battle of Lovell's Pond". He studied at the Portland Academy until age 14, he spent much of his summers as a child at his grandfather Peleg's farm in Maine. In the fall of 1822, 15 year-old Longfellow enrolled at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, along with his brother Stephen, his grandfather was a founder of the college and his father was a trustee. There Longfellow met Nathaniel Hawthorne, he boarded with a clergyman for a time before rooming on the third floor in 1823 of what is now known as Winthrop Hall. He joined a group of students with Federalist leanings. In his senior year, Longfellow wrote to his father about his aspirations: I will not disguise it in the least….
The fact is, I most eagerly aspire after future eminence in literature, my whole soul burns most ardently after it, every earthly thought centres in it…. I am confident in believing, that if I can rise in the world it must be by the exercise of my talents in the wide field of literature, he pursued his literary goals by submitting poetry and prose to various newspapers and magazines due to encouragement from Professor Thomas Cogswell Upham. He published nearly 40 minor poems between January 1824 and his graduation in 1825. About 24 of them were published in the short-lived Boston periodical The United States Literary Gazette; when Longfellow graduated from Bowdoin, he was ranked fourth in the class and had been elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He gave the student commencement address. After graduating in 1825, Longfellow was offered a job as professor of modern languages at his alma mater. An apocryphal story claims that college trustee Benjamin Orr had been impressed by Longfellow's translation of Horace and hired him under the condition that he travel to Europe to study French and Italian.
Whatever the catalyst, Longfellow began his tour of Europe in May 1826 aboard the ship Cadmus. His time abroad lasted three years and cost his father $2,604.24. He traveled to France, Italy, back to France to England before returning to the United States in mid-August 1829. While overseas, he learned French, Spanish and German without formal instruction. In Madrid, he spent time with Washington Irving and was impressed by the author's work ethic. Irving encouraged the young Longfellow to pursue writing. While in Spain, Longfellow was saddened to learn that his favorite sister Elizabeth had died of tuberculosis at the age of 20 that May. On August 27, 1829, he wrote to the president of Bowdoin that he was turning down the professorship because he considered the $600 salary "disproportionate to the duties required"; the trustees raised his salary to $800 with an additional $100 to serve as the college's librarian, a post which required one hour of work per day. During his years teaching at the college, he translated textbooks from French and Spanish.
He published the travel book Outre-Mer: A Pilgrimage Beyond the Sea in serial form before a book edition was released in 1835. Shortly
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Hiawathas were a fleet of named passenger trains operated by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad between Chicago and various destinations in the Midwest and Western United States; the most notable of these trains was the original Twin Cities Hiawatha, which served the Twin Cities in Minnesota. The train was named for the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow; the first Hiawatha trains ran in 1935. By 1948, five routes carried the Hiawatha name: The Twin Cities Hiawatha — the main line route from Chicago through Milwaukee to St. Paul and Minneapolis, in Morning and Afternoon editions The North Woods Hiawatha — a spur route off the Chicago-Minnesota main line leading from New Lisbon to Minocqua, Wisconsin The Chippewa-Hiawatha — connected Chicago to Ontonagon in Michigan's Upper Peninsula via Milwaukee and Green Bay, Wisconsin The Midwest Hiawatha — used the Milwaukee Road's mainline across Illinois and Iowa to Sioux Falls, South Dakota and Omaha, Nebraska The Olympian Hiawatha — which traversed the Milwaukee mainline from Chicago-Twin Cities-Seattle/Tacoma.
The Twin Cities Hiawatha was the original Hiawatha, beginning service between Chicago and the Twin Cities on May 29, 1935. The Hiawatha used-styled streamlined Class A 4-4-2 steam locomotives built by the American Locomotive Company and was intended to compete directly with the Chicago and Quincy Railroad's Twin Cities Zephyrs and Chicago and North Western Railway's Twin Cities 400; the Milwaukee Road added a second train to the route on January 21, 1939, the two trains were known as the Morning Hiawatha and Afternoon Hiawatha, although the brand Twin Cities Hiawatha was employed. In 1947–1948 the Milwaukee Road again re-equipped its major passenger routes with new lightweight equipment; the Morning Hiawatha and Afternoon Hiawatha continued to operate between Chicago and Minneapolis until the latter train was discontinued on January 23, 1970. The last runs of the Morning Hiawatha were on April 30, 1971 prior to the introduction of Amtrak. With the delivery of the 1938 trainsets, the original 1935 Hiawatha equipment was reassigned to the Chicago to Omaha/Sioux City route where it ran as the Midwest Hiawatha.
The service began on December 11, 1940. The final trip for the Midwest Hiawatha from all terminals occurred on October 29, 1955. On the next day, October 30, 1955, the Milwaukee Road assumed operation of Union Pacific Railroad's City of San Francisco, City of Los Angeles, City of Denver, City of Portland and Challenger trains; the Midwest Hiawatha became two Sioux Falls-Chicago coaches that combined with the Challenger in Manilla. The Milwaukee Road dropped the name altogether in April 1956; the North Woods Hiawatha began in June 1936, branching off from the main Hiawatha route in New Lisbon, Wisconsin to serve Minocqua, Wisconsin. The Milwaukee Road dropped the Hiawatha moniker in 1956 and discontinued the service altogether in 1970. A new long-distance Hiawatha, the Olympian Hiawatha from Chicago to the Pacific Northwest, was inaugurated in 1947; the sleeper cars and Skytop sleepers were not delivered until late 1948 and early 1949, so the train ran with Pullman heavyweights on the rear end, until delivery of the new cars.
The train was designed by the famous designer Brooks Stevens of Milwaukee. Six Creek-series 8-bedroom Skytop lounge-sleepers were created, which had more windows and a more bulbous rear end than their Rapids-series parlor Skytop counterparts on the Morning Hiawatha and Afternoon Hiawatha; this train ceased operations on May 22, 1961, the surplus equipment was sold to Canadian National Railways. One car, #15 Coffee Creek from the Olympian Hiawatha, is undergoing restoration; the Chippewa began in May 1937, running north through Milwaukee and Green Bay to Michigan. It carried the Hiawatha moniker between 1948-1957 and was discontinued in 1960. Under Amtrak, which assumed control of most intercity passenger rail service in the United States on May 1, 1971, the Hiawatha name survived in two forms; the first was a Chicago–Milwaukee–Minneapolis service, known as the Hiawatha. This would be renamed the Twin Cities Hiawatha extended to Seattle and renamed the North Coast Hiawatha; this service ended in 1979.
The second was a Chicago–Milwaukee corridor known as the Hiawatha Service. Although Amtrak had retained Chicago–Milwaukee service during the transition, it did not name these trains until October 29, 1972. At this time both Hiawatha and Hiawatha Service could be found on the same timetable. Amtrak used a variety of names for this service between 1976–1989 before returning to the Hiawatha Service brand, which remains today and continues to use the Milwaukee Road's route between Chicago and Milwaukee. Scribbins, Jim; the Hiawatha Story. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing Company. LCCN 70107874. OCLC 91468. Route of The Hiawatha mountain bike trail. Hiawatha Service 1945 Hiawatha advertisement Milwaukee Road Hiawathas in 1938 The Milwaukee Road Historical Association