Paolo Grassi was an Italian theatrical impresario. As a young man, he worked in magazines and discovered a passion for the theater and it led him in 1937 to create a Bertoldissimo, which he oversaw and directed. He organized the theater company Ninchi-Dori-Tumiati and founded the avant-garde group Palcoscenico, during the Second World War, he was conscripted into the army but went over to the Italian resistance movement, including working with the socialist newspaper Avanti. In 1947, together with Giorgio Strehler and associate, Grassi founded the Piccolo Teatro di Milano and it was renamed, in his honor, the Teatro Paolo Grassi. In 1964, he purchased the Teatro San Ferdinando with Strehler, from 1972 to 1977 he was superintendent of the La Scala theatre, while from 1977 to 1980 held the post of president of Italys state broadcaster RAI. He became director of the Electa publishing house, Grassi died prematurely in London in 1981 following heart surgery, and is buried at the Monumental Cemetery of Milan.
The Scuola darte drammatica Paolo Grassi in Milan is named in his honour, lettere 1942-1980, a cura di Guido Vergani, Milano Quarant’anni di palcoscenico, a cura di Emilio Pozzi, Milano 1977
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation. The last daily printed edition was put out on March 19,2013, Variety originally reported on theater and vaudeville. Variety has been published since December 16,1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City, on January 19,1907, Variety published what is considered the first film review in history. In 1933, Sime Silverman launched Daily Variety, based in Hollywood, Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931, he remained as publisher until his death in 1933 soon after launching the Daily. His son Sidne Silverman, known as Skigie, succeeded him as publisher of both publications, both Sidne and his wife, stage actress Marie Saxon, died of tuberculosis. Their only son Syd Silverman, born 1932, was the heir to what was Variety Inc. Young Syds legal guardian Harold Erichs oversaw Variety Inc.
until 1956, after that date Syd Silverman was publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to the Cahners Corp. In L. A. the Daily was edited by Tom Pryor from 1959 until 1988, for twenty years its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart, originally only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman running the Daily in Hollywood. Bart had worked previously at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times, in April 2009, Bart moved to the position of vice president and editorial director, characterized online as Boffo No More, Bart Up and Out at Variety. From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter, in October 2014, Eller and Wallenstein were upped to Co-Editors in Chief, with Littleton continuing to oversee the trades television coverage. This dissemination comes in the form of columns, news stories, video, Cahners Publishing purchased Variety from the Silverman family in 1987.
On December 7,1988, Barts predecessor, Roger Watkins, upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front. In October 2012, Reed Business Information, the periodicals owner, PMC is the owner of Deadline. com, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Varietys largest competitor in online showbiz news. In October,2012, Jay Penske announced that the paywall would come down, the print publication would stay. A significant portion of the advertising revenue comes during the film-award season leading up to the Academy Awards. During this Awards Season, large numbers of colorful, full-page For Your Consideration advertisements inflate the size of Variety to double or triple its usual page count, paid circulation for the weekly Variety magazine in 2013 was 40,000. Each copy of each Variety issue is read by an average of three people, with a total readership of 120,000. Variety. com has 17 million unique monthly visitors, Variety is a weekly entertainment publication with a broad coverage of movies, theater and technology, written for entertainment executives
Vittorio Gassman, Knight Grand Cross, OMRI, popularly known as Il Mattatore, was an Italian theatre and film actor, as well as director. He was born in Genoa to a German father, Heinrich Gassmann, while still very young he moved to Rome, where he studied at the Accademia Nazionale dArte Drammatica. Gassmans debut was in Milan, in 1942, with Alda Borelli in Niccodemis Nemica, in 1946, he made his film debut in Preludio damore, while only one year he appeared in five films. In 1948 he played in Riso amaro and it was with Luchino Viscontis company that Gassman achieved his mature successes, together with Paolo Stoppa, Rina Morelli and Paola Borboni. He played Stanley Kowalski in Tennessee Williams Un tram che si chiama desiderio, as well as in As You Like It and he joined the Teatro Nazionale with Tommaso Salvini, Massimo Girotti, Arnoldo Foà to create a successful Peer Gynt. In 1956 Gassman played the role in a production of Othello. He was so well received by his acting in the series entitled Il Mattatore that Il Mattatore became the nickname that accompanied him for the rest of his life.
Gassmans debut in the commedia allitaliana genre was rather accidental, in Mario Monicellis I soliti ignoti, famous movies featuring Gassman include, Il sorpasso, La Grande Guerra, I mostri, LArmata Brancaleone, Profumo di donna and Ceravamo tanto amati. He directed Adelchi, a work by Alessandro Manzoni. Gassman brought this production to half a million spectators, crossing Italy with his Teatro Popolare Itinerante and his productions have included many of the famous authors and playwrights of the 20th century, with repeated returns to the classics of Shakespeare and the Greek tragicians. He founded a school in Florence, which educated many of the more talented actors of the current generation of Italian thespians. In cinema, he worked both in Italy and abroad. He met and fell in love with American actress Shelley Winters while she was touring Europe with fiancé Farley Granger, when Winters was forced to return to Hollywood to fulfill contractual obligations, he followed her there and married her.
With his natural charisma and his fluency in English he scored a number of roles in Hollywood, including Rhapsody with Elizabeth Taylor and The Glass Wall before returning to Italy and the theatre. While rehearsing Hamlet, he began an affair with Anna Maria Ferrero, his 16-year-old Ophelia and he and Winters were forced to work together on Mambo just as their marriage was unraveling, providing fodder for tabloids all over the world. He voiced Mufasa in the Italian version of The Lion King, Gassman married three actresses, Nora Ricci, Shelley Winters, and Diletta DAndrea, by whom he had a son, Jacopo. In addition, he had an affair with actress Juliette Mayniel and he rendered them with the same professional skill that made him famous while reciting Dantes Divine Comedy. On 29 June 2000, Gassman died of an attack at his home in Rome
Gian Luigi Rondi
Gian Luigi Rondi was an Italian screenwriter and film director. He was a member of the jury at the 12th and 15th Moscow International Film Festival and he was a member of the jury at the 11th and 32nd Berlin International Film Festival. He was a member of the three times at the Cannes Film Festival in 1963,1967 and 1980. Obsession Gian Luigi Rondi at the Internet Movie Database
Sanremo Music Festival
Usually referred to as Festival di Sanremo, or outside Italy as Sanremo Music Festival or Sanremo Music Festival Award, it was the inspiration for the Eurovision Song Contest. Starting from 1955 all the editions of the Festival have been broadcast live by the Italian TV station Rai 1. During this era of the festival, it was custom that one version of the song was performed by a native Italian artist while the version was performed by an international guest artist. The Festival airs annually in Australia on the multicultural broadcaster SBS One, in the aftermath of World War II, one of the proposals to revitalize the economy and the reputation of Sanremo was to create an annual music festival to be held in the city. Officially titled Festival della Canzone Italiana, the first edition of the show was held at the Sanremo Casino on 29,30 and 31 January 1951, the final of the competition was broadcast by Rete Rossa, the second most important RAI radio station. Twenty songs took part in the competition, performed by three artists only–Nilla Pizzi, Duo Fasano and Achille Togliani, starting from the third edition of the festival, held in 1953, each song was performed by two different artists with different orchestras and arrangements.
Two years later, in 1955, the festival made its first appearance on television, the last night of the show was broadcast in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. The same rule was applied in the years contest. Between 1967 and 1971, entries were not forced to be interpreted by foreign artists, starting from 1972, each entry was sung by one artist only. The competing artists were split for the first time into Big artists, the competition had one winner only, but the entries in the Young artists category had to go through an elimination round, while Big artists were directly admitted to the final. In 1977, the Sanremo Casino, which hosted all the editions of the contest, was not available for renovations. The theater became the location for the annual contest, hosting it every year except in 1990. In 1980, pre-recorded backing tracks replaced the orchestra, while playback performances were allowed in 1983 during the final, in 1984 and 1985, all the artists were forced to perform in playback, while live performances with the orchestra were reintroduced in 1986.
During the same years, several changes were introduced in the contest. In 1982, accredited music journalists decided to create an award to recognise the best song competing in the festival, starting from 1983, the prize was officially awarded during the event. The critics prize was entitled to Mia Martini, who was the first artist receiving it in 1982 for her entry E non finisce mica il cielo, starting from 1984, the separation between newcomers and established artists was marked introducing two different competitions with separate winners. In 1989 a third category, the Upcoming Artists Section, was introduced, only in 1998 the top three artists in the newcomers section were allowed to compete in the main competition. This led to the victory of the debuting Annalisa Minetti, which generated several controversy, the distinction among different categories was abolished again in 2004
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Academy awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Writers, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze
Monica Vitti is an Italian actress best known for her starring roles in films directed by Michelangelo Antonioni during the early 1960s. After working with Antonioni, Vitti changed focus and began making comedies and she has appeared opposite Marcello Mastroianni, Richard Harris, Terence Stamp, Michael Caine and Dirk Bogarde. Vitti won five David di Donatello Awards for Best Actress, seven Italian Golden Globes for Best Actress, the Career Golden Globe, and she toured Germany with an Italian acting troupe and her first stage appearance in Rome was for a production of Niccolò Machiavellis La Mandragola. Vittis first film role was in Edoardo Antons Ridere Ridere Ridere but her first widely noted performance was at the age of 26, in Mario Amendolas Le dritte. Giving a screen presence which has described as stunning she is credited with helping Antonioni raise money for the production. Lavventura made Vitti an international star and one of Italys most famous actresses of the 20th century and her image appeared on an Italian postage stamp commemorating the film.
Vitti received critical praise for starring roles in the Antonioni films La Notte, LEclisse and Il Deserto Rosso, after her relationship with Antonioni ended, the two did not work together again until Il mistero di Oberwald. Vittis made only two English language films, the first was Modesty Blaise, a mod James Bond spy spoof with Terence Stamp and Dirk Bogarde which had only mixed success and received harsh critical reviews. The other English film was Michael Ritchies An Almost Perfect Affair with Keith Carradine which takes place during the Cannes Film Festival, in 1970 Vitti starred with Marcello Mastroianni in Ettore Scolas highly successful romantic comedy Dramma della gelosia. In 1974 she won the David di Donatello award for Best Actress in Alberto Sordis Polvere di stelle and she starred in Luis Buñuels innovative Le Fantôme de la liberté. This is often considered her last great film, throughout the 1970s and early 1980s Vitti appeared mostly in Italian films which did not gain international distribution.
Even though Il mistero di Oberwald is noted for the last collaboration between Vitti and Antonioni, it is not as known as LAvventura. After this movie was made, Vitti did not do as much screen work, in 1989 however, Vitti tried writing and directing and created Scandalo Segreto, which she starred in. The film was not a success and she retired from cinema. By 1986 Vitti had returned to the theatre as an actress, during the 1990s she did television work and directing. In 1993 Vitti was awarded the Festival Tribute at the Créteil International Womens Film Festival, Michelangelo Antonioni and Vitti met in the late 1950s, and their relationship grew stronger after LAvventura was made, because it had shaped both their careers. However, by the late 1960s, they did not make any movies together, in a interview, Vitti stated that Antonioni ended their relationship. They made the film Il mistero di Oberwald together in 1981, in 1995 Vitti married Roberto Russo, with whom she has lived since 1975
Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni, Knight Grand Cross was an Italian film actor. His honours included British Film Academy Awards, Best Actor awards at the Cannes Film Festival, Mastroianni was born in Fontana Liri, a small village in the Apennines in the province of Frosinone and grew up in Turin and Rome. He was the son of Ida and Ottone Mastroianni, who ran a shop. During World War II, after the division into Axis and Allied Italy, he was interned in a loosely guarded German prison camp, from which he escaped to hide in Venice. Mastroianni made his debut as an uncredited extra in Marionette when he was fourteen. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor three times, for Divorce Italian Style, A Special Day and Dark Eyes, Dean Stockwell and Jack Lemmon are the only actors to have been twice awarded the Best Actor at the Cannes Film Festival. Mastroianni won it in 1970 for The Pizza Triangle and in 1987 for Dark Eyes, Mastroianni starred alongside his daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, in Raúl Ruizs Three Lives and Only One Death in 1996.
For this performance he won the Silver Wave Award at the Ft. Lauderdale International Film Festival and his final film, Voyage to the Beginning of the World, was released posthumously. Mastroianni married Flora Carabella on August 12,1950 and they had one daughter together, but eventually separated because of his affairs with younger women. Mastroiannis first serious relationship after the separation was with Faye Dunaway, Dunaway wanted to marry and have children, but Mastroianni, a Catholic, refused to divorce Carabella. In 1971, after three years of waiting for Mastroianni to change his mind, Dunaway left him, Mastroianni had a daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, with French actress Catherine Deneuve, who was nearly 20 years his junior and lived with him for four years in the 1970s. During that time, the couple made four movies together, It Only Happens to Others, La cagna, A Slightly Pregnant Man, according to People magazine, Mastroiannis other lovers included actresses Anouk Aimee, Ursula Andress, Claudia Cardinale and Lauren Hutton.
Around 1976, he involved with Anna Maria Tatò, an author. They remained together until his death, Mastroianni died of pancreatic cancer on 19 December 1996 at the age of 72. Both of his daughters, as well as Deneuve and Tatò, were at his bedside, the Trevi Fountain in Rome, associated with his role in Fellinis La Dolce Vita, was symbolically turned off and draped in black as a tribute. At the 1997 Venice Film Festival, Chiara and Deneuve tried to block the screening of Tatòs four-hour documentary, Marcello Mastroianni, the festival refused and the movie was shown. The three women reportedly tried to do the thing at Cannes. Tatò said Mastroianni had willed her all rights to his image. com