Davidic line

The Davidic line or House of David refers to the lineage of King David through the texts in the Hebrew Bible, in the New Testament, through the succeeding centuries. According to the Tanakh, upon being chosen and becoming king, one was customarily anointed with holy oil poured on one's head. In David's case, this was done by the prophet Samuel. David was king over the Tribe of Judah only and ruled from Hebron, but after seven and a half years, the other Israelite tribes, who found themselves leaderless after the death of Ish-bosheth, chose him to be their king as well. All subsequent kings in both the ancient first united Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah claimed direct descent from King David to validate their claim to the throne in order to rule over the Israelite tribes. After the death of David's son, King Solomon, the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel rejected the Davidic line, refusing to accept Solomon's son and instead chose as king Jeroboam and formed the northern Kingdom of Israel.

This kingdom was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BCE which exiled much of the Northern Kingdom population and ended its sovereign status. The bulk population of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was forced to relocate to Mesopotamia and disappeared from history as The Ten Lost Tribes or intermixed with exiled Judean populations two centuries while the remaining Israelite peoples in Samaria highlands have become known as Samaritans during the classic era and to modern times. Following the conquest of Judah by the Neo-Babylonian Empire and the exile of its population, the Babylonian Exilarchate was established; the highest official of Babylonian Jewry was the exilarch. Those who held the position traced their ancestry to the House of David in the male line; the position holder was regarded as a king-in-waiting, residing in Babylon and in the Achaemenid Empire during the classic era. Zerubbabel of the Davidic line is mentioned as one of the leaders of the Jewish community in the 5th century BCE, holding the title of Achaeminid Governor of Yehud Medinata.

The Hasmoneans known as the Maccabees established their own monarchy in Judea following their revolt against the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty. The Hasmoneans were not considered connected to the Davidic line nor to the Tribe of Judah; the Levites had always been excluded from the Israelite monarchy, so when the Maccabees assumed the throne in order to rededicate the defiled Second Temple, a cardinal rule was broken. According to scholars within Orthodox Judaism, this is considered to have contributed to their downfall and the eventual downfall of Judea. During the Hasmonean period the Davidic line was excluded from the royal house in Judea, but some members had risen to prominence as religious and communal leaders. One of the most notable of those was Hillel the Elder, who moved to Judea from his birthplace in Babylon, his great grandson Simeon ben Gamliel became one of the Jewish leaders during the First Jewish-Roman War. The Exilarchate in the Sasanian Empire was abolished as a result of revolt by the Mar-Zutra II in the late 5th century CE, with his son Mar-Zutra III being denied the office and relocating to Tiberias within the Byzantine Empire.

Mar Ahunai lived in the period succeeding Mar Zutra II, but for fifty years after the failed revolt he did not dare to appear in public, it is not known whether then he acted as Exilarch. The names of Kafnai and his son Haninai, who were Exilarchs in the second half of the 6th century, have been preserved; the Exilarchate in Mesopotamia was restored after the Arab conquest in the 7th century and continued to function during the early Caliphates. Exilarchs continued to be appointed until the 11th century, with some members of the Davidic line dispersing across the Islamic world. There are conflicting accounts of the fate of the Exilarch family in the 11th century - according to one version Hezekiah ben David, the last Exilarch and the last Gaon, was imprisoned and tortured to death. Two of his sons fled to Al-Andalus, where they found refuge with Joseph, the son and successor of Samuel ibn Naghrillah. However, The Jewish Quarterly Review mentions that Hezekiah was liberated from prison, became head of the academy, is mentioned as such by a contemporary in 1046.

An unsuccessful attempt of David ben Daniel of the Davidic line to establish an Exilarchate in the Fatimid Caliphate failed and ended with his downfall in 1094. Descendants of the house of exilarchs were living in various places long after the office became extinct; the grandson of Hezekiah ben David through his eldest son David ben Chyzkia, Hiyya al-Daudi, died in 1154 in Castile according to Abraham ibn Daud and is the ancestor of the ibn Yahya family. Several families, as late as the 14th century, traced their descent back to Josiah, the brother of David ben Zakkai, banished to Chorasan; the descendants of the Karaite Exilarchs have been referred to above. A number of Jewish families in the Iberian peninsula and within Mesopotamia continued to preserve the tradition of descent from Exilarchs in the Late Middle Ages, including the families of Abravanel, ibn Yahya and Ben-David. One tradition traces the ancestry of Judah Loew ben Bezalel to Babylonian Exilarchs and therefore from the Davidic dynasty, however d

Nathan Filer

Nathan Filer is a British writer best known for his debut novel, The Shock of the Fall. This won several major literary awards, including the Costa Book of the Year and the Betty Trask Prize, it was a Sunday Times Bestseller, has been translated into thirty languages. Filer was born in Bristol in 1980, he attended the Ridings High School, a large secondary school located in the village of Winterbourne in South Gloucestershire. In 2002 he trained as a psychiatric nurse gaining a first class degree in Mental Health Nursing from the University of the West of England and worked in mental health research at the University of Bristol, he worked as a performance poet contributing to festivals and spoken-word events across the UK, including Glastonbury, Shambala, Port Eliot and the Cheltenham Literature Festival. His poetry has been broadcast on television and radio, including BBC Radio 4's Bespoken Word and Wondermentalist Cabaret. In 2005 Filer's comedy short film Oedipus won the BBC Best New Filmmaker Award and numerous international prizes.

The Shock of the Fall describes the life of a boy from Bristol dealing with his grief at the death of his brother, experience of mental health care services for schizophrenia. Reviewing the book in The Psychologist, Caroline Flurey writes, "This is a beautifully poignant book, written with sympathy and sensitivity, well deserving of its Costa Book of the Year award."Filer has written on a range of issues for The Guardian. A story he wrote for The New York Times that described working with the International Solidarity Movement in Palestine was adapted for an episode of the Israeli prime time radio show, Israel Story, featuring Filer and his partner, he has been a panelist on the BBC Radio 2 Book Club, BBC Radio 3's Free Thinking and BBC Radio 4's Open Book, Front Row, All in the Mind and the Today Programme. In 2017 he presented an Archive on 4 documentary entitled The Mind in the Media in which he explored representations of mental illness and their impact; this was shortlisted for a Mind Media Award in the best radio programme category.

Nathan Filer's first book of non-fiction, The Heartland: Finding and Losing Schizophrenia, was published by Faber and Faber in 2019. It was a Sunday Times Book of the Yearand the charity, Rethink Mental Illness, named it as one of their Mental Health Books of the Decade. Filer has been awarded the honorary degree of Master of Letters from the University of the West of England and the honorary degree of Doctor of Liberal Arts from Abertay University; these degrees were conferred in recognition of his role in raising awareness through literature and his commitment to mental health care. He holds a master's degree in Creative Writing from Bath Spa University, where he is a Reader and Senior Lecturer; the Shock of the Fall The Heartland 2005 BBC New Filmmaker Award winner for Oedipus 2006 Literaturwerkstatt Berlin ZEBRA Poetry Film Festival winner for Oedipus 2013 Costa Book Awards First Novel Award for The Shock of the Fall 2013 Costa Book Awards Book of the Year for The Shock of the Fall 2014 Betty Trask Prize winner for The Shock of the Fall 2014 Specsavers National Book Awards Popular Fiction Book of the Year for The Shock of the Fall 2014 Writers' Guild of Great Britain Best First Novel for The Shock of the Fall 2015 Honorary Degree of Master of Letters from the University of the West of England 2015 Honorary Doctorate of Liberal Arts from Abertay University 2017 Mind Media Awards Radio Category shortlisted for The Mind in the Media Nathan Filer website

Nadezhda Mikhalkova

Nadezhda Nikitichna Mikhalkova is a Russian actress. Nadezhda is the youngest daughter of actor and film director Nikita Mikhalkov and fashion designer Tatyana Shigaeva, her brother Artyom and sister Anna are actors. Nadezhda, aged 6, starred as Nadia Kotova in the film Burnt by the Sun directed by her father, who played Nadia's father in the film; the film received the Grand Prize at Cannes and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, among many other honours. Nadezhda made an episodic appearance in the 1999 film The Barber of Siberia directed by Nikita Mikhalkov. In the 2000 film President and his Granddaughter directed by Tigran Keosayan Mikhalkova played twin sisters. In 2008 she graduated from the School of International Journalism in Moscow State Institute of International Relations, she reprised her role as Nadya Kotova, now a teenager, in the 2010 film Burnt by the Sun 2. Mikhalkova is married to producer Rezo Gigineishvili, she gave birth to a daughter in Moscow on May 21, 2011.

Nadezhda Mikhalkova on IMDb