Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Winston-Salem is a city in and the county seat of Forsyth County, North Carolina, United States. With a 2019 estimated population of 251,907 it is the second largest municipality in the Piedmont Triad region, the fifth most populous city in North Carolina, the eighty-ninth most populous city in the United States. With a metropolitan population of 676,673 it is the fourth largest metropolitan area in North Carolina and is expected to keep that fourth spot for many more years. Winston-Salem is home to the tallest office building in the region, 100 North Main Street the Wachovia Building and now known locally as the Wells Fargo Center. Winston-Salem is called the "Twin City" for its dual heritage and "City of the Arts and Innovation" for its dedication to fine arts and theater and technological research. "Camel City" is a reference to the city's historic involvement in the tobacco industry related to locally based R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company's Camel cigarettes. Many locals refer to the city as "Winston" in informal speech.
Another nickname, "the Dash," comes from the in the city's name, although technically it is a hyphen, not a dash. In 2012, the city was listed among the ten best places to retire in the United State by CBS MoneyWatch. Winston-Salem has seen an explosion in growth and urbanization in the downtown area with hotels and apartments being constructed. In 2017, the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal ranked the city second in their lists of the most livable downtowns in America; the city of Winston-Salem is a product of the merging of the two neighboring towns of Winston and Salem in 1913. The origin of the town of Salem dates to January 1753, when Bishop August Gottlieb Spangenberg, on behalf of the Moravian Church, selected a settlement site in the three forks of Muddy Creek, he called this area "die Wachau" named after the ancestral estate of Count Nicolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. The land, just short of 99,000 acres, was subsequently purchased from John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville. On November 17, 1753, the first settlers arrived at what would become the town of Bethabara.
This town, despite its rapid growth, was not designed to be the primary settlement on the tract. Some residents expanded to a nearby settlement called Bethania in 1759. Lots were drawn to select among suitable sites for the location of a new town; the town established on the chosen site was given the name of Salem chosen for it by the Moravians' late patron, Count Zinzendorf. On January 6, 1766, the first tree was felled for the building of Salem. Salem was a typical Moravian settlement congregation with the public buildings of the congregation grouped around a central square, today Salem Square; these included the church, a Brethren's House and a Sisters' House for the unmarried members of the Congregation, which owned all the property in town. For many years only members of the Moravian Church were permitted to live in the settlement; this practice had ended by the American Civil War. Many of the original buildings in the settlement have been restored or rebuilt and are now part of Old Salem Museums & Gardens.
Salem was incorporated as a town in December 1856. Salem Square and "God's Acre", the Moravian Graveyard, since 1772 are the site each Easter morning of the world-famous Moravian sunrise service; this service, sponsored by all the Moravian church parishes in the city, attracts thousands of worshipers each year. In 1849, the Salem congregation sold land north of Salem to the newly formed Forsyth County for a county seat; the new town was called "the county town" or Salem until 1851 when it was re-named Winston for a local hero of the Revolutionary War, Joseph Winston. For its first two decades, Winston was a sleepy county town. In 1868, work began by Salem and Winston business leaders to connect the town to the North Carolina Railroad; that same year, Thomas Jethro Brown of Davie County rented a former livery stable and established the first tobacco warehouse in Winston. That same year, Pleasant Henderson Hanes of Davie, built his first tobacco factory a few feet from Brown's warehouse. In 1875, Richard Joshua Reynolds, of Patrick County, built his first tobacco factory a few hundred feet from Hanes's factory.
By the 1880s, there were 40 tobacco factories in the town of Winston. Hanes and Reynolds would compete fiercely for the next 25 years, each absorbing a number of the smaller manufacturers, until Hanes sold out to Reynolds in 1900 to begin a second career in textiles. In the 1880s, the US Post Office began referring to the two towns as Winston-Salem. In 1899, after nearly a decade of contention, the United States Post Office Department established the Winston-Salem post office in Winston, with the former Salem office serving as a branch. After a referendum the towns were incorporated as "Winston-Salem" in 1913; the Reynolds family, namesake of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, played a large role in the history and public life of Winston-Salem. By the 1940s, 60% of Winston-Salem workers worked either for Reynolds or in the Hanes textile factories; the Reynolds company imported so much French cigarette paper and Turkish tobacco for Camel cigarettes that Winston-Salem was designated by the United States federal government as an official port of entry for the United States, despite the city being 200 miles inland.
Winston-Salem was the eighth-largest port of entry in the United States by 1916. In 1917, the Reynolds company bought 84 acres of property in Winston-Salem and built 180 houses that it sold at cost to workers, to form a development called "Reynoldstown." By the ti
Rowan County, North Carolina
Rowan County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 138,428, its county seat is Salisbury. Located to the northeast of Charlotte, Rowan County is included in its metropolitan area; the first Europeans to enter what is now Rowan County were the Spanish expedition of Juan Pardo in 1567. They established a fort and a mission in the native village of Guatari, believed to be located near the Yadkin River and inhabited by the Wateree. At the time, the area was ruled by a female chief; the Spaniards called the village Salamanca in honor of the city of Salamanca in western Spain, established a mission, headed by a secular priest named Sebastián Montero. The Spaniards abandoned the area; the surviving Spanish left after Native Americans killed all but one soldier at the six forts Pardo established in the interior. The Spanish did not return to the interior of this territory. English colonial settlement of North Carolina came starting in the coastal areas, with some migrants coming from Virginia.
Explorers and fur traders were the first to reach the Piedmont, followed by settlers. The county was formed in 1753 from the northern part of Anson County, it was named for Matthew Rowan, acting governor of North Carolina from 1753 to 1754. It was intended to incorporate all of the lands of the Granville District that had heretofore been included in Anson County; as was typical at the time, Rowan County was a vast territory with an indefinite western boundary. Reductions in its extent began in 1770, when the eastern part of it was combined with the western part of Orange County to become Guilford County. In 1771 the northeastern part of what remained of Rowan County became Surry County. In 1777 the western part of Rowan County became Burke County. After the American Revolutionary War, in 1788 the western part of the now much smaller Rowan County was organized as Iredell County. In 1822 the eastern part became Davidson County. In 1836 the part of Rowan County north of the South Yadkin River became Davie County.
The area was developed for mixed farming in the antebellum period. Cotton continued as a commodity crop for some time. Following Reconstruction, there was continuing change in the county, with industrialization following the construction of railways and textile mills here and elsewhere in the Piedmont. Urban populations increased. A total of six lynchings of African Americans were recorded here in this period, which extended into the early 20th century; this was the second-highest total in the state, a number of extrajudicial murders that two other counties had. At the turn of the 20th century, the state had passed a new constitution and laws erecting barriers to voter registration that disenfranchised most blacks, ending their political progress for decades, after African Americans had been elected to Congress from this state and there had been a Republican-Populist fusionist slate. Both governors Charles Aycock and Robert Glenn, elected in 1900 and 1904 ran campaigns to appeal to whites; the racial terrorism of lynchings enforced white suppression of African Americans.
In 1902 brothers James and Harrison Gillespie, aged 11 and 13, were lynched by a white mob for killing a young white woman working in a field. In August 1906, six African-American men were arrested as suspects in the murder of a farm family; that evening, a white mob stormed the county jail in Salisbury, freeing all the white prisoners, interrogating the black ones, taking out Jack Dillingham, Nease Gillespie, his son John. The mob hanged the three men from a tree in a field and tortured them, shot them numerous times, it was not until after passage of civil rights legislation that most African American recovered the ability to vote. The county has worked to attract new industries since much of the textile industry moved offshore in the late 20th and early 21st centuries; the "250 Fest", celebrating the 250th anniversary of Rowan County, was held in 2003. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 524 square miles, of which 511 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water.
The county's eastern border is formed by the Yadkin River. North of Ellis Crossroads, the South Yadkin River meets the Yadkin; the South Yadkin forms the county's northern border, with Davie County. The southern border is an east-west line. Cabarrus County - south Davidson County - east Davie County - north Iredell County - west Stanly County - southeast Interstate 85 passes through the county from southwest to northeast. In the early 2000s, I-85 underwent an extensive widening in the central and northern part of the county, from exit 68, US 29 Connector north to the Davidson county line. A new bridge over the Yadkin River is planned. U. S. Route 70 enters the northwestern part of west of Cleveland, it runs southeast into Salisbury, where it follows Jake Alexander Boulevard to the southeast and joins US 29 North as Main Street. US 70 continues northeast as Main Street and Salisbury Avenue in Spencer before crossing into Davidson County. U. S. Route 29 forms Main Street in Kannapolis, China Grove, Landis in the southern part of the county.
It joins US 70 as Main Street through Salisbury, as Salisbury Avenue in Spencer. U. S. Route 52 is the main artery for the southeastern part of the county, serving the towns of Gold Hill and Granite Quarry. Just before reaching downtown Salisbury, US-52 joins Interstate 85, which it follows into Dav
Interstate 85 Business (North Carolina)
In the U. S. state of North Carolina, Interstate 85 Business is a 29.8-mile-long business loop of Interstate 85 which serves several cities in the Piedmont Triad. Business 85, which shares a complete concurrency with US 29 and US 70, begins at a partial Y interchange with I-85 in Lexington. Heading north for 4.4 miles, along with I-285 and US 52, it goes through another partial Y interchange before leaving the freeway. Changing to a semi-limited expressway, it serves as a northern bypass of downtown Lexington, sharing a brief concurrency with US 64. After leaving the city limits, Business 85 heads in a northeast direction in parallel to I-85 further south. After it travels through Thomasville, it enters the city of High Point in Davidson–Randolph county line. In Randolph County for 1.6 miles, it enters Guilford County. East of downtown High Point, Business 85 shares a unique three-level diamond interchange with I-74/US 311 before leaving the city limits. At the Greensboro city limit, Business 85 completes its 30.7 miles journey with a trumpet interchange with I-85.
Established in 1984 as redesignation of Temp I-85, Business 85 traversed from Lexington to Greensboro, with complete concurrency with US 29 and US 70, when I-85 was completed on a more southern parallel routing. In May 2005, I-85 was redirected southeast around Greensboro along the Greensboro Urban Loop; the extension included a hidden 2-mile concurrency along I-85 before split-off again with US 29 and US 70. In merging onto I-40, it continued easterly before meeting back with I-85 near McLeansville. In October 2018, Business 85 was reverted to its original 29.8-mile alignment. The justification was to eliminate a redundant route and decrease the number of routing shields and overhead signs through Greensboro. Temporary Interstate 85 was established by 1961 as a temporary designation that directed travelers along US 29/US 70, from the Yadkin River to Greensboro. In 1977, a flyover bridge was completed. In 1984, I-85 was completed on new primary routing between Greensboro. Media related to Interstate 85 Business at Wikimedia Commons NCRoads.com: I-85 Business NCRoads.com: I-85 Temp
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Guilford County, North Carolina
Guilford County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 488,406, making it the third-most populous county in North Carolina, its seat is Greensboro. Since 1938, an additional county court has been located in North Carolina; the county was formed in 1771. Guilford County is included in the Greensboro-High Point, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC Combined Statistical Area. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Guilford County were a Siouan-speaking people called the Cheraw. Beginning in the 1740s, settlers arrived in the region in search of affordable land; these first settlers included American Quakers from Pennsylvania and New England at what is now Greensboro, as well as German Reformed and Lutherans in the east, British Quakers in the south and west, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians in the center of today's Guilford County. As population increased, the North Carolina colonial legislature organized the county in 1771, from parts of Rowan and Orange counties.
It was named for Francis North, Earl of Guilford, father of Frederick North, Lord North, British Prime Minister from 1770 to 1782. Friedens Church, whose name means "peace" in German, is in eastern Guilford County, at 6001 NC Hwy 61 North, northwest of Gibsonville, it is a historic church established by some of the earliest European settlers in this area. According to a church history, Rev. John Ulrich Giesendanner led his Lutheran congregation from Pennsylvania in 1740 into the part of North Carolina around Haw River, Reedy Fork, Eno River, Alamance Creek, Travis Creek, Beaver Creek, Deep River. Friedens Church built a log structure in 1745; the second building, completed about 1771, was more substantial and was used for a century, being replaced in May 1871. That third building was destroyed by fire on January 8, 1939, with only the front columns surviving destruction; the church was rebuilt and reopened in May 1939. The Quaker meeting played a major role in the European settlement of the county.
Numerous Quakers still live in the county. New Garden Friends Meeting, established in 1754 and first affiliated with a Pennsylvania meeting, still operates in Greensboro. Alamance Presbyterian Church, a log structure, was built in 1762; the congregation was not organized until 1764 by the Rev. Henry Patillo, pastor of Hawfields Presbyterian Church, it has operated since on the same site in present-day Greensboro. According to the church history, the congregation has built five churches on that site and now has its eighteenth pastor. On March 15, 1781, during the American Revolution, for independence from Great Britain, the Battle of Guilford Court House was fought just north of present-day Greensboro between Generals Charles Cornwallis and Nathanael Greene; this battle marked a turning point in the Revolutionary War in the South. Although General Cornwallis, the British commander, held the field at the end of the battle, his losses were so severe that he decided to withdraw to the Carolina coastline, where he could receive reinforcements from the British Royal Navy at the port in Wilmington and his battered army could be protected by the British naval power.
His decision led to his leading his finished ravaged army north into Virginia leading to his defeat and surrender in October 1781 at Yorktown, Virginia after a long siege, by a combined force of American and French Royal troops and blockading French Navy warships on the Chesapeake Bay. In 1779, the southern third of Guilford County erected as Randolph County. In 1785, following the American Revolution, the northern half of its remaining territory was organized as Rockingham County. In 1808, the town of Greensboro replaced the hamlet of Guilford Court House as the county seat, it was more centrally located. The county was the site of early industrial development, the Mt. Hecla Cotton Mill, established in 1818 as one of the earliest cotton mills in the state. First run by water power, the mill was refitted to be powered by steam, was one of the earliest examples in the state of the use of steam power for manufacturing. In the antebellum era, many of the county's residents were opposed to slavery, including Lutherans and Methodists.
The county was a stop on the Underground Railroad, for which volunteers aided refugee slaves en route to freedom in the North. People gave them safe places to stay and food and clothing. Levi Coffin, among the founders of the "railroad," was a Guilford County native, he is credited with helping more than 2,000 slaves escape to freedom before the war. Education has long been a hallmark of the county. Guilford College was founded in 1837 as the New Garden Boarding School. Guilford is the third-oldest coeducational institution in the country and the oldest such institution in the South. Greensboro College, established by the Methodist Church through a charter secured in 1838, was one of the earliest institutions of higher education for women in the United States, it became coeducational in 1954. In 1873 Bennett College was founded in the basement of the Warnersville Methodist Episcopal Church with 70 African American male and female students. In 1926, the school became a women-only college. In 1891, Greensboro was selected as the home of a land-grant institution for African Americans, the Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored Race, now known as No
North Carolina Highway 62
North Carolina Highway 62 is a primary state highway in the U. S. state of North Carolina. In the Piedmont Triad, it runs from NC 109 in Thomasville northeast to the Virginia state line in Milton. NC 62 begins in Thomasville at the intersection of Randolph Street and Julian Avenue. East of Archdale, it overlaps with NC Bike Route 2 through the communities of Climax and Julian. Before the town of Alamance, the highway goes right through the middle of the Alamance Battleground. After crossing I-40/I-85, NC 62 does a zig-zag through downtown Burlington. Continuing north of town, it goes through the communities and towns of Pleasant Grove and Yanceyville, before reaching the town of Milton. After crossing the Dan River, it enters the Commonwealth of Virginia. NC 62 was an original state highway. In 1928, the route was extended from Asheboro to New London, again in 1930 from Yanceyville to Milton. In 1933, the route was moved north of New London and extended to Mount Pleasant. In 1940, NC 62 was realigned to a new routing south of Pleasant Grove to its now current routing through Burlington and Archdale, ending in Thomasville at NC 109.
The former route to Mount Pleasant is now part of NC 49. In 1947, NC was extended into Virginia, which created VA 62; the last change to the route was between 1954–57, between the community of Fitch to Yanceyville, moving to a new road east. There was one 3-mile-long alternate route in New London, from 1935-1940, it was soon renumbered as NC 49A when NC 49 replaced NC 62 in the area. In 1947, it would renumber again to NC 6 finally in 1953 as an extension and terminus of NC 8. North Carolina Bicycle Route 2 - Concurrent with NC 62 from SR 1129 near Jamestown to Kimesville North Carolina Bicycle Route 4 - Concurrent with NC 62 from Yanceyville to Hamer Media related to North Carolina Highway 62 at Wikimedia Commons NCRoads.com: N. C. 62