Davie, Florida

Davie is a town in Broward County, United States about 24 miles north of Miami. The town ′ s population. Davie is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census, it is the most populous municipality labelled as a ″town" in Florida, the fourth most populous such community in the United States, trailing only Hempstead, New York. Davie was founded by Jake Tannebaum; the original name of the town was Zona. In 1909, R. P. Davie assisted Florida Governor Napoleon Bonaparte Broward by draining the swamplands. Robert Parsell Davie, a developer, bought about 27,000 acres in the area, he built a school in Zona. In 1916, the people of the town were so grateful, it was carved out of Everglades land, underwater. Davie has always had a reputation as a "Western" town, with many earlier buildings having "Wild West" architecture, it boasts a significant horse-owning population and once was home to many herds of cattle. In recent years and residential development has discouraged such practices, but Davie still tries to maintain a "Western" feel.

Pioneer City, a western theme park, was located across the street from Flamingo Gardens. It closed a few years later; the Davie School, designed in 1917 by August Geiger, one of South Florida's most prominent early architects, opened its doors in 1918 with about 90 students. The Davie School was the first permanent school in the Everglades and is now Broward County's oldest existing school building; the building was in continuous use as a school until 1980. The Davie School Foundation was established in 1984 to protect and restore the Davie School to the integrity of its earlier appearance; the Foundation in conjunction with the Town of Davie, the Broward County School Board, the Soroptimists International of Davie, the Davie Historical Society and the community at large has worked tirelessly to preserve this important piece of Broward County's history The building is now referred to as the "Old Davie School," and is maintained by a collaboration of the Davie School Foundation and the Town of Davie.

In the early 2000s two other historic buildings from the surrounding neighborhood were moved to the property adjoining the Old Davie School. The Viele House, built beginning in 1912, is the oldest residential structure remaining in Davie and is an excellent example of vernacular architecture, it survived the hurricane of 1926 and the floods of 1947. It was continuously occupied by members of the Viele family until being moved to the Old Davie School property. Regrettably, the Viele House was sealed to accommodate a modern air conditioning system, as part of the permanent preservation plan. One of the most important features of the original structure was the non-electric "air conditioned" design of the home. Warm air was drawn up and out through the opening in the top of the attic; the natural air flow kept the home comfortable in the hot south Florida climate. As with most of the old Davie homes, the Viele House was elevated on pillars, which permitted the breeze to blow under the building. In 2004 the former home of Colonel Charles A. & Katherine M. Walsh and the Bud & Betty Osterhoudt family was moved to the site.

In the 1970s Davie had the reputation of not being hospitable to Jews. Davie was rumored to be the seat of the Ku Klux Klan in South Florida; this provoked an outpouring of community support which persuaded the family to remain, insisting that "never would they see anti-Semitism like that again." As of 2016, Davie has a thriving Jewish community. There are Chabad houses, a Jewish High School. Davie is located at 26°04′53″N 80°16′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.7 square miles, of which 34.9 square miles is land and 0.85 square miles is water. As of 2010, there were 37,306 households, with 8.0% being vacant. As of 2000, 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 22.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the town, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $47,014, the median income for a family was $56,290. Males had a median income of $38,756 versus $30,016 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,271. About 6.9% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, those who spoke only English at home made up 75.47% of the population, while those who spoke Spanish made up 18.74%, French speakers made up 1.13% of residents. A few other languages spoken were Italian at 0.73%, Chinese at 0.53%, Portuguese 0.51%, French Creole being the mother tongue of 0.38% of the population. Davie is host of the South Florida Educational Center.

A number of educational institutions have campuses in Davie, including: Davie is a part of the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood media market, the twelfth largest radio market and the seventee

Tsukushi-class survey ship

The Tsukushi-class survey ship was a class of auxiliary ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, serving during World War II. The class consists of two subclasses. Since the Meiji period, the Imperial Japanese Navy had carried out hydrographic survey with old naval vessels. While sufficient for routine peacetime survey duties, these obsolete vessels were deemed too slow for service in combat zones. Furthermore, these vessels were fighting ships, thus were not able to carry many surveying devices. Therefore, in the 1920s and the 1930s, many of these ships were retired; the IJN allotted Katsuriki and Komahashi to survey duties. It became clear that the IJN required purpose-built ships for hydrographic survey duties. In 1930, the IJN proposed two 1,600-ton survey ships to the Ministry of Finance, but were unable to pass assessments. In 1937, IJN was able to get a building budget for one 1,400-ton survey ship; this is Project Number J11 named Tsukushi. IJN gave her armament and maneuverability similar to that of Kaibokan several years as she was expected to carry out surveys in combat zones.

She possessed a floatplane for aerial survey. Low speed cruising was demanded from her for survey works, her minimum cruising speed was 2.2 knots. Tsukushi was completed on 17 December 1941, was assigned to the 3rd Fleet the same day. Between 1 January 1942–March 1942, she went to the front in the Dutch East Indies campaign. On 10 March, she was assigned to the 2nd Southern Expeditionary Fleet, she took maintenance in Singapore between 26 August–7 September. On 25 September, she was assigned to the 4th Fleet, she took maintenance in Yokohama between 27 March 1943–May. On 20 May 1943, she was assigned to the 8th Fleet, sailed to Rabaul on 6 June, afterward she served in the Solomon Islands. On 3 November, she departed from Rabaul for rescue the Tei-4 Convoy; however she entered minefield off Kavieng. She was removed from the naval ship list on 5 January 1944. A second ship of the class, was canceled on 5 May 1944. Project number J11. Only one vessel was built under the Maru 3 Programme. Project number J11C.

Only one vessel was planned under the Kai-Maru 5 Programme, she became only a paper plan. Ships of the World special issue Vol.47 Auxiliary Vessels of the Imperial Japanese Navy, March 1997 The Maru Special, Japanese Naval Vessels No.34, Japanese Auxiliary ships, Ushio Shobō, December 1979 Senshi Sōsho Vol.31, Naval armaments and war preparation, "Until November 1941", Asagumo Simbun, November 1969 Senshi Sōsho Vol.88, Naval armaments and war preparation, "And after the outbreak of war", Asagumo Simbun, October 1975 "The Society of Naval Architects of Japan". Histories of shipbuilding in Shōwa period, "Hara Shobō". September 1977

Very-long-baseline interferometry

Very-long-baseline interferometry is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy. In VLBI a signal from an astronomical radio source, such as a quasar, is collected at multiple radio telescopes on Earth; the distance between the radio telescopes is calculated using the time difference between the arrivals of the radio signal at different telescopes. This allows observations of an object that are made by many radio telescopes to be combined, emulating a telescope with a size equal to the maximum separation between the telescopes. Data received at each antenna in the array include arrival times from a local atomic clock, such as a hydrogen maser. At a time, the data are correlated with data from other antennas that recorded the same radio signal, to produce the resulting image; the resolution achievable using interferometry is proportional to the observing frequency. The VLBI technique enables the distance between telescopes to be much greater than that possible with conventional interferometry, which requires antennas to be physically connected by coaxial cable, optical fiber, or other type of transmission line.

The greater telescope separations are possible in VLBI due to the development of the closure phase imaging technique by Roger Jennison in the 1950s, allowing VLBI to produce images with superior resolution. VLBI is best known for imaging distant cosmic radio sources, spacecraft tracking, for applications in astrometry. However, since the VLBI technique measures the time differences between the arrival of radio waves at separate antennas, it can be used "in reverse" to perform earth rotation studies, map movements of tectonic plates precisely, perform other types of geodesy. Using VLBI in this manner requires large numbers of time difference measurements from distant sources observed with a global network of antennas over a period of time; some of the scientific results derived from VLBI include: High resolution radio imaging of cosmic radio sources. Imaging the surfaces of nearby stars at radio wavelengths – similar techniques have been used to make infrared and optical images of stellar surfaces.

Definition of the celestial reference frame. Motion of the Earth's tectonic plates. Regional deformation and local uplift or subsidence. Variations in the Earth's orientation and length of day. Maintenance of the terrestrial reference frame. Measurement of gravitational forces of the Sun and Moon on the Earth and the deep structure of the Earth. Improvement of atmospheric models. Measurement of the fundamental speed of gravity; the tracking of the Huygens probe as it passed through Titan's atmosphere, allowing wind velocity measurements. First imaging of a supermassive black hole. There are several VLBI arrays located in Europe, the United States, China, South Korea, Japan and Australia; the most sensitive VLBI array in the world is the European VLBI Network. This is a part-time array that brings together the largest European radiotelescopes and some others outside of Europe for weeklong sessions, with the data being processed at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe; the Very Long Baseline Array, which uses ten dedicated, 25-meter telescopes spanning 5351 miles across the United States, is the largest VLBI array that operates all year round as both an astronomical and geodesy instrument.

The combination of the EVN and VLBA is known as Global VLBI. When one or both of these arrays are combined with space-based VLBI antennas such as HALCA or Spektr-R, the resolution obtained is higher than any other astronomical instrument, capable of imaging the sky with a level of detail measured in microarcseconds. VLBI benefits from the longer baselines afforded by international collaboration, with a notable early example in 1976, when radio telescopes in the United States, USSR and Australia were linked to observe hydroxyl-maser sources; this technique is being used by the Event Horizon Telescope, whose goal is to observe the supermassive black holes at the centers of the Milky Way Galaxy and Messier 87. VLBI has traditionally operated by recording the signal at each telescope on magnetic tapes or disks, shipping those to the correlation center for replay, it has become possible to connect VLBI radio telescopes in close to real-time, while still employing the local time references of the VLBI technique, in a technique known as e-VLBI.

In Europe, six radio telescopes of the European VLBI Network are now connected with Gigabit per second links via their National Research Networks and the Pan-European research network GEANT2, the first astronomical experiments using this new technique were conducted in 2011. The image to the right shows the first science produced by the European VLBI Network using e-VLBI; the data from 6 telescopes were processed in real time at the European Data Processing centre at JIVE. The Netherlands Academic Research Network SURFnet provides 6 x 1 Gbit/s connectivity between JIVE and the GEANT2 network. In the quest for greater angular resolution, dedicated VLBI satellites have been placed in Earth orbit to provide extended baselines. Experiments incorporating such space-borne array elements are termed Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry; the first SVLBI experiment was carried out on Salyut-6 orbital station with KRT-10, a 10-meter radio telescope, launched in July 1978. The first dedicated SVLBI satellite was HALCA, an 8-meter radio telescope, launched in February 1997 and made observations until October 2003.

Due to the small size of the dish, only strong radio sources could be observed with SVLBI arrays incorporating it. Another SVLBI satellite, a 10-meter radio teles