Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres along the Yellow Sea, the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province. Since the Sui and Tang dynasties, Jiangsu has been a national economic and commercial center due to the construction of Grand Canal. Cities such as Nanjing, Wuxi and Shanghai are all major Chinese economic hubs. Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, Jiangsu has become a focal point for economic development, it is regarded as China's most developed province measured by its Human Development Index.
Jiangsu is home to many of the world's leading exporters of electronic equipment and textiles. It has been China's largest recipient of foreign direct investment since 2006, its 2014 nominal GDP was more than 1 trillion US dollars, the sixth-highest of all country subdivisions. Jiangsu's name is a compound of the first elements of the names of the two cities of Jiangning and Suzhou; the abbreviation for this province is "苏", the second character of its name. During the earliest Chinese dynasties, the area, now Jiangsu was far away from the center of Chinese civilization, in the northwest Henan. During the Zhou dynasty more contact was made, the state of Wu appeared as a vassal to the Zhou dynasty in south Jiangsu, one of the many hundreds of states that existed across northern and central China at that time. Near the end of the Spring and Autumn period, Wu became a great power under King Helu of Wu, defeated in 484 BC the state of Qi, a major power in the north in modern-day Shandong province, contest for the position of overlord over all states of China.
The state of Wu was subjugated in 473 BC by the state of Yue, another state that had emerged to the south in modern-day Zhejiang province. Yue was in turn subjugated by the powerful state of Chu from the west in 333 BC; the state of Qin swept away all the other states, unified China in 221 BC. Under the reign of the Han dynasty, Jiangsu was removed from the centers of civilization in the North China Plain, was administered under two zhou: Xuzhou Province in the north, Yangzhou Province in the south. During the Three Kingdoms period, southern Jiangsu became the base of the Eastern Wu, whose capital, Jianye, is modern Nanking; when nomadic invasions overran northern China in the 4th century, the imperial court of the Jin dynasty moved to Jiankang. Cities in southern and central Jiangsu swelled with the influx of migrants from the north. Jiankang remained as the capital for four successive Southern dynasties and became the largest commercial and cultural center in China. After the Sui dynasty united the country in 581, the political center of the country shifted back to the north, but the Grand Canal was built through Jiangsu to link the Central Plain with the prosperous Yangtze Delta.
The Tang dynasty relied on southern Jiangsu for annual deliveries of grain. It was during the Song dynasty, which saw the development of a wealthy mercantile class and emergent market economy in China, that south Jiangsu emerged as a center of trade. From onwards, south Jiangsu major cities like Suzhou or Yangzhou, would be synonymous with opulence and luxury in China. Today south Jiangsu remains one of the richest parts of China, Shanghai, arguably the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan of mainland China cities, is a direct extension of south Jiangsu culture; the Jurchen Jin dynasty gained control of North China in 1127 during the Jin-Song wars, Huai River, which used to cut through north Jiangsu to reach the Yellow Sea, was the border between the north, under the Jin, the south, under the Southern Song dynasty. The Mongols took control of China in the thirteenth century; the Ming dynasty, established in 1368 after driving out the Mongols who had occupied China put its capital in Nanjing. Following a coup by Zhu Di, the capital was moved to Beijing, far to the north.
The entirety of modern-day Jiangsu as well as neighbouring Anhui province kept their special status, however, as territory-governed directly by the central government, were called Nanzhili. Meanwhile, South Jiangsu continued to be an important center of trade in China; the Qing dynasty changed this situation by establishing Nanzhili as Jiangnan province. "In 1727 the to-min or "idle people" of Cheh Kiang province, the yoh-hu or "music people" of Shan Si provi
The Hemudu culture was a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, China. The culture may be divided into an early and late phases and after 4000 BC respectively; the site at Hemudu, 22 km north-west of Ningbo, was discovered in 1973. Hemudu sites were discovered on the islands of Zhoushan. Hemudu are said to have differed physically from inhabitants of the Yellow River sites to the north. Scholars view the Hemudu Culture as a source of the proto-Austronesian cultures; some scholars assert that the Hemudu culture co-existed with the Majiabang culture as two separate and distinct cultures, with cultural transmissions between the two. Other scholars group Hemudu in with Majiabang subtraditions. Two major floods caused the nearby Yaojiang River to change its course and inundated the soil with salt, forcing the people of Hemudu to abandon its settlements; the Hemudu people lived in stilt houses. Communal longhouses were common in Hemudu sites, much like the ones found in modern-day Borneo.
The Hemudu culture was one of the earliest cultures to cultivate rice. Recent excavations at the Hemudu period site of Tianluoshan has demonstrated rice was undergoing evolutionary changes recognized as domestication. Most of the artifacts discovered at Hemudu consist of animal bones, exemplified by hoes made of shoulder bones used for cultivating rice; the culture produced lacquer wood. A red lacquer wood bowl at the Zhejiang Museum is dated to: 4000~5000 BC, it is believed to be the earliest such object in the world. The remains of various plants, including water caltrop, Nelumbo nucifera, melon, wild kiwifruit, peach, the foxnut or Gorgon euryale and bottle gourd, were found at Hemudu and Tianluoshan; the Hemudu people domesticated pigs, dogs but practiced extensive hunting of deer and some wild water buffalo. Fishing was carried out on a large scale, with a particular focus on crucian carp; the practices of fishing and hunting are evidenced by the remains of bone harpoons and bows and arrowheads.
Music instruments, such as bone whistles and wooden drums, were found at Hemudu. Artifact design by Hemudu inhabitants bears many resemblances to those of Insular Southeast Asia; the culture produced a porous pottery. The distinct pottery was black and made with charcoal powder. Plant and geometric designs were painted onto the pottery; the culture produced carved jade ornaments, carved ivory artifacts and small, clay figurines. In the early Hemudu period is the maternal clan phase. Descent is said to be matrilineal and the social status of children and women is comparatively high. In the periods, they transitioned into patrilineal clans. During this period, the social status of men rose and descent is passed through the male line. Hemudu’s inhabitants worshiped a sun spirit as well as a fertility spirit, they enacted shamanistic rituals to the sun and believed in bird totems. A belief in an afterlife and ghosts is believed to have taken place as well. People were buried with theirs heads facing northeast and most had no burial objects.
Infants were buried in urn-casket style burials, while children and adults received earth level burials. They did not have a definite communal burial ground, for the most part, but a clan communal burial ground has been found in the period. Two groups in separate parts of this burial ground are thought to be two intermarrying clans. There were noticeably more burial goods in this communal burial ground. Fossilized amoeboids and pollen suggests Hemudu culture emerged and developed in the middle of the Holocene Climatic Optimum. A study of a sea-level highstand in the Ningshao Plain from 7000 to 5000 BP shows that there may have been stabilized lower sea levels at this time, followed by frequent flooding from 5000 to 3900 BP; the climate was said to be tropical to subtropical with high temperatures and much precipitation throughout the year. List of Neolithic cultures of China Liangzhu culture Majiabang culture Yangshao culture Fuller, D. Q.. Liu, Li. Wang, Haiming, "Majiabang", in Peregrine, Peter N..
Allan, The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, ISBN 0-300-09382-9 Chang, Kwang-chih. The Archaeology of Ancient China, ISBN 0-300-03784-8 Fuller, D. Q & Harvey, E. Qin,L.. Presumed domestication? Evidence for wild rice cultivation and domestication in the fifth millennium BC of the Lower Yangzte region. Antiquity 81, 316-331 Zhu C, Zheng CG, Ma CM, Yang XX, Gao XZ, Wang HM, Shao JH. On the Holocene sea-level highstand along the Yangtze Ningshao Plain, east China. CHINESE SCIENCE BULLETIN 48: 2672-2683 DEC 2003
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were two groups of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China. The Three Sovereigns is before The Five Emperors, The Five Emperors in history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC. Today they may be considered culture heroes; the dates of these mythological figures may be fictitious, but according to some accounts and reconstructions, they preceded the Xia Dynasty. The Three Sovereigns, sometimes known as the Three August Ones, were said to be god-kings, demigods or god emperors who used their abilities to improve the lives of their people and impart to them essential skills and knowledge; the Five Emperors are portrayed as exemplary sages who possessed great moral character and lived to a great age and ruled over a period of great peace. The Three Sovereigns are ascribed various identities in different Chinese historical texts; these kings are said to have helped introduce the use of fire, taught people how to build houses and invented farming.
The Yellow Emperor's wife is credited with the invention of silk culture. The discovery of medicine, the invention of the calendar and Chinese script are credited to the kings. After their era, Yu the Great founded the Xia Dynasty. According to a modern theory with roots in the late 19th century, the Yellow Emperor is the ancestor of the Huaxia people; the Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor was established in Shaanxi Province to commemorate the ancestry legend. The Chinese word for emperor, huángdì, derives from this, as the first user of this title Qin Shi Huang considered his reunion of all of the lands of the former Kingdom of Zhou to be greater than the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. A related concept appears in the legend of the Four shi; the four members are Youchao-shi, Suiren-shi, Fuxi-shi, Shennong-shi. The list sometimes extends to one more member being Nüwa-shi. Four of these five names appear in different lists of the Three Sovereigns. Shi is the meaning of clan or tribe in china，So none of them are a single person and in prehistoric times.
There is a saying that the Three Sovereigns are Youchao-shi, Shennong-shi. The Suiren teach people to drill wood for fire, so people can migrate; the Youchao teach people to build houses with wood, so that people leave the cave to expand into the plains. After the number of people became more, Shennong tried a variety of grasses to find suitable cereals to solve people's food problems. People call them the Three Sovereigns in order to miss their contribution,The tribe used their contribution as the name of the tribe. Depending on the source, there are many variations of who classifies as the Three Sovereigns or the Five Emperors. There are at least six to seven known variations. Many of the sources listed below were written in much periods and millennia after the supposed existence of these figures, instead of historical fact, they may reflect a desire in time periods to create a fictitious ancestry traceable to ancient culture heroes; the Emperors were asserted as ancestors of the Xia and Zhou dynasties.
The following appear in different groupings of the Three Sovereigns: Fuxi, Nüwa, Suiren, Gong Gong, Heavenly Sovereign, Earthly Sovereign, Tai Sovereign, Human Sovereign, the Yellow Emperor. The following appear in different groupings of the Five Emperors: Yellow Emperor, Emperor Ku, Emperor Yao, Emperor Shun, Shaohao and Yan Emperor. Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors portal List of Neolithic cultures of China Dawenkou culture Liangzhu culture Majiayao culture Qujialing culture Longshan culture Baodun culture Shijiahe culture Emperor of China. Translated by Allen, Herbert J. "Ssŭma Ch'ien's Historical Records, Introductory Chapter". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 26: 269–295. 1894. Doi:10.1017/S0035869X00143916. "The Annals of the Bamboo Books: The reigns of Huang-te, Chuen-heuh and Hëen-Yuen. The Chinese Classics, volume 3, part 1. Translated by Legge, James. 1865. Pp. 108–116
Lower Xiajiadian culture
The Lower Xiajiadian culture is an archaeological culture in Northeast China, found in southeastern Inner Mongolia, northern Hebei and western Liaoning, China. Subsistence was based on millet farming supplemented with animal hunting. Archaeological sites have yielded the remains of pigs, dogs and cattle; the culture built permanent settlements and achieved high population densities. The population levels reached by the Lower Xiajiadian culture in the Chifeng region would not be matched until the Liao Dynasty; the culture was preceded through the transitional Xiaoheyan culture. The type site is represented by the lower layer at Xiajiadian, Inner Mongolia. Stone and pottery artefacts were discovered at Lower Xiajiadian sites, while gold, lacquer, jade and bronze artefacts are found; the most found copper and bronze artefacts are earrings. People of the Lower Xiajiadian practiced oracle bone divination; the culture prepared its oracle bones by polishing the bones before heating them. Inscriptions are not found on examples of oracle bones of the Lower Xiajiadian.
People had good access to local sources of stone basalt, which were used in construction and tool-making. Lower Xiajiadian houses were round, made from mud and stone, were built with stone walls. Lower Xiajiadian settlements were protected by cliffs or steep slopes. Stone walls were sometimes erected around the non-sloped perimeter of its settlement. Walls were not thick. Walls with watchtowers and were built by sandwiching a rammed earth core with two sides of stone walls. Upper Xiajiadian culture Xinglonggou Yueshi culture Shelach, Leadership Strategies, Economic Activity, Interregional Interaction: Social Complexity in Northeast China, ISBN 0-306-46090-4
The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China. It is dated from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC; the culture is named after Yangshao, the first excavated site of this culture, discovered in 1921 in Mianchi County, Henan Province by the Swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson. The culture flourished in the provinces of Henan and Shanxi; the main food of the Yangshao people was millet, with some sites using foxtail millet and others broom-corn millet, though some evidence of rice has been found. The exact nature of Yangshao agriculture, small-scale slash-and-burn cultivation versus intensive agriculture in permanent fields, is a matter of debate. Once the soil was exhausted, residents picked up their belongings, moved to new lands, constructed new villages. However, Middle Yangshao settlements such as Jiangzhi contain raised-floor buildings that may have been used for the storage of surplus grains. Grinding stones for making flour were found; the Yangshao people kept dogs.
Sheep and cattle are found much more rarely. Much of their meat came from fishing, their stone tools were polished and specialized. They may have practiced an early form of silkworm cultivation; the Yangshao culture crafted pottery. Yangshao artisans created fine white and black painted pottery with human facial and geometric designs. Unlike the Longshan culture, the Yangshao culture did not use pottery wheels in pottery-making. Excavations found; the Yangshao culture produced silk to a small wove hemp. Men tied their hair in a top knot. Women tied their hair in a bun. Houses were built by digging a rounded rectangular pit a few feet deep, they were rammed, a lattice of wattle was woven over it. It was plastered with mud; the floor was rammed down. Next, a few short wattle poles would be placed around the top of the pit, more wattle would be woven to it, it was plastered with mud, a framework of poles would be placed to make a cone shape for the roof. Poles would be added to support the roof, it was thatched with millet stalks.
There was little furniture. Food and items were hung against the walls. A pen would be built outside for animals. Yangshao villages covered ten to fourteen acres and were composed of houses around a central square. Although early reports suggested a matriarchal culture, others argue that it was a society in transition from matriarchy to patriarchy, while still others believe it to have been patriarchal; the debate hinges on differing interpretations of burial practices. The discovery of a dragon statue dating back to the fifth millennium BC in the Yangshao culture makes it the world's oldest known dragon depiction, the Han Chinese continue to worship dragons to this day; the Yangshao, Mianchi County, Sanmenxia City, the place which gave the culture its name, there is today a museum next to the site. The archaeological site of Banpo village, near Xi'an, is one of the best-known ditch-enclosed settlements of the Yangshao culture. Another major settlement called Jiangzhai was excavated out to its limits, archaeologists found that it was surrounded by a ring-ditch.
Both Banpo and Jiangzhai yielded incised marks on pottery which a few have interpreted as numerals or precursors to the Chinese script, but such interpretations are not accepted. The Yangshao culture is conventionally divided into three phases: The early period is represented by the Banpo, Jiangzhai and Dadiwan sites in the Wei River valley in Shaanxi; the middle period saw an expansion of the culture in all directions, the development of hierarchies of settlements in some areas, such as western Henan. The late period saw a greater spread of settlement hierarchies; the first wall of rammed earth in China was built around the settlement of Xishan in central Henan. The Majiayao culture to the west is now considered a separate culture that developed from the middle Yangshao culture through an intermediate Shilingxia phase. Ceramics List of Neolithic cultures of China Dawenkou culture Hemudu culture Majiayao culture Majiabang culture Hongshan culture Prehistoric Beifudi site Xishuipo