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Dawes Act

The Dawes Act of 1887 authorized the President of the United States to subdivide Native American tribal landholdings into allotments for Native American heads of families and individuals, transferring traditional systems of land tenure into government-imposed systems of private property by forcing Native Americans to "assume a capitalist and proprietary relationship with property" that did not exist. The act opened up remaining Native land for appropriation by white settlers. Before private property could be dispensed, the government now had to determine "which Indians were eligible" for allotments, which propelled an "official search for a federal definition of Indian-ness."Although the act was passed in 1887, the federal government implemented the Dawes Act "on a tribe-by-tribe basis" thereafter. For example, in 1895, Congress passed the Hunter Act, which administered Dawes "among the Southern Ute." The nominal purpose of the act was to protect "the property of the natives" as well as to compel "their absorption into the American mainstream."

Native peoples who were deemed to be "mixed-blood" were forced to accept U. S. citizenship while others were "detribalized." Between 1887 and 1934, Native Americans "lost control of about 100 million acres of land" or about "two-thirds of the land base they held in 1887" as a result of the act. The loss of land and the negative cultural effects of Dawes have since prompted scholars to refer to the act as one of the most destructive U. S. policies for Native Americans in history. The "Five Civilized Tribes" were exempt from the Dawes Act, resulting in the creation of the Dawes Commission in 1893 as a delegation which came to define tribal belonging in terms of blood-quantum. However, because there was no method of determining precise bloodlines, commission members assigned "full-blood status" to Native Americans who were perceived as "poorly-assimilated" or "legally incompetent," and "mixed-blood status" to Native Americans who "most resembled whites."The Curtis Act of 1898 extended the provisions of the Dawes Act to the "Five Civilized Tribes," required the abolition of their governments, allotment of communal lands to people registered as tribal members, sale of lands declared surplus, as well as dissolving tribal courts.

This law was "an outgrowth of the land rush of 1889, which violated the promise of the United States that the Indian territory would remain Indian land in perpetuity," completed the obliteration of tribal land titles in Indian Territory, prepared the land to be admitted to the Union as the state of Oklahoma. The Dawes Act was amended again in 1906 under the Burke Act, which provided that Native Americans, allotted land under the Dawes Act "would not become citizens of the United States until they were deemed competent to manage their own affairs" and extended the trust period beyond 25 years, as stipulated in the Dawes Act, so that land could now be held in a trust indefinitely by the U. S. government. During the Great Depression, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration passed the US Indian Reorganization Act on June 18, 1934, it prohibited any further land allotment and created a "New Deal" for Native Americans which renewed their rights to reorganize and form self-governments in order to "rebuild an adequate land base."

During the early 1800s, the United States federal government attempted to address what it referred to as the "Indian Problem." Numerous new European immigrants were settling on the eastern border of the Indian territories, where most of the Native American tribes were situated. Conflicts between the groups increased as they competed for resources and operated according to different cultural systems. Many European Americans did not believe that members of the two racial societies could coexist within the same communities. Searching for a quick solution to their problem, William Medill the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, proposed establishing "colonies" or "reservations" that would be for the natives, similar to those which some native tribes had created for themselves in the east, it was a form of removal whereby the US government would uproot the natives from their current locations to positions to areas in the region beyond the Mississippi River. The new policy intended to concentrate Native Americans in areas away from encroaching settlers, but it caused considerable suffering and many deaths.

During the nineteenth century, Native American tribes resisted the imposition of the reservation system and engaged with the United States Army in what were called the Indian Wars in the West for decades. Defeated by the US military force and continuing waves of encroaching settlers, the tribes negotiated agreements to resettle on reservations. Native Americans ended up with a total of over 155 million acres of land, ranging from arid deserts to prime agricultural land; the Reservation system, though forced upon Native Americans, was a system that allotted each tribe a claim to their new lands, protection over their territories, the right to govern themselves. With the Senate being able to intervene only through the negotiation of treaties, they adjusted their ways of life and tried to continue their traditions; the traditional tribal organization, a defining characteristic of Native Americans as a social unit, became apparent to the non-native communities of the United S

Reputation Institute

Reputation Institute is a research and insights company that analyzes the reputation of corporations and places, based on studies of consumer perceptions and media coverage. It was started by two business school academics, Charles Fombrun and Cees van Riel, in 1999 and is headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1996, Charles Fombrun, a professor at New York University Stern School of Business, published the book Reputation: Realizing Value From the Corporate Image. With Cees van Riel, a professor at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, Fombrun, in 1997 began publishing Corporate Reputation Review, an academic journal now published by Palgrave Macmillan. Fombrun and a doctoral student Violina Rindova organized a conference on corporate reputation at New York University, hosted in subsequent years by other academics and universities. In 1999, Fombrun and van Riel founded Reputation Institute which took over the organizational responsibility of the annual corporate reputation conference.

The conference served to centralize all research endeavors on corporate reputation. In 2013, a New-York-based private equity firm, Catalyst Investors, purchased a minority stake in Reputation Institute. In February 2018, Reputation Institute purchased U. K. based media analytics company Mettle Consulting. Kylie Wright-Ford was appointed CEO of Reputation Institute in June 2018. In May 2019, Reputation Institute bought a Canadian media analytics company. In collaboration with Harris Interactive, Reputation Institute developed Reputation Quotient in 1999; the RQ model uses 20 questions analyzed to gather data from members of the public and evaluate the reputations of corporations and organizations. The model evaluated organizations in six dimensions: "emotional appeal," "products and services," "financial performance," "vision and leadership," "workplace environment," and "social and environmental responsibility."In 2005, Reputation Institute developed the RepTrak model to replace RQ. As of 2016, RepTrak studies are conducted annually in 25 industries across 40 countries.

RepTrak analyzes public opinions across numerous countries and analyzes corporate reputation using measures in seven dimensions: "products and services," "innovation," "workplace," "governance," "citizenship," "leadership," and "performance."Reputation Institute publishes Country RepTrak which ranks the reputations of nations using three criteria: "appealing environment," "advanced economy," and "effective government." In the 2015 Country RepTrak, Canada ranked 1st, United States ranked 22nd, Mexico ranked 37th overall out of the 55 countries evaluated in the study. The first table on the right shows the top ten countries ranked in the Country RepTrak released in June 2018. In March 2019, Reputation Institute compiled and released the annual Global RepTrak 100 study, a ranking of corporate reputation is calculated after surveying more than 230,000 people from among the general public in 15 countries; the second table on the right shows the top ten companies ranked in RepTrak released in March 2019.

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Wanted Man (Ratt song)

"Wanted Man' is the first track on American heavy metal band Ratt's album Out of the Cellar. It was featured on the soundtrack for the 1985 film Weird Science; the song was composed by Robbin Crosby, Stephen Pearcy, Joey Cristofanilli, it was the second biggest hit on the album, reaching number 87 on the Billboard Hot 100 and 38 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. The music video for the song is based on a wild west theme. In the video, the band members are a group of wanted men known as "The Ratt Gang," the name being taken from a line in the song; the band members end up getting into a gun fight with another gang of cowboys who were up to no good. "Wanted Man" - 3:37 "She Wants Money" - 3:04 Stephen Pearcy- Vocals Warren DeMartini- co-lead guitar Robbin Crosby- co-lead guitar Juan Croucier- Bass guitar Bobby Blotzer- Drums Music video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Jahan Tum Le Chalo

Jahan Tum Le Chalo was a 1999 Indian Bollywood film directed by Desh Deepak. The film is a romantic one with music by lyrics by Gulzar; this film is the first production of Rishi Films International a venture of Holland-based Dr. Anil K. Mehta; the Plot of the film is inspired by a real happening in Dr. Anil K. Mehta's friend circle in Europe; the film is based on French novel Aimez-vous Brahms? by Françoise Sagan. The novel was made into a film called Goodbye Again starring Ingrid Bergman and Anthony Perkins. Shantanu Arya is a thorough womaniser. Namrata Shorey is a journalist and is quite amazingly in love with Shantanu though she knows about his womanising ways. All her requests for marriage fall on deaf ears, as Shantanu avoids commitment of any sort, she starts getting tired of his wayward ways and starts questioning her own thinking. A young, rich man, Aakash enters her life and provides her the much-needed respite from her mundane lifestyle. Aakash is in love with her, but Namrata reminds him of their age difference and the fact that she has given herself tan aur man se to Shantanu.

Meanwhile, sensing the growing proximity of Aakash and Namrata and getting rebukes from other girls, Shantanu agrees for the marriage. Namrata does a long wait for Shantanu at wedding place but he doesn't reach there till late night and as she exits from there, she finds Aakash there and at last, she accepts him, the climax of this movie. Sonali Kulkarni as Namrata Shorey Jimmy Sheirgill as Aakash Nirmal Pandey as Shantanu Arya Nirupa Roy as Mother "Dekho To Aasman Taro Se Bhar Gaya" - Suresh Wadkar "Atthanisi Zindagi" - Hariharan "Kabhi Chaand Ki Tarah Tapaki, Atthanni Si Zindagi" - Hariharan "Shauq Khwab Ka Hai Wo Nind Aaye Na" - Lata Mangeshkar "Thak Gayi Ho To" - Suresh Wadkar "Ye Kaisi Chap Kadmo Ki Sunai De Rahi Hai" - Rekha Bhardwaj "Your Face Is Face Of Love" - Gary Lawyer Produced By Dr Anil K. Mehta Jahan Tum Le Chalo on IMDb

George Clementson Greenwell

George Clementson Greenwell was a British mining engineer. George Clementson Greenwell was born on 25 July 1821 in Newcastle upon Tyne, he was educated at Darlington Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Percy Street Academy and went on to the University of Edinburgh. Greenwell joined the mining industry, from 1838 to 1842 was apprenticed to Mr Thomas Emerson Forster at Haswell Colliery, From 1843 he worked for Thomas John Taylor of Earsdon until 1845 when he became Viewer at "Black Boy" and "West Auckland" collieries, he moved in 1848 to "Marley Hill" and in 1854 to manage mines at Radstock in Somerset and from 1863 at Poynton and Worth in Cheshire. In 1876 he moved back to the North East of England to Tynemouth and practised as a consulting engineer. In 1852 Greenwell was one of the founders of the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers sitting on the first council, from 1875 as Vice-President and from 1879-1881 as President, he became an honorary member of the Institute in 1889.

He was an active member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, a Fellow of the Geological Society of London and a member of the Manchester Geological Society. George Clementson Greenwell died on 6 November 1900. Greewell many published papers included 1849 - A glossary of terms used in the coal trade of Northumberland and Durham 1850 - A practical treatise on mine engineering. 1899 The Autobiography of George Clementson Greenwell

Willem Bontekoe

Willem Ysbrandtszoon Bontekoe was a skipper in the Dutch East India Company, who made only one voyage for the company. He became known because of the journal of his adventures, published in 1646 under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren. Bontekoe was born in Hoorn in Holland. In 1607, at the age of twenty, Bontekoe succeeded his father as captain of the ship Bontekoe. Ten years in 1617, the ship was taken by Barbary pirates and Bontekoe ended up at a slave market, he was bought free. In 1618 Bontekoe enlisted in the service of the Dutch East India Company. On a voyage to Java he was shipwrecked, along with part of his crew, continued in a lifeboat. After a grueling journey, including an attack by hostile natives on Sumatra, they reached Batavia on Java. Bontekoe was given an order to harass the Chinese coast. In 1625 Bontekoe returned to Holland.

After his return, he settled down in Hoorn to live a quiet life. On March 1, 1626, at the age of 38, Bontekoe married Eeltje Bruijnes. Bontekoe might have been forgotten; this book is about his voyage with the Nieuw Hoorn, the shipwreck, the adventurous voyage to Java in lifeboats, his subsequent years of service in East Asia. It was first printed by Hoorn printer Jan Deutel, a Protestant rederijker who edited Bontekoe's prose; the book is illustrated with etchings and was a bestseller in the 17th and 18th centuries: before 1800, sixty editions and many translations had been published, it was republished a number of times in the 19th and 20th centuries. Deutel had molded Bontekoe's journal into a fashionable form that combined adventure and religion to make a book with educational and literary appeal. Bontekoe set out from Texel on December 1618 as skipper of the Nieuw Hoorn, an East Indiaman, his destination was the town of Bantam on Java. The merchant Hein Rol had formally the upper command. After passing the coast of Brazil, at the end of May 1619 the ship passed Cape Hope, where it did not stop due to the weather.

Instead it stayed for 21 days in Réunion and 9 days at Île Sainte-Marie near the coast of Madagascar. It departed from there on 8 September; the ship sailed alone through the Indian Ocean. By 17 of the 216 crew members had died. A fire, caused by a shipmate accidentally setting fire to a cask of brandy, caused the gunpowder magazine to explode and sink the ship. Of the 119 still on the ship only two survived, including Bontekoe. Seventy more had escaped before the sinking in two lifeboats, they continued in the two boats. Sails were made from the shirts of the crew, they were hungry and thirsty, some drank urine. Bontekoe did the latter too. Sometimes there was relief by being able to catch birds and flying fish, by rain supplying drinking water; the hunger became so severe again. Just in time, 13 days after the ship wreck, they reached land, it was an island in the Sunda Strait, 15 miles off Sumatra. They went on to Sumatra, where they encountered locals from whom they could first buy food, but who attacked them.

Eleven crew members were killed, four had to be abandoned. In the end, 55 survivors reached Batavia, after encountering a Dutch fleet of 23 ships near Java under the command of Frederik de Houtman, which saved them from going to the now-hostile Bantam. Divided over the ships they got to Batavia on Java, where Bontekoe and Rol were received by Jan Pieterszoon Coen, who gave Bontekoe a new command and an order to harass the Chinese coast, he narrowly survived a hurricane, returned to Hoorn a wealthy man. He became a trader, twenty years after his return published his journal; the first part of the journal became the basis of a popular children's book by author Johan Fabricius, De Scheepsjongens van Bontekoe, in which four teenage boys in the crew play the central roles. The book was the basis of a film adaptation released in 2007; the city of Hoorn has a statue of Hajo and Padde on the quay wall. In 1995 and 1996, on the occasion of the 350th anniversary of the journal's publication, a new edition, an edited collection of essays, an annotated bibliography were published.

Bontekoe, Willem Ysbrandz. Die vier und zwantzigste Schiffahrt, 1648. Frankfurt/Main ed. facsimile ed. 1993, introd. by Augustus J. Veenendaal, Jr. Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, ISBN 978-0-8201-1485-9. ---, Iovrnael ofte gedenkwaerdige beschrij vinghe. Ed. V. D. Roeper. Amsterdam: Terra Incognita, 1996. ISBN 9073853087. Bostoen, Remmelt Daalder, Vibeke Roeper, Garreit Verhoeven, Diederick Wildeman. Bontekoe. Zutphen. ISBN 9060119487. Verhoeven and Piet Verkruijsse, Iovrnael ofte Gedenk waerdige beschrijvinghe van de Oost-Indische Reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1996. ISBN 9060119479. Works by or about Willem Bontekoe at In