The Dayak or Dyak or Dayuh are the native people of Borneo. It is a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic subgroups, located principally in the central and southern interior of Borneo, each with its own dialect, laws and culture, although common distinguishing traits are identifiable. Dayak languages are categorised as part of the Austronesian languages in Asia; the Dayak were animist in belief. Today most Dayak still follow their ancient animistic traditions, but state to belong to one of the six recognized religions in Indonesia; the Dayak people of Borneo possess an indigenous account of their history in oral literature in writing in papan turai, in common cultural customary practices. Among prominent accounts of the origin of the Dayak people is the mythical oral epic of "Tetek Tahtum" by the Ngaju Dayak of Central Kalimantan; the independent state of Nansarunai, established by the Ma'anyan Dayaks prior to the 12th century, flourished in southern Kalimantan. The kingdom suffered two major attacks from the Majapahit forces that caused the decline and fall of the kingdom by the year 1389.
These attacks contributed to the migration of the Ma'anyans to the South Borneo region. The colonial accounts and reports of Dayak activity in Borneo detail cultivated economic and political relationships with other communities as well as an ample body of research and study concerning the history of Dayak migrations. In particular, the Iban or the Sea Dayak exploits in the South China Seas are documented, owing to their ferocity and aggressive culture of war against sea dwelling groups and emerging Western trade interests in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1838, British adventurer James Brooke arrived to find the Sultan of Brunei fending off rebellion from warlike inland tribes. Sarawak was in chaos. Brooke put down the rebellion, was made Governor of Sarawak in 1841, with the title of Rajah. Brooke pacified the natives, including the Dayaks, he suppressed piracy. Brooke's most famous Iban enemy was Libau "Rentap". Brooke had many Dayaks in his forces at this battle, famously said "Only Dayaks can kill Dayaks.
So he deployed Dayaks to kill Dayaks." Sharif Mashor, a Melanau from Mukah, was another enemy of Brooke. During World War II, Japanese forces occupied Borneo and treated all of the indigenous peoples poorly – massacres of the Malay and Dayak peoples were common among the Dayaks of the Kapit Division. In response, the Dayaks formed a special force to assist the Allied forces. Eleven US airmen and a few dozen Australian special operatives trained a thousand Dayaks from the Kapit Division in guerrilla warfare; this army of tribesmen killed or captured some 1,500 Japanese soldiers and provided the Allies with vital intelligence about Japanese-held oil fields. During the Malayan Emergency the British military hired Dayak headhunters to kill anti-colonial fighters of the Malayan National Liberation Army. News of this reached parliament in 1952 after The Daily Worker published photographs of Royal Marines posing with Dayak trackers holding the decapitated heads of suspected communists; the British government denied any involvement in headhunting, until Colonial Secretary Oliver Lyttleton confirmed to parliament that the photographs were indeed authentic.
Coastal populations in Borneo are Muslim in belief, however these groups are considered to be Malayised and Islamised native of Borneo and amalgated by the Malay people and sultanate system. These groups identified themselves as Melayu or Malay subgroup due to the closer cultural identity to the Malay people, compared from the Dayak umbrella classification, as the latter are traditionally associated for their pagan belief and tribal lifestyle; the Dayak people classification are limited among the ethnic groups traditionally concentrated in southern and interior Sarawak and Kalimantan. Other native groups in dwelling in northern Sarawak, parts of Brunei and Sabah, chiefly the Bisayah, Orang Ulu, Melanau and dozens of smaller group were categorised under a separate classification apart from the Dayaks due to the difference in culture and history. Other groups in coastal areas of Sabah and northeastern Kalimantan; these groups though may be indigenous to coastal northeastern Borneo, they are nonetheless not Dayak, but instead are grouped under the separate umbrella term of Moro in the Philippines.
The term Dayak was coined by Europeans referring to the non-Malay and non-Muslim inhabitants of central and southern Borneo. There are seven main ethnic divisions of Dayaks according to their respective native languages which are: 1. Ngaju 2. Apo Kayan including Orang Ulu 3. Iban or Hiban 4. Bidayuh or Klemantan 5. Kadazan, Murut 6. Punan 7. Ot DanumUnder the main classifications, there are dozens of ethnics and hundreds of sub-ethnics dwelling in the Borneo island. There are over 50 ethnic Dayak groups speaking di
The consumption and production of marketed food are spatially separated. Production is in rural areas while consumption is in urban areas. Agricultural marketing is the process that overcomes this separation, allowing produce to be moved from an area of surplus to one of need. Food reaches the consumer by a complex network, involving production, sorting, reassembly and retail stages. In developing countries the linkage between the producer and the retailer is still provided by assembly and wholesale markets, where wholesale marketing takes place using a variety of transaction methods. Recent years have seen an expansion of wholesale marketing in former CIS countries. On the other hand, the growth of supermarkets in many regions has seen the development of direct marketing and a reduced role for wholesale systems. Wholesale markets can either be primary, or terminal, situated in or close to major conurbations, or secondary markets; the latter are found only in larger developing countries where they are located in district or regional cities, taking the bulk of their produce from rural assembly markets that are located in production areas The distinction between rural assembly markets and secondary wholesale markets is that secondary wholesale markets are in permanent operation, larger volumes of produce are traded than at the rural assembly markets and specialized functions may be present, such as commission agents and brokers.
Terminal wholesale markets are located in major metropolitan areas, where produce is channeled to consumers through trade between wholesalers and retailers, etc. Produce may be assembled for export. In some countries, such as India and China, terminal markets supply other parts of the country. For example, New Delhi serves as a distribution centre to the south of India for apples grown in the Himalayan foothills; the problems of terminal wholesale markets are ones of congestion caused by an unsuitable location or by an inappropriate mixture of wholesale and retail functions. Traditionally, wholesale markets were built adjacent to city centres, located at a focal point of the inter-city transport facilities and close to the main retailing areas. Population growth, changes in urban land-use patterns and the development of modern transport systems have all influenced the suitability and functionality of existing sites. Wholesaling facilitates the economic function of buying and selling by allowing the forces of supply and demand to converge to establish a single price for a commodity.
The wholesaler may perform storage and warehousing functions, as well as allowing economies of scale to be obtained in the transportation of produce from farm to market. The people involved in wholesaling can act as merchants and selling produce, can be brokers dealing in orders rather than goods, or can be commission agents. Prices are established by negotiation but some wholesale markets use the auction system; the auction is compulsory in all wholesale markets in big cities in Japan. A comparison of the Japanese system with that in Brisbane, found that prices moved more and with a greater degree of volatility in Japan than those at Brisbane. Wholesale markets develop in a number of stages, they start as general markets become more specialized by trading in specific types of products. A stage is to transact only graded and well-packaged produce. A recent trend in Western Europe and the USA is for large retailers to by-pass the wholesale market system. Direct links are created between producers and supermarket chains by means of contract farming arrangements or through the use of preferred suppliers.
Following the collapse of the iron curtain a large number of markets were developed in Eastern and Central Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. Examples include markets in Warsaw, Gdansk and Bucharest. In other parts of the world, new markets have been built in Amman and Mumbai, among many recent developments. Few new wholesale markets have been built in western countries in the last decades, although old markets have been relocated to new sites; those that exist have tended to attract warehouses for integrated food distribution, changing their role to "food centers" and including other non-fresh food products. Wholesale markets still have a role in the marketing of horticultural produce but the traditional fresh meat and fish wholesale markets those dealing with wholesale live produce, are being closed down in major urban centres. In developing countries, changes in work patterns the employment of women, the impact of technological innovations in post-harvest handling, food processing and storage, including the use of domestic refrigerators, tends to encourage the development of one-stop shopping at supermarkets on a once-a-week basis.
The challenge for wholesale markets in such a trading environment is to retain turnover, both by providing new services to supermarkets and by developing services to the non-supermarket trade and the growing hotel and catering sectors. The World Union of Wholesale Markets aims to represent wholesale markets internationally, promote the exchange of information between them for mutual benefit. Food marketing
The Capricieuse was a late 22-gun corvette of the French Navy. Capricieuse was commissioned under Arnault de Gorse on 1 September 1849. From 1850, she served in the Far East under Captain Rocquemaurel, returning to Toulon in 1854, she took part in the Crimean War as a troopship. Capricieuse returned to China in 1856. In 1858, she took part in the Battle of Canton, being present at the capture of the city on 30 January and at the Battle of Taku Forts, she returned to Toulon in 1860. Struck in 1865, she was broken up in 1868. Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours 1 1671 - 1870. P. 97. ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922