click links in text for more info

Days of May

The Days of May was a period of social unrest and political tension in the United Kingdom in May 1832, after Tories in the House of Lords blocked the Third Reform Bill, which aimed to extend parliamentary representation to the middle class and to the newly industrialised cities of the English Midlands and the North of England. The campaign to broaden the electoral franchise had garnered wide and organised national support over the preceding years, led by Thomas Attwood's Birmingham Political Union, which boasted that it "had united two million men peacefully and in one grand and determined association to recover the liberty, the happiness, the prosperity of the country". While Attwood was careful to keep the unions' activities legal and non-violent, he encouraged the widespread belief that they were a powerful and independent extra-parliamentary force; the fall of the bill, the subsequent resignation of the Whig government of Lord Grey, were met with rioting, campaigns of economic sabotage and threats of armed insurrection that many contemporaries judged to be credible.

The crisis was defused by the reinstatement of Grey's government on 15 May and King William IV's agreement in principle to create enough new peers to build a Whig majority in the Lords which would allow the bill to pass. The Lords backed down in the face of this threat, the Great Reform Act was passed by Parliament, it received Royal Assent on 7 June 1832. Historians debate how decisive this extra-parliamentary pressure was in securing the passage of the bill, but the period is seen as one of the times when the UK came closest to revolution. Parliamentary representation was limited and haphazard in 18th and early 19th century Britain: in 1780 it was calculated that there were only 214,000 qualified to vote in England and Wales out of a total population of 8 million; the onset of the industrial revolution wrought sweeping social and economic change across the country, but the unchanged electoral system left political structures which failed to reflect the realities of economic power. In 1830, fifty-six rotten boroughs elected two MPs each but had fewer than fifty voters, while Manchester, Birmingham and Sheffield, with a combined population of more than 540,000, had not one MP between them.

Reform had a record of inspiring popular discontent. In 1819 a crowd of 15,000 had gathered at Newhall Hill in Birmingham to symbolically elect Charles Wolsley as the town's "Legislatorial Attorney and Representative" in Westminster. Lord John Russell tried sporadically and unsuccessfully during the 1820s to abolish specific rotten boroughs and transfer representation to larger towns, but the newly elected Whig government headed by Lord Grey in November 1830 was the first to commit to parliamentary reform. Grey formed a committee to draft reform proposals that would be sufficient to quell public opinion and "afford sure ground of resistance to further innovation", but the resulting Reform Bill received only lukewarm support in parliament and further elections were held in May 1831. Newly armed with a majority of over 130 seats, Grey introduced a Second Reform Bill in July 1831, which passed through the House of Commons with a majority of 140, but was defeated in the House of Lords in October amid rioting in Derby and Bristol.

By the 1830s the most influential extra-parliamentary support for reform came from the Birmingham Political Union, founded by Thomas Attwood in December 1829 as "a General Political Union between the lower and middle classes of the people" to engineer the political reform that Attwood had come to think necessary to achieve his ultimate goal of currency reform. The unusually small size of the units of production characteristic of the Birmingham economy, coupled with the resulting high degree of social mobility and shared economic interest between Birmingham workers and factory owners, enabled the BPU to attract a broad support across classes and maintain its position of leadership among the hundreds of more fragmented unions that followed its example and formed across the country in 1830 and 1831; the BPU had made its reputation amid the spontaneous rioting that had accompanied the fall of the First Reform Bill in 1831, assembling 150,000 protesters at Newhall Hill in the largest political assembly the country had seen.

Its threat to reorganise itself along semi-military lines in November 1831 had led to suggestions that it was trying to usurp the civil authority, made a deliberate, if implicit, threat of the possibility of armed revolt in the event of the formation of an anti-reform government. The Times called the BPU "the barometer of the reform feeling throughout England", while Attwood himself was dubbed "King Tom" by William Cobbett and described by Francis Place as "the most influential man in England". On 9 May 1832, after the Great Reform Act had been vetoed by the House of Lords, the Prime Minister, Earl Grey, handed in his resignation, he was replaced by the Duke of a Tory, who opposed the Reform Act. Lord Grey commented that Wellington was a man who "didn't understand the character of the times", referring to the fact that Wellington believed the pressure for change was insignificant and the electoral system was fine as it was; the news of Grey's resignation was not reported in London on the day it happened, but on 10 May 1832, news reached Birmingham about the situation.

Pro-reform organisations such as the Birmingham Political Union played a major part in the protests. The

9 Mile, Lae

9 Mile is a large village in the Markham Valley of Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. It lies along the Highlands Highway 9 miles from the center of Lae between the foothills of the Atzera Range and the Markham River; the Atzera Range starts at Bugandi and runs adjacent to the Markham River has an elevation of 280 meters above sea level. Northwest of Lae, 7 kilometres southeast of Nadzab; the landscape is lowland rainforest. Anticlines in the vicinity of Lae, such as the Atzera Range and hills near Situm, appear to indicate that the Ramu-Markham Fault changes dip close to the surface from a steep ramp to a shallow fault, breaching the surface south of Lae; the Lae Seismic Zone has been identified between the Atzera Range and Situm which has the potential to generate shallow Mw~7.0 earthquakes and landslides around the Atzera Range. The possibility of major landsides in this area has increased as a result of human modification to the natural vegetation cover through clearing and gardening. Before the construction of the Highlands Highway, a road in the Atzera foothills in the Markham Valley connected Nadzab with Lae and a rough trail on the other side of the Atzeras paralleled this road from Lae to Yalu.

Edward's Plantation was located around 5 Mile, Heath's Plantation around 6 Mile, Lane's Plantation and Whittaker's Plantation around 9 Mile and Jensen's Plantation around 10 Mile. On 10 September the 25th Australian Infantry Brigade moved East from Nadzab towards Lae along the Atzera foothills with fierce battles through these plantations while the 9th Division approached Lae from the East. On 16 September both units converged on Lae The National Agricultural Research Institute conducts and fosters applied and development oriented research in the agriculture and rural development sectors in Papua New Guinea and is responsible for providing analytical and advisory services and up-to-date information to the agriculture sector in PNG. With its headquarters at Bubia, Ten Mile outside Lae, NARI’s regional research and development co-ordination centers are located at Aiyura in Eastern Highlands Province, Tambul in Western Highlands Province, Laloki in Central Province, Bubia in Morobe Province, Keravat in East New Britain Province.

The NARI’s livestock research and development centre is at Labu in Morobe Province and the Chemistry Laboratory at Kilakila in Port Moresby. In 1978 the Human Ecology Programme of the Department of Minerals and Energy, assisted by the UNEP and Unesco and in co-operation with the Lae City Council, instigated the Atzera Hills Project, described as an ecologically sound management system to arrest the rapid deterioration and loss of productive capacity of 600 ha of Atzera Hills; the Atzera project folded after only three years despite efforts to train and raise awareness on the benefits of charcoal, the uptake in PNG households was minimal. Heavy rains in 2005 resulted in the Morobe administration highlighting the vulnerability of the city to the weather and recommending that a major rehabilitation programme be started to reforest the surrounding hills behind the city to prevent soil erosion; this problem has been exacerbated as a result of the increased number of squatter settlements

Kinnel Water

The Kinnel Water is a river in the Scottish council area of Dumfries and Galloway, in the shire of Dumfriesshire. The Kinnel Water rises on the southern edge of the Lowther Hills around two kilometers north of the top of Queensberry near the border with the neighboring council area of South Lanarkshire. A source river flows from the River Clyde, which flows to the northwest, at a distance of around 400 m. After its upper course follows a south-eastern direction through a hilly landscape, its course takes a southern direction after about nine kilometers. For a few kilometers, the A701 runs parallel to the left bank before crossing the river. After its underflow has led the Kinnel Water through a fertile land that it flows around two kilometers northeast of Lochmaben in the River Annan, which drained into the Irish Sea via the Solway Firth. With a total length of around 32 km, the river overcomes a height of 402 m. Numerous streams flow into the Kinnel Water on its course, but it has no significant inflows other than the Water of Ae that flows into Templand.

The Kinnel Water runs through a sparsely populated region, so that it affects few towns, of which Templand is the most populous. The Kinnel Bridge is protected as a Category A monument; the three-arch stone bridge was expanded around 100 years later. In Templand, the river passes through the listed farmhouse Ross Mains. Next is upriver with Raehills House, a mansion of the Earl of Annandale and Hartfell near the right bank

Gholamreza Emrani

Gholamreza Emrani is an Iranian linguist and an iconic figure in the field of Sistanian studies. He is best known for his extensive contributions to the Iranian Curriculum Development Center as well as publishing a lot of exquisite works under the title of the Majmue-ye-Sistan concerning with Sistanian dialect documentation. Apart from his academic career and contributions to the Iranian Ministry of Education, he has published many books falling into several categories, including Persian history and literature, numerous articles in linguistics in national language journals. Moreover, the Sistan Series, his multi-volume set of analytical and descriptive documentation of Sistanian dialect, regarded as the best work of its kind in Iran, was appreciated in the Iranian Season's Book Awards ceremony in 2010

Core International

Core International, Inc. known as Core, was a multinational computer and technology corporation headquartered in Boca Raton, United States. The company no longer exists as stand-alone identity; the company was founded in 1979 by Hal Prewitt as a technology firm to develop and support computer related products and services. They were best known for supporting IBM's first business microcomputers such as the 5100, 5110 and 5120. With the introduction of the IBM PC and PC AT, the company provided an extensive line of disk drives and personal computer products. Core became well known as a leading industry developer of disk array and computer data storage. Many of Core's products were the first of their kind, had no direct competition and were regarded for their superior performance and reliability. Users and the computer press raved about Core's products. InfoWorld described Core's ATplus "is built like a Sherman tank, offering exceptional performance and reliability." PC Magazine called them "Workhorses of Performance Computing" and "High-quality construction..breaks the speed barrier for access times" and asked "Will other manufactures follow suit?"

Core was known for their advertising and produced a few of the PC Industry's greatest promotions. The 1985 and 1986 rebate and recall Ad for IBM PC AT hard disk drives. So successful and controversial, there was a rumor it was a topic at an IBM board of directors meeting, and the time where they gave away a free IBM PC AT when purchasing one of Core's ATplus 72 MB drives. Core remained a private company owned by Prewitt until 1993 when purchased by Aiwa, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony. For business history pre-incorporation The company was built on the early work of Prewitt using his business and personal computer development experiences; this was the period during the creation of the first microcomputers, the launch of the Altair 8800 and founding of Microsoft. He was selling and programming Minicomputers and assembling these microcomputers, attaching computer peripherals and building them into business computer systems. Core was created under a different business model, it was marketed as an association and structured as a for-profit organization for users of the IBM 5100 Series and IBM System/23.

The objective was to sell by mail-order computer supplies, pre-developed programs and hardware maintenance service. Supplies included printer ribbons and paper, tape cartridges. Software ranged from simple mortgage interest calculations, word processing and utilities to advanced payroll and industry specific applications. Users wanted available, simple to install and support for software, low in cost. Core was able to fill this niche because IBM had developed the machines with engineering and scientific applications in mind, while business programs such as construction and manufacturing were not available. Computer maintenance was an insurance program that provided on-site repairs and replacement parts, all provided by IBM service but at a lower cost than available directly from IBM; the company was successful attracting users of the IBM 5100 Series as many IBM Sales Representatives referred their customers to the organization. While Core grew, profits were used for the continuing development of computer data storage.

These IBM machines had a closed architecture, with most the design information unpublished and held secret. Computer systems of this design are or most impossible to have the ability to swap components, obtain support from other vendors or upgrade to better configuration/another model unless that option is available from the original manufacturer; the limitations make a customer dependent on one vendor for products and services for the software and hardware parts of the system. Core sensed an opportunity to provide faster computer data storage. After a five-year effort, in September 1982 they announced the availability of the first hard disk drives and local area network for the IBM 5100 Series. IBM systems as sold were storage limited and without a network option. Core drives were available starting at 10 MB and increased up to 160 MB in removable and fixed configurations. CoreNet, the LAN built into each Core storage system, allowed interconnection of up to eight IBM 5100 Series systems, providing the ability to share storage and data.

This configuration compatibles. In 1983, Core introduced two major solutions as IBM was withdrawing from marketing the IBM 5100 series. First, software called PC51 that would run allowed 5100 series computer programs written in BASIC to run unmodified on the IBM PC and compatibles under MS-DOS, and second, a LAN card for the IBM PC and compatibles that provided connection to the IBM 5100 Series network. These solutions allowed IBM 5110/5120 series users to add new technology and increase productivity while retaining their investment in equipment and software. Core's development of their storage systems, LAN and PC51 software was major technology engineering feat without rivals. Due to the complexity and the successful reverse engineering of the systems, resulted in captive market as they were the only organization able to provide an upgrade path for these IBM owners. In 1984, CORE entered the personal computer marketplace; the company's first product introduced the year before, called PC-51, was a new operating system for the IBM PC and compatibles.

It enabled a PC to function like an IBM 5110/5120 system, demonstrating the company's strong software developmen

Federated Women's Club State Forest

Federated Women's Club State Forest is a Massachusetts state forest located in the towns of Petersham and New Salem. Notable forest scenery is found along wooded roads with views of Fever Brook, dammed and provides a stopover for migrating birds; the forest's most prominent geological feature, "The Gorge," is found in the southwest part of the property. The forest is managed by the Department of Recreation. Camping: There are a limited number of primitive campsites which are first-come, first-served. Registration is at Erving State Forest. Trails are used for cross-country skiing; the forest offers fishing and restricted hunting. Federated Women's Club State Forest Department of Conservation and Recreation Campground Map Department of Conservation and Recreation