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Dayton Agreement

The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina known as the Dayton Agreement or the Dayton Accords, is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, United States, on 1 November 1995, formally signed in Paris, on 14 December 1995. These accords put an end to the 3 1⁄2 - one of the Yugoslav Wars; the warring parties agreed to peace and to a single sovereign state known as Bosnia and Herzegovina composed of two parts, the Serb-populated Republika Srpska and the Croat-Bosniak Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Though basic elements of the Dayton Agreement were proposed in international talks as early as 1992, these negotiations were initiated following the unsuccessful previous peace efforts and arrangements, the August 1995 Croatian military Operation Storm and its aftermath, the government military offensive against the Republika Srpska, conducted in parallel with NATO's Operation Deliberate Force. During September and October 1995, world powers, gathered in the Contact Group, applied intense pressure to the leaders of the three sides to attend the negotiations in Dayton, Ohio.

The conference took place from 1–21 November 1995. The main participants from the region were the President of the Republic of Serbia Slobodan Milošević, President of Croatia Franjo Tuđman, President of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović with his Foreign Minister Muhamed Šaćirbeg; the peace conference was led by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher, negotiator Richard Holbrooke with two Co-Chairmen in the form of EU Special Representative Carl Bildt and the First Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia Igor Ivanov. A key participant in the US delegation was General Wesley Clark; the head of the UK's team was Pauline Neville-Jones, political director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The UK military representative was Col Arundell David Leakey. Paul Williams, through the Public International Law & Policy Group served as legal counsel to the Bosnian Government delegation during the negotiations; the secure site was chosen in order to remove all the parties from their comfort zone, without which they would have little incentive to negotiate.

Curbing the participants' ability to negotiate via the media was a important consideration. Richard Holbrooke wanted to prevent posturing through early leaks to the press. Holbrooke sticks to make the conflict ` ripe' for peace. After having been initiated in Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November 1995, the full and formal agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995 and witnessed by Spanish Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez, French President Jacques Chirac, US President Bill Clinton, UK Prime Minister John Major, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin; the agreement's main purpose is to promote peace and stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to endorse regional balance in and around the former Yugoslavia, thus in a regional perspective. The present political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its structure of government were agreed upon, as part the constitution that makes up Annex 4 of the General Framework Agreement concluded at Dayton. A key component of this was the delineation of the Inter-Entity Boundary Line to which many of the tasks listed in the Annexes referred.

The State of Bosnia Herzegovina was set as of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and of the Republika Srpska. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a complete state, as opposed to a confederation. Although decentralised in its entities, it would still retain a central government, with a rotating State Presidency, a central bank and a constitutional court; the agreement mandated a wide range of international organizations to monitor and implement components of the agreement. The NATO-led IFOR was responsible for implementing military aspects of the agreement and deployed on 20 December 1995, taking over the forces of the UNPROFOR; the Office of the High Representative was charged with the task of civil implementation. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe was charged with organising the first free elections in 1996. On 13 October 1997, the Croatian 1861 Law Party and the Bosnia-Herzegovina 1861 Law Party requested the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina to annul several decisions and to confirm one decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and, more to review the constitutionality of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina since it was alleged that the agreement violated the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina in a way that it undermined the integrity of the state and could cause the dissolution of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Court reached the conclusion that it is not competent to decide the dispute in regards to the mentioned decisions since the applicants were not subjects that were identified in Article VI.3 of the Constitution on those who can refer disputes to the Court. The Court rejected the other request: the Constitutional Court is not competent to evaluate the constitutionality of the General Framework Agreement as the Constitutional Court has in fact been established under the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to uphold this Constitution The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted as Annex IV to the Gene

Dyscophus antongilii

Dyscophus antongilii, the Madagascar tomato frog, is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae. Females are much larger than males, reaching up to 230 g in weight. Tomato frogs live up to their name by possessing a orange-red colour. Females are much larger than males and have brighter tones of red or orange on their back, with a pale undersurface; some individuals have black spots on the throat. It is thought that the brilliant colours of the tomato frog act as a warning to potential predators that these frogs are toxic. Endemic to Madagascar, tomato frogs are found in the northeast of the island around Antongil Bay, south to Andevoranto; the exact distribution of this species is unclear however, due to confusion with the related D. guineti. The tomato frog breeds in shallow pools and areas of slow-moving water; these frogs are found from sea level to elevations of around 200 metres. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, swamps, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, arable land, rural gardens, urban areas degraded former forest and canals and ditches.

Tomato frogs breed in February to March following heavy rainfall. Following copulation, females will lay a clutch of 1,000 to 15,000 eggs on the surface of the water. Tadpoles hatch from these small white eggs about 36 hours later. Tadpoles undergo metamorphosis into yellow juveniles and this stage is completed around 45 days after the eggs were laid. Ambushing potential prey, adult tomato frogs feed on small invertebrates, such as beetles and flies; when threatened, these frogs can inflate themselves. The tomato frog is classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, listed on Appendix I of CITES. Numbers of the tomato frog have been declining as a result of habitat degradation and pollution and the over-collection of these brightly coloured amphibians for the pet trade. Collecting activity, the associated decline in population, was predominately focused near to the town of Maroantsetra; the tomato frog was included on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species in response to this pressure.

Research into captive breeding techniques for the tomato frog has been carried out by Baltimore Zoo in the United States in an effort to boost the small and genetically deprived captive population that exists in that country. A consortium of U. S. zoos that form the Madagascar Fauna Group have established an exhibit at the Parc Zoologique Ivoloina, Madagascar in an attempt to help educate local people about this attractive member of their natural heritage. Little is known about the tomato frog and further research into its distribution and potential threats is urgently needed before effective conservation measures can be put into place, it is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, but this move has been criticised by some authors as an ineffective strategy and one that has undermined the status of the unlisted D. guineti. Furthermore, research is needed to determine if D. antongilii is in fact a separate species or a variant of D. guineti. This article incorporates text from the ARKive fact-file "Dyscophus antongilii" under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and the GFDL


Schneppenbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde Kirner Land. Schneppenbach lies in the southern Hunsrück on the western edge of the Lützelsoon ridge and east of the Hahnenbach valley; the nearest major towns are Simmern. Schneppenbach sits at an elevation of 424 m above sea level. Clockwise from the north, Schneppenbach's neighbours are the municipalities of Woppenroth, which lies in the neighbouring Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis, which lies in the Bad Kreuznach district, Bundenbach, which lies in the neighbouring Birkenfeld district. From the Early Middle Ages, Schneppenbach belonged to a major landhold of Saint Maximin's Imperial Abbey at Trier; the 2,742-hectare landhold comprised, besides the centres of Blickersau and Kaffeld, which vanished, the villages of Woppenroth, Schneppenbach and the main centre and parish seat of Hausen bei Rhaunen.

Until the 18th century, Schneppenbach was administratively bound with the Schmidtburg, which nowadays stands within the village's municipal limits. The castle, whose beginnings go back at least as far as 929, as far as 926, is one of the oldest in the Nahe-Hunsrück region and is believed to have been the family seat of the Counts in the Nahegau, the Emichones, their coheirs and rightful successors, the Waldgraves, owned the castle in the 12th and 13th centuries. Internal Waldgravial family disputes, resulted in ownership being transferred about 1330 to Archbishop and Elector of Trier Baldwin of Luxembourg. Under Baldwin, the castle was expanded, in the time that followed, it became the seat of the Electoral-Trier Amt of Schmidtburg. While Bundenbach was the only village in the Amt that stood wholly under Electoral-Trier sovereignty and Schneppenbach formed a condominium and belonged jointly to the Electorate of Trier and the Knights of Wildberg; when the Amt of Schmidtburg was pledged to the Electoral-Trier Amtmann Nikolaus von Schmidtburg sometime before 1554, he temporarily introduced Calvinism.

By 1626, the villages had reverted to Catholicism. In 1563, there were nine households in Schneppenbach, five in 1684 and eleven in 1715 that belonged to the Electoral-Trier Amt of Schmidtburg. About 1650, records show. Schneppenbach formed together with Bruschied an Ingericht; the two villages’ inhabitants only owned one chapel, attended the main services in Bundenbach. In 1794, during the War of the First Coalition, the German lands on the Rhine’s left bank were occupied by the French, in 1798, the region was reorganized on the French administrative model by the French Directory. With this French administrative reform, the Amt of Schmidtburg was dissolved. Schneppenbach passed to the newly founded Mairie of Kirn in the Arrondissement of Simmern and the Department of Rhin-et-Moselle, remaining there for the rest of French Revolutionary and Napoleonic times. In 1817, it passed to the Bürgermeisterei of Gemünden in the Prussian Simmern district. In the course of administrative restructuring in Rhineland-Palatinate after the Second World War, Schneppenbach was assigned to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kirn-Land.

For information about Schneppenbach's former small Jewish community, bound with the one in Hennweiler, see the Jewish history section in that article. Like many places in the region, Schneppenbach can claim to have had its dealings with the notorious outlaw Schinderhannes. On 25 February 1799 at five o’clock in the morning, the Gendarmerie raided the Budzliese-Amie, a house nestled in rustic charm in Schneppenbach, there managed to arrest Schinderhannes; the miller at the Römermühle had given the authorities the “hot tip”. The event is commemorated in Carl Zuckmayer’s play Schinderhannes in the song “Schinderhanneslied”: “Im Schneppenbacher Forste, da geht der Teufel rumdibum…”. Schneppenbach's population development since Napoleonic times is shown in the table below; the figures for the years from 1871 to 1987 are drawn from census data: Most of Schneppenbach's inhabitants are Catholic. The Catholic church community belongs to the parish of Saint Francis Xavier in Bruschied and is administered by the Oberhausen parish office.

The Evangelical inhabitants are tended from Gemünden. As at 31 January 2014, there are 253 full-time residents in Schneppenbach, of those, 49 are Evangelical, 174 are Catholic, 1 belongs to another religious group and 29 either have no religion or will not reveal their religious affiliation; the council is made up of 6 council members, who were elected by majority vote at the municipal election held on 7 June 2009, the honorary mayor as chairman. Schneppenbach's mayor is Thomas Geib, his deputies are Markus Fey and Werner Hähn; the German blazon reads: Unter silbernem Schildhaupt, darin ein rotes Balkenkreuz, in Grün eine goldene Gewandschließe belegt mit 4 roten und 4 blauen Punkten im Wechsel, begleitet von 2 silbernen Rauten. The municipality's arms might in English heraldic language be described thus: Vert an arming buckle Or studded with eight roundels, four gules and four azure alternately, between two lozenges argent, on a chief of the fifth a cross of the third; the cross in chief is a reference to the village's former allegiance to the Electorate of Trier.

The buckle refers to the Family Schenk von Schmidtburg, whose painted coat of arms can be seen at the Koblenz State Archive (Abt

Arsela Peak

Arsela Peak is the peak rising to 1600 m near the south end of Owen Ridge, the southernmost portion of the main ridge of Sentinel Range in Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica. It has precipitous and ice-free north and southwest slopes, surmounts lower Nimitz Glacier to the southwest and the end of Wessbecher Glacier to the northeast; the peak is named after the Thracian settlement of Arsela in Southern Bulgaria. Arsela Peak is located at 78°56′29.6″S 84°35′19″W, 11 km southeast of Lishness Peak, 14.9 km west-southwest of Mountainview Ridge in Petvar Heights, 4 km north-northwest of Bowers Corner, 12.1 km northeast of O'Neal Nunataks in Bastien Range. US mapping in 1961 and 1988. Mountains in Antarctica Vinson Massif. Scale 1:250 000 topographic map. Reston, Virginia: US Geological Survey, 1988. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 updated. Arsela Peak. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer.

Antarctic Place-names Commission. Arsela Peak. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission

Pep (store)

Pep is a multinational retail company based in Cape Town, South Africa. Founded in 1965, Pep operated in 11 countries in Southern Africa with the opening of an outlet in Lobito, Angola in November 2008; as of November 2009, the company reported over 1400 stores in operation, with total employment equalling 14,000 employees. It owns and runs the largest clothing factory in southern Africa, where it manufactures much of its clothing. Pep's target market is the mass lower- to middle-income end of the market; as such it is the largest single-brand retailer in South Africa. Pep is a subsidiary of Pepkor. In 1971 Whitey Basson was approached by Renier van Rooyen to become the financial director of the retail clothing chain that van Rooyen had founded called Pep Stores Ltd. Van Rooyen was planning to list the company on the JSE as Pepkor. Basson agreed to join the company as financial director and in 1974 became head of operations. By 1981, Pep had grown to 500 stores, 10 factories, 12 000 employees and a turnover of close to R300 million.

At this point Christo Wiese bought out van Rooyen's holdings in Pepkor and became the major shareholder. Weise became the chairman of Pepkor. In 2014 Weise sold Pepkor to Steinhoff International in exchange for about 20% of Steinhoff's issued shares

Isaac Stevens

Isaac Ingalls Stevens was an American career Army officer and politician, who served as governor of the Territory of Washington from 1853 to 1857, as its delegate to the United States House of Representatives. During the American Civil War, he held several Union commands, he was killed at the Battle of Chantilly, while at the head of his men and carrying the fallen colors of one of his regiments against Confederate positions. According to one account, at the hour of his death Stevens was being considered by President Abraham Lincoln for appointment to command the Army of Virginia, he was posthumously advanced to the rank of Major General. Several schools, towns and lakes are named in his honor. Descended from early American settlers in New England, Stevens – a dwarf who stood just 5.25 ft tall – overcame a troubled childhood and personal setbacks to graduate at the top of his class at West Point before embarking on a successful military career. He was a controversial and polarizing figure as governor of the Washington Territory, where he was both praised and condemned.

He was described by one historian as the subject of more reflection and study than the rest of the territory's 19th-century history combined. Stevens' marathon diplomacy with Native American tribes sought to avoid military conflict in Washington, his decision to rule by martial law, jail judges who opposed him, raise a de facto personal army led to his conviction for contempt of court, for which he famously pardoned himself, a rebuke from the President of the United States. Nonetheless, his uncompromising decisiveness in the face of crisis was both applauded by his supporters and noted by historians. Isaac Stevens was the father of Hazard Stevens, the hero of the Battle of Suffolk and one of the first men to summit Mount Rainier. Isaac Stevens was born in North Andover, Massachusetts to Isaac Stevens and Hannah Stevens, a descendant of early Puritan settlers from a gentry family that had produced several distinguished members of the clergy and military; as a young man, he was noted for his intelligence his mathematical acuity.

His diminutive stature – in adulthood he stood 5 ft 3 in tall – has been attributed to a possible congenital gland malfunction. Stevens resented his father, described by historian Kent Richards as a "stern taskmaster", whose unrelenting demands on his son pushed the young man to his breaking point. While working on the family farm, Stevens once nearly died of sunstroke. After Stevens' mother died in a carriage accident, his widowed father married a woman whom Stevens disliked. According to Stevens, he came close to suffering a mental breakdown in his youth. Stevens graduated from the male prep school Phillips Academy in 1833 and was accepted to the United States Military Academy at West Point, he graduated in 1839 at the top of his class. Stevens was the adjutant of the Corps of Engineers during the Mexican–American War, seeing action at the siege of Vera Cruz and at Cerro Gordo and Churubusco. In the latter fight, he caught the attention of his superiors, who rewarded him with the brevet rank of captain.

He was again cited and breveted for gallantry at the Battle of Chapultepec, this time to the rank of major. Stevens participated in combat at Molino del Rey, the Battle for Mexico City, where he was wounded, he wrote a book on his adventures, Campaigns of the Rio Grande and Mexico, with Notices of the Recent Work of Major Ripley. He superintended fortifications on the New England coast from 1841 until 1849, he was given command of the coast survey office in Washington, D. C. serving in that role until March 1853. Stevens was a firm supporter of former brigadier general Franklin Pierce's candidacy for President of the United States in 1852, as both men had served in the Mexican–American War. Stevens was rewarded by President Pierce on March 17, 1853 by being named governor of the newly created Washington Territory.. Stevens chose to add one more duty as he traveled west to the territory he would govern: the government was calling for a surveyor to map an appropriate railroad route across the northern United States, hoping that a transatlantic railroad would open up Asian markets.

With Stevens' engineering experience, he won the bid. His party, which included Dr. George Suckley, John Mullan and Fred Burr, son of David H. Burr, spent most of 1853 moving across the prairie, surveying the way to Washington Territory. There Stevens met George McClellan's party, which had surveyed the line between the Puget Sound and the Spokane River, he took up his post at Olympia as governor in November that year. As a result of his expedition, Stevens wrote a third book, Report of Explorations for a Route for the Pacific Railroad near the 47th and 49th Parallels of North Latitude, from St. Paul, Minnesota, to Puget Sound. Stevens was a controversial governor in his time. Historians consider him more controversial, for his role in compelling the Native American tribes of Washington Territory by intimidation and force to sign treaties that ceded most of their lands and rights to Stevens' government; these included the Treaty of Medicine Creek, Treaty of Hellgate, Treaty of Neah Bay, Treaty of Point Elliott, Point No Point Treaty, Quinault Treaty.

During this time, the Governor imposed martial law to better impose his will on the Indians and whites who oppose