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Daytona Beach, Florida

Daytona Beach is a city in Volusia County, United States. It lies 51 miles northeast of Orlando, 86 miles southeast of Jacksonville, 265 miles northwest of Miami; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, it had a population of 61,005, it is a principal city of the Deltona–Daytona Beach–Ormond Beach metropolitan area, home to 600,756 people as of 2013. Daytona Beach is a principal city of the Fun Coast region of Florida; the city is known for its beach, where the hard-packed sand allows motorized vehicles to drive on the beach in restricted areas. This hard-packed sand made Daytona Beach a mecca for motorsports, the old Daytona Beach Road Course hosted races for over 50 years; this was replaced in 1959 by Daytona International Speedway. The city is the headquarters for NASCAR. Daytona Beach hosts large groups of out-of-towners during the year, who visit the city for various events, notably Speedweeks in early February when over 200,000 NASCAR fans come to attend the season-opening Daytona 500. Other events include the NASCAR Coke Zero Sugar 400 race in July, Bike Week in early March, Biketoberfest in late October, the 24 Hours of Daytona endurance race in January.

The area where Daytona Beach is located was once inhabited by the indigenous Timucuan Indians who lived in fortified villages. The Timucuas were nearly exterminated by contact with Europeans through war and disease and became extinct as a racial entity through assimilation and attrition during the 18th century; the Seminole Indians, descendants of Creek Indians from Georgia and Alabama, frequented the area prior to the Second Seminole War. During the era of British rule of Florida between 1763 and 1783, the King's Road passed through present-day Daytona Beach; the road extended from Saint Augustine, the capital of East Florida, to Andrew Turnbull's experimental colony in New Smyrna. In 1804 Samuel Williams received a land grant of 3,000 acres from the Spanish Crown, which had regained Florida from the British after the American Revolution; this land grant encompassed the area. Williams built a slave-labor-based plantation to grow cotton and sugar cane, his son Samuel Hill Williams would abandon the plantation during the Second Seminole War, when the Seminoles burned it to the ground.

The area now known as the Daytona Beach Historical District was once the Orange Grove Plantation, a citrus and sugar cane plantation granted to Samuel Williams in 1787. The plantation was situated on the west bank of the tidal channel known as the Halifax River, 12 miles north of Mosquito Inlet. Williams was a British loyalist from North Carolina who fled to the Bahamas with his family until the Spanish reopened Florida to non-Spanish immigration. After his death in 1810, the plantation was run by his family until it was burned down in 1835. In 1871, Mathias Day Jr. of Mansfield, purchased the 3,200 acre tract of the former Orange Grove Plantation. He built a hotel. In 1872, due to financial troubles, Day lost title to his land. In 1886, the St. Johns & Halifax River Railway arrived in Daytona; the line would be purchased in 1889 by Henry M. Flagler, who made it part of his Florida East Coast Railway; the separate towns of Daytona, Daytona Beach and Seabreeze merged as "Daytona Beach" in 1926, at the urging of civic leader J.

B. Kahn and others. By the 1920s, it was dubbed "The World's Most Famous Beach". Daytona's wide beach of smooth, compacted sand attracted automobile and motorcycle races beginning in 1902, as pioneers in the industry tested their inventions, it hosted land speed record attempts beginning in 1904, when William K. Vanderbilt set an unofficial record of 92.307 mph. Land speed racers from Barney Oldfield to Henry Seagrave to Malcolm Campbell would visit Daytona and make the 23 mi beach course famous. Record attempts, including numerous fatal endeavors such as Frank Lockhart and Lee Bible, would continue until Campbell's March 7, 1935 effort, which set the record at 276.816 mph and marked the end of Daytona's land speed racing days. On March 8, 1936, the first stock car race was held on the Daytona Beach Road Course, located in the present-day Town of Ponce Inlet. In 1958, William France Sr. and NASCAR created the Daytona International Speedway to replace the beach course. Automobiles are still permitted at a maximum speed of 10 mph.

Daytona Beach is located at 29°12′N 81°2′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 64.93 sq mi. of which 58.68 sq mi is land and 6.25 sq mi is water, with water thus comprising 9.6% of the total area. The city of Daytona Beach is split in two by the Halifax River lagoon, part of the Intracoastal Waterway, sits on the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered on the north by Holly Hill and Ormond Beach and on the south by Daytona Beach Shores, South Daytona and Port Orange. Daytona Beach has a humid subtropical climate, typical of the Gulf and South Atlantic states; as is typical of much of Florida, there are two seasons in Daytona Beach. In summer, temperatures are stable and there is an average of only 9.2 days annually with a maximum at or above 95 °F. The Bermuda High pumps hot and unstable tropical air from the Bahamas and Gulf of Mexico, resulti

Fathia Ghali

Fathia Ghali was the youngest daughter of Fuad I of Egypt and Nazli Sabri, so the youngest sister of Farouk I. Fathia was born on 17 December 1930 at El-Quba, Cairo, she was of Turkish, Albanian and Circassian descent. Her father died, she was raised close to her mother and her sister Faika. In 1948, she travelled with her sister Faika and her mother to the United States for her mother needed to undergo a kidney surgery. After her mother's surgery succeeded, Fathia settled in the United States for a long time, in 1949, her sister Faika married Fuad Sadek. After a while and in 1950, she herself married Riyad Ghali, their Royal Advisor, 11 years her senior, was a Christian. In 1950, Nazli and Fathia both converted from Islam to Catholicism, she married at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco, United States on 25 April 1950 and 11 May 1950. King Farouk was shocked and humiliated by the scandal and sacrilege, Farouk, in effect, excommunicated the two women, confiscating their extensive lands and banning them from Egypt forever.

Faika went back to Egypt in 1951 to get back her title, she did, her husband Fuad Sadek got the "Bekdom" or held the title "Fuad Bek Sadek". Fathia and her mother settled in the United States for the rest of her life, having many troubles that made her reach to living in a small flat in California. In 1973, she divorced Riyad Ghali because of bad investments that made them lose everything they owned, her mother's jewelry was sold for $1,500,000. Fathia worked as a cleaning lady to pay her debt; some time her mother sent a request to President Anwar El-Sadat to retrieve their Egyptian passports, which he granted. However, some days before them two going back to Egypt, Fathia was killed by her husband, as explained below. On 10 December 1976, the day she was returning to Egypt, she went to her ex-husband's house by the excuse of "taking Ghali's mother's clothes"; when she went, she found Ghali drunk, not wanting her to leave, using his revolver, he shot her with 6 shots in her head. Ghali tried to kill himself but he survived.

He went to prison. Some reports say. Fathia and Riad Ghali had three children, two sons and a daughter: Rafik Rayed Ranya Her Royal Highness, Princess Fathia Fuad of Egypt. Mrs. Fathia Ghali. Miss Fathia Fuad. Decoration of Al Kemal in brilliants. Nazli Sabri Farouk I Fuad I Kingdom of Egypt Anwar Al-Sadat Muhammad Ali Dynasty


Gökova is a municipality in the district of Ula in Muğla Province, Turkey. It lies at the head of the Gulf of Gökova in a plain known as Gökova; the ancient Carian city of Idyma, with its acropolis and necropolis, is located above Kozlukuyu Mahallesi at the northern end of Gökova town, not at nearby Akyaka as incorrectly stated. The name Gökova means "blue" "plain" and refers to the plain on which the town of Gökova is situated. Today in the plain of Gökova there are two towns called Gökova and Akyaka, six villages named Ataköy, Akçapinar, Gökçe, Çitlik, Şirinköy and Yeşilova; the population is about 10,000. Gökova town is situated about 2 km inland from the holiday resort of Akyaka. Gökova town is a separate municipality from Akyaka, yet Idyma's acropolis and necropolis are erroneously attributed to Akyaka. However, there is little of archaeological interest in Akyaka. Gökova town's Kozlukuyu Mahallesi is a first degree archaeological area with the ruins and rock cut chamber tombs of Idyma dating to 5th Century BC.

The first recorded mention of Idyma was in 546 BC. as a member of the Attika-Delos Sea Union founded against the Persians with the leadership of Athens. Idyma became a member of the Union by paying 890 Drachmas in taxes. Idyma minted its own silver coins in the second half of the 5thC BC; the coins show the head of the God Pan on the reverse side. Gökova was, until a village governed by a mukhtar. In 1999 it became a township or municipality with an elected mayor by a decision made by the Council of Ministers in November 1998. In the first local elections in April 1999, Mayor Durmus Ali Sazakli was elected; the Belediye has a small staff which may be expanded in the future. The township covers an area of 1,900,000 sq. metres. As the area of Kozlukuyu, lying directly at the foot of the Idyma necropolis, is now a first degree archaeological area, new building permission is refused. There is no direct route to either the acropolis or necropolis, both of which can only be reached by climbing. Gökova town consists of Gökova, Yazılıtaş and Çaydere.

The world-famous Okaliptus Tuneli or Eucalyptus Tunnel, part of Gökova Municipality - refers to the original route from Gökova town's'Dört Yol' to Marmaris which pre-world war two was lined on both sides with eucalyptus trees. The area was swampland and the governor of Muğla had the trees planted to dry up the swamps; the Okaliptus Tuneli is around 1.5 km in length. Gökova has the largest open market in the area; the market was until a few years ago, situated at the north end of Gökova and is still referred to by the traders as Kozlukuyu Pazarı rather than Gökova Pazarı. Since 2007 the produce stalls have been covered by a permanent roof and on days other than market day, the area serves to accommodate weddings and other social events. Gökova Town is famous for the Carian city of Idyma, the Idyma acropolis and roadside tombs some of which like other Gökova features are shown mistakenly on Akyaka's advertising and more for its wall and road-bridge paintings by a local artist. Gökova Belediyesi has a website covering all aspects of Gökova Town and a new website for the Gökova Environment Group both of which are listed below.

George E. Bean. Turkey beyond the Maeander. London: Frederick A. Praeger. ISBN 0-87471-038-3. Paavo Roos. Survey of rock-cut chamber-tombs in Caria. Paul Astroms Forlag. ISBN 978-91-7081-216-3. Registry setup. "Gökova-Akyaka | Gokova Akyaka on the net". Retrieved 2017-05-23

Mount Paiko

Mountain Paiko or Pajak in Bulgarian and Macedonian is a small mountain range that lies on the border of the Pella and Kilkis regional units in Central Macedonia, Greece. Morphologically, Paiko is a curvy extension to the north east of the adjacent Voras mountain range. Together they surround the plain of Aridea. East and south of Paiko are the plains of Giannitsa respectively; the highest peaks are Skra, Vertopia, Pirgos and Ghola Tsouka. Pirgos and Kadasti surround a large plateau at altitude around 1,200 m. Most areas of the plateau are residential or cultivated. Paiko is composed of igneous and sedimentary rocks carbonatite and ophiolite. Sedimentary rocks are found in the north eastern areas. Paiko is rich in surface and underground bodies of water potable. Springs exist at the foothills and small wetlands, connected by several streams, can be found at high altitudes. Two waterfalls and a lagoon of blue-green waters are located near the Skra peak. East of the mountain is a small artificial lake 35 m deep and of circumference around 4 km.

The vegetation of Paiko is considered lush. Large trees include: pine Quercus plane alder beech walnut chestnut cedrus willow populus apple treesSmaller plants and fungi include: Species of grass Shrubs such as wild strawberries Mushrooms - a rare species known only in northern areas was discovered in 2009. Fern Flowers like Primula vulgaris, Scilla bifolia, Viola odorata, Galanthus elwesii and Crocus veluchensis Beside mammals and vultures, notable animals include: Amphibians such as the great crested newt and the yellow-bellied toad. Reptiles such as Hermann's tortoise; the fish Sabanejewia aurata and the rare Mediterranean barbel. Lepidoptera such as the large copper butterfly and the Callimorpha quadripunctata moth. At Lake Metalleiou humans have introduced trout. Fishing is allowed under controlled conditions. List of mountains in Greece Battle of Skra-di-Legen

Robert E. Lee (steamboat)

Robert E. Lee, nicknamed the "Monarch of the Mississippi," was a steamboat built in New Albany, Indiana, in 1866; the hull was designed by DeWitt Hill, the riverboat cost more than $200,000 to build. It was named for General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States; the steamboat gained its greatest fame for racing and beating the then-current speed record holder, Natchez, in an 1870 steamboat race. Its capacity was 5741 bales of cotton. A local newspaper in New Albany described it: The cabin and outfit of this great southern steamer surpasses that of any boat that has yet graced the trade, her accommodations are on the same scale of grandeur and magnificence, she has sixty one staterooms in the main cabin, twenty four extra rooms in the texas for passengers, a nursery for servants and children, a cabin adjoining the nursery in which are staterooms for fifty passengers. … The main cabin carpet is a single piece 17 ½ feet wide and upwards of 225 feet in length, a royal Winton velvet purchased of A. T. Stewart of New York and made to order.

The furniture made to order, all of modern style and costly materials in fact solid rosewood, the chairs, sociables, etc. most artistically and elaborately carved. The cushions of all seats are heavy crimson satin, the style of the furniture is of new and original design, all made in this city at the manufactory of John Sim, she has 20 extension dining tables in each to accommodate twelve guests. … The machinery of the ROB'T. E. LEE consists of feet stroke, the largest high pressure engines on the river. … The doctor is considered a triumph of the medical art, it being a new style of with the parallel motion applied. It can throw an immense volume; the boat is furnished with three separate pumping fire engines with an abundance of hose to use in case of fire. … She has wrought iron shafts weighing 18,750 pounds, the shafts being each 23 feet in length, with the journals 18 inches in diameter. Each of the cranks, which are of wrought iron, weigh 6,000 pounds; these were all made east of the Alleghenies and are the largest constructed for a western steamer.

The texas is 140 feet in length, with 24 passengers rooms in addition to the accommodations for officers. She has two immense baggage rooms, all under guard. … to obviate the necessary of carrying baggage in the cabins or on guard. … The cabin with its rich garniture and splendid furniture, dazzling chandeliers and fretted ceilings, etched with gold, stained glass skylights, immense mirrors, the velvet carpet, the pure zinc white of sides, the rosewood state room doors, the imitation Egyptian marble stills, all combined to make it bear an appearance of Oriental luxury and splendor conceived an never before seen floating the wild waters of this so-called semi-barbarian western world. … In the summer of 1870, Robert E. Lee won a famed steamboat race against Natchez, going from New Orleans to St. Louis, Missouri, a distance of 1,154 miles, in 3 days, 18 hours and 14 minutes. John W. Cannon, the captain of Robert E. Lee, ensured victory by removing excess weight, carrying only a few passengers, using prearranged barges to increase the speed of refueling.

Natchez finished the race several hours but had been delayed by fog for six hours, had numerous passengers to weigh it down. She received a silver bowl trophy containing the name of the Robert E. On December 22, 1870 she collided with the Potomac opposite Mississippi; the Lee was run out on a sandbar until she could be raised and repaired. Lee. Noted steamboat captain and historian Frederick Way, Jr. disputes this version of history somewhat. He cites Johnny Farrell, second engineer of Natchez: "This old idea about the two boats preparing for days for the race, tearing down bulkheads, putting up wind sheaves, a lot of other stuff, is not true; when I went aboard Robert E. Lee, all they had done was to move the coal bunkers a little forward... On our boat there was no preparation whatever. There was no such thing as colors flying, bands playing, the decks of both boats crowded with ladies and gentlemen." Way writes that at Vicksburg, both boats took fuel flats in tow and emptied them under way. In addition, both vessels advertised before the race.

To this day no commercial boat has beaten the speed record set by Robert E. Lee during the race. However, Bogie, a 1929 motor boat built by Leroy Craft, beat Robert E. Lee's record, it ran between New Orleans and Natchez, Mississippi. However, during spans of bad business, it would forsake Natchez and instead go to St. Louis or Louisville, Kentucky. On December 22, 1870 she collided with the Potomac opposite Mississippi; the Lee was run out on a sandbar until she could be raised and repaired. She brought her record cotton cargo of 5741 bales to New Orleans in 1874; when she left New Orleans for Portland, for dismantling, mid-April, 1876, several thousand came to see her off, with many salutes en route to mark the closing of her career. Her hull was taken to Memphis for use as a wharf boat. Much of her equipment went into her successor known as the second Robert E Lee, she carried much of the equipment and furnishings from her predecessor.. A stern wheel steamer named. Moored as a floating restaurant in St. Louis, this boat was destroyed by fire in 2010.

It was not a replica of the original Robert E. Lee, a larger si


Canicross is the sport of cross country running with dogs. Originating in Europe as off-season training for the mushing community, it has become popular as a stand-alone sport all over Europe in the UK. Canicross is related to bikejoring, where participants cycle with their dog and skijoring, where participants ski rather than run. Canicross can be run with two dogs, always attached to the runner; the runner wears a waist belt, the dog a designed harness, the two are joined by a bungee cord or elastic line that reduces shock to both human and dog when the dog pulls. Canicross dogs were of sledding or spitz types such as the husky or malamute but now all breeds have begun taking part including cross breeds, small terrier breeds to large breeds such as rottweilers and standard poodles. Not only can all breeds run but people of all ages and abilities can take part, including children and the disabled such as the visually impaired; some breeds are well suited to not only running and pulling but running at steady pace over a long distance.

It encourages people and their dogs to take part in outdoor activities and meet other like minded individuals. The first canicross event staged in the UK took place in 2000. In 2006/07 CaniX UK ran the first UK National Championship, the 2015/16 season will be the 10th UK National Championship. During this period over 2,500 UK dogs/competitors have taken part in 250 CaniX events. In March 2008 CaniX UK ran the first cani-cross event at Crufts, the largest dog show held in the world. Over 100 runners and their dogs took part in the event. In October 2012 CaniX UK hosted the first ECF European Canicross Championships in the UK in Cirencester, Gloucestershire. Representation in the UK to the International Canicross Federation is through the British Sleddog Sports Federation Canicross events are held all over the UK and Europe by sleddog organisations, by canicross clubs and many running events will allow runners to participate with their dogs. Distances vary, with events held to cover distances from a mile up to 28 miles or more.

The 21st instance of the ICF International Canicross Federation Championships will take place in Bierawa, Poland on the 6 and 7th of October 2018. In Italy canicross is sanctioned by the CSEN, by held circuit FISC. Citations Bibliography CaniX UK British Sleddog Sports Federation Canicross Limburg-Zuid Canicross Trailrunners International Canicross Federation Canicross map UK Group Finder Inner Wolf DogFit