NASCAR Thunder 2004
NASCAR Thunder 2004 is a racing simulator by EA Sports, released in 2003 and available in separate versions for PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PC. It features the 2002 champion Tony Stewart on the cover with a scowling look to represent the new Grudges and Alliances feature, it was the only game as of 2002 to feature the previous Winston Cup Champion on the cover. The game had the most extensive soundtrack of the series up from four songs from the previous game; the game has a career mode, season mode, Lightning Challenge mode, SpeedZone, as well as a tutorial mode featuring Richard Petty. The game is an EA Sports Bio game, is compatible with other EA Sports Bio games like Madden NFL 2004 and NCAA Football 2004. A Nintendo GameCube port was cancelled for unknown reasons. Career mode is one of the returning modes in the game, in which the player takes control of a custom driver, races to get sponsors, equipment for his garage, respect from other drivers. Season mode allows players to take control of either a custom driver, or an existing driver for a season or more, with custom rules and schedules.
SpeedZone is a mode in which players can hone their skills in passing, drafting, as well as time trials. Lightning Challenge is a mode in which the player takes control of a driver and race in a situation that occurred in the 2002 Winston Cup and 2003 Winston Cup seasons to that particular driver, which comes with a video with Michael Waltrip as the reporter, beating these challenges unlocks the player new Thunder Plates, which unlocks new tracks, fantasy drivers, Busch Series drivers from the 2003 season, as well as legendary drivers. Another new game mode is Online mode, where players can race online if they have an Internet connection and adapter. Microphone support was available, this feature is not available on Xbox and PS1 however. There is a tutorial mode featuring NASCAR legend Richard Petty, in which the player has to follow a driver of his/her choice along a racing line around the track, with various voice commentary by Petty; the racing line can be toggled in Race Now mode. The main feature of the game is the "Grudges and Alliances" feature, based on the player's driving style and attitude.
If the player drives dirty and bumps into other drivers if it was an unintentional bump, that driver becomes a "Rival", will bump into the player if they happen to encounter each other in the race. However, if the player drafts the opponent, that rival's level in grudge severity drops. If the player drafts a neutral driver long enough, that driver will become an "Ally", at times will let the player pass. Conversely, if the player bumps into an ally, their alliance will drop; the maximum amount of severity for both grudges and alliances is +100, respectively. The player can see alliances at the end of the race. In Season and Career modes, the grudges and alliances the player makes carry over to future races; the game received positive reviews from critics, with IGN giving the PS2 version an 8.8/10, praising the sounds, "QuickSave", the microphone support. The main issue that IGN cited was. IGN gave the PC version an 8.5, with the issue being the spotter's incompetence. The Xbox review was an 8.5, praised the framerate.
GameSpot called the game the Tony Hawk or Madden of NASCAR, gave the game an 8.8, with Metacritic giving it an 88. The more critical review came from GameZone, giving the game an 8.4. The game received many top awards, the most notable was received at the 2003 Video Game Awards, where NASCAR Thunder 2004 won the award for 2003's best racing game, it is the only NASCAR game to win an award at the VGAs. NASCAR Thunder 2004 at MobyGames
Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series
The Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the top racing series of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing. Since 2017, it has been named for its sponsor, Monster Energy, but has been known by other names in the past; the series began in 1949 as the Strictly Stock Division, from 1950 to 1970 it was known as the Grand National Division. In 1971, when the series began leasing its naming rights to the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, it was referred to as the Winston Cup Series. A similar deal was made with Nextel in 2003, it became the Nextel Cup Series. Sprint acquired Nextel in 2005, in 2008 the series was renamed the Sprint Cup Series, which lasted until 2016. In December 2016, it was announced that Monster Energy would become the new title sponsor starting in 2017; the championship is determined by a points system, with points being awarded according to finish placement and number of laps led. The season is divided into two segments. After the first 26 races, 16 drivers, selected on the basis of wins during the first 26 races, are seeded based on their total number of wins.
They compete in the last ten races, where the difference in points is minimized. This is called the NASCAR playoffs; the series holds strong roots in the Southeastern United States, with half of the races in the 36-race season being held in that region. The current schedule includes tracks from around the United States. Regular season races were held in Canada, exhibition races were held in Japan and Australia; the Daytona 500, the most prestigious race, had a television audience of about 9.17 million U. S. viewers in 2019. Cup Series cars are unique in automobile racing; the engines are powerful enough to reach speeds of over 200 mph, but their weight coupled with a simple aerodynamic package make for poor handling. The bodies and chassis of the cars are regulated to ensure parity, electronics are traditionally spartan in nature. In 1949, NASCAR introduced the Strictly Stock division, after sanctioning Modified and Roadster division races in 1948. Eight races were run on the Daytona Beach beach/street course.
The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race was held at Charlotte Speedway on June 19, 1949. Jim Roper was declared the winner of that race after Glenn Dunaway was disqualified for having altered the rear springs on his car; the division was renamed "Grand National" for the 1950 season, reflecting NASCAR's intent to make the sport more professional and prestigious. It retained this name until 1971; the 1949 Strictly Stock season is regarded in NASCAR's record books as the first season of GN/Cup history. Martinsville Speedway is the only track on the 1949 schedule. Rather than having a fixed schedule of one race per weekend with most entrants appearing at every event, the Grand National schedule has included over sixty events in some years. There are two or three races on the same weekend and two races on the same day in different states. In the early years, most Grand National races were held on dirt-surfaced short oval tracks that ranged in lap length from under a quarter-mile to over a half-mile, or on dirt fairgrounds ovals ranging from a half-mile to a mile in lap length.
One hundred ninety-eight of the first 221 Grand National races were run on dirt tracks. Darlington Raceway, opened in 1950, was the first paved track on the circuit over one mile long. In 1959, when Daytona International Speedway was opened, the schedule still had more races on dirt racetracks than on paved ones. In the 1960s as superspeedways were built and old dirt tracks were paved, the number of races run on dirt tracks was reduced; the last NASCAR race on a dirt track was held on September 30, 1970 at the half-mile State Fairgrounds Speedway in Raleigh, North Carolina. Richard Petty won that race in a Plymouth, sold by Petty Enterprises to Don Robertson and rented back by Petty Enterprises for the race. Between 1971 and 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, it was sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston. In 1971, the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act banned television advertising of cigarettes; as a result, tobacco companies began to sponsor sporting events as a way to spend their excess advertising dollars and to circumvent the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act's ban on television advertising.
RJR's sponsorship became more controversial in the wake of the 1998 Tobacco Industry Settlement that restricted avenues for tobacco advertising, including sports sponsorships. The changes that resulted from RJR's involvement in the series as well as from the reduction in schedule from 48 to 31 races per year established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era"; the season was made shorter, the points system was modified several times during the next four years. Races on dirt tracks and on oval tracks shorter than 250 miles were removed from the schedule, transferred to the short-lived NASCAR Grand National East Series. NASCAR's founder, Bill France Sr. turned over control of NASCAR to Bill France Jr.. In August 1974, France Jr. asked series publicist Bob Latford to design a points system with equal points being awarded for all races regardless of length or prize money. This system ensured that the top drivers would have to compete in all the races in order to become the series champion.
This system remained unchanged from 1975 until the Chase for the Championship was instituted in 2004. Since 1982, the Daytona 500 has been the first non-exhib
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, west of Honolulu. It has been long visited by the Naval fleet of the United States, before it was acquired from the Hawaiian Kingdom by the U. S. with the signing of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is now a United States Navy deep-water naval base, it is the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet. The U. S. government first obtained exclusive use of the inlet and the right to maintain a repair and coaling station for ships here in 1887. The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan on December 7, 1941, was the immediate cause of the United States' entry into World War II. Pearl Harbor was an extensive shallow embayment called Wai Momi or Puʻuloa by the Hawaiians. Puʻuloa was regarded as the home of the shark goddess, Kaʻahupahau, her brother, Kahiʻuka, in Hawaiian legends. According to tradition, the head of the powerful Ewa chiefs, is credited with cutting a navigable channel near the present Puʻuloa saltworks, by which he made the estuary, known as "Pearl River," accessible to navigation.
Making due allowance for legendary amplification, the estuary had an outlet for its waters where the present gap is. During the early 19th century, Pearl Harbor was not used for large ships due to its shallow entrance; the interest of United States in the Hawaiian Islands grew as a result of its whaling and trading activity in the Pacific. As early as 1820, an "Agent of the United States for Commerce and Seamen" was appointed to look after American business in the Port of Honolulu; these commercial ties to the American continent were accompanied by the work of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. American missionaries and their families became an integral part of the Hawaiian political body. Throughout the 1820s and 1830s, many American warships visited Honolulu. In most cases, the commanding officers carried letters from the U. S. Government giving advice on governmental affairs and of the relations of the island nation with foreign powers. In 1841, the newspaper Polynesian, printed in Honolulu, advocated that the U.
S. establish a naval base in Hawaii for protection of American citizens engaged in the whaling industry. The British Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Crichton Wyllie, remarked in 1840 that "... my opinion is that the tide of events rushes on to annexation to the United States." From the conclusion of the Civil War, to the purchase of Alaska, to the increased importance of the Pacific states, the projected trade with countries in Asia and the desire for a duty-free market for Hawaiian staples, Hawaiian trade expanded. In 1865, the North Pacific Squadron was formed to embrace Hawaii. Lackawanna in the following year was assigned to cruise among the islands, "a locality of great and increasing interest and importance." This vessel surveyed the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands toward Japan. As a result, the United States claimed Midway Island; the Secretary of the Navy was able to write in his annual report of 1868, that in November 1867, 42 American flags flew over whaleships and merchant vessels in Honolulu to only six of other nations.
This increased activity caused the permanent assignment of at least one warship to Hawaiian waters. It praised Midway Island as possessing a harbor surpassing Honolulu's. In the following year, Congress approved an appropriation of $50,000 on March 1, 1869, to deepen the approaches to this harbor. After 1868, when the Commander of the Pacific Fleet visited the islands to look after American interests, naval officers played an important role in internal affairs, they served as arbitrators in business disputes, negotiators of trade agreements and defenders of law and order. Periodic voyages among the islands and to the mainland aboard U. S. warships were arranged for members of the Hawaiian royal family and important island government officials. When King Lunalilo died in 1873, negotiations were underway for the cession of Pearl Harbor as a port for the duty-free export of sugar to the U. S. With the election of King Kalākaua in March 1874, riots prompted landing of sailors from USS Tuscarora and Portsmouth.
The British warship, HMS Tenedos landed a token force. During the reign of King Kalākaua the United States was granted exclusive rights to enter Pearl Harbor and to establish "a coaling and repair station." Although this treaty continued in force until August 1898, the U. S. did not fortify Pearl Harbor as a naval base. As it had for 60 years, the shallow entrance constituted a formidable barrier against the use of the deep protected waters of the inner harbor; the United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom signed the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 as supplemented by Convention on December 6, 1884, the Reciprocity Treaty was made by James Carter and ratified it in 1887. On January 20, 1887, the United States Senate allowed the Navy to exclusive right to maintain a coaling and repair station at Pearl Harbor.. The Spanish–American War of 1898 and the desire for the United States to have a permanent presence in the Pacific both contributed to the decision. Following the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, the United States Navy established a base on the island in 1899.
On December 7, 1941, the base was attacked by the Imperial Japanese Navy airplanes and midget submarines, causing the American entry into World War II. One of the main reasons that Pearl Harbor happened was because the United States had major communication breakdowns among several branches of the U. S. armed services and departments of the U. S. government. This led to the surprise Japanese attack at the Hawai
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Sir Henry O'Neal de Hane Segrave was an early British pioneer in land speed and water speed records. Segrave, who set three land and one water record, was the first person to hold both titles and the first person to travel at over 200 miles per hour in a land vehicle, he died in an accident in 1930 shortly after setting a new world water speed record on Windermere in the Lake District, England. The Segrave Trophy was established to commemorate his life. Segrave, a British national, was born on 22 September 1896 in Baltimore, Maryland to an American mother and an Irish father, he attended Eton College in England. In 1914 he gained a commission in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. In January 1916 he joined the Royal Flying Corps, he sustained wounds in 1915 and 1916. Segrave became a flight commander as a temporary captain in July 1916. After the war, he transferred to the Royal Air Force Administrative Branch in 1919 but soon resigned his commission due to his war injuries. After the conclusion of the war, British motor manufacturers were starting to build more reliable and faster vehicles.
Although motor racing was in its infancy, Segrave would soon become a championship winning driver. In 1921 Segrave won the first long-distance car race to be run in Britain; the 200-mile Race, organised by the Junior Car Club for 1,500 c.c. light cars, was held at Brooklands in Surrey. Segrave won in a Darracq-made Talbot. In the same year Segrave competed in his first French Grand Prix, Darracq was reorganised as part of the S. T. D. Motors conglomerate. To impress Breton automobile designer, Louis Coatalen, in order to gain a place in the formidable Sunbeam-Talbot-Darrac Works team, replaced fourteen engine covers on his Talbot, a rebadged advanced straight eight dual overhead camshaft 1921 Sunbeam Grand Prix. In the 1922 French Grand Prix, Segrave was forced to retire in his Grand Prix Sunbeams 1922 because of chemical burns; when he won the 1923 French Grand Prix in a Sunbeam, he became the first Briton to win a Grand Prix in a British car. In 1924 he won the San Sebastian Grand Prix at Circuito Lasarte.
After a further win at Miramas in France, he retired from racing to concentrate on speed records. On 16 March 1926, Segrave set his first land speed record of 152.33 miles per hour using Ladybird, a 4-litre Sunbeam Tiger on Ainsdale beach at Southport, England. This record was broken a month by J. G. Parry-Thomas driving Babs, a custom-built car with a 27-litre 450 hp V12 Liberty aero engine. A year he became the first person to travel over 200 miles per hour when he regained the land speed record at the Daytona Beach Road Course on 29 March 1927. Using Mystery, a 1000 HP Sunbeam, he recorded a speed of 203.79 miles per hour. On 11 March 1929, Segrave set his final land speed record again at Daytona Beach. Using a new car designed for him by Captain Jack Irving and named the Golden Arrow he set a new record of 231.45 miles per hour. Segrave never attempted another land speed record after witnessing the high-speed death of American racing driver, Lee Bible, trying to set a new land speed record on March 13, 1929, at Ormond Beach, Florida.
The Golden Arrow, never used again, has only 18.74 miles on the clock. The vehicle is on display along with Segrave's Sunbeam 350HP and Sunbeam 1000 hp at the National Motor Museum, Beaulieu. On the 90th anniversary of Segrave setting his first historic record, his original Sunbeam racing car returned to Southport where it was driven down Ainsdale beach in March 2016. Segrave had Miss England I built in 1928, in an attempt to retrieve the Harmsworth Trophy from the American Gar Wood whose series of high-powered aero-engines driven Miss America boats had made him a multiple water speed record holder and the first man to travel over 100 mph on water. Although Segrave had used aero-engines in some of his land-speed record setting vehicles, Miss England I used a single Napier Lion engine. Instead Segrave believed the boat's speed would come from its advanced lightweight planing-hull design. Wood - along with other American boat designers - thought. Wood sportingly offered to help Segrave sharing his experiences in propeller and rudder design.
After his 1929 land speed record, Segrave went to Miami for his speedboat race with Wood which he won. It was the American's first defeat in nine years. After Segrave returned to Britain, he was knighted for his many accomplishments. On Friday 13 June 1930, a few months after receiving his knighthood, Segrave drove Miss England II to a new record of 98.76 mph average over two runs on Windermere. However, on the third run the boat capsized at full speed. Chief engineer Victor Halliwell was killed by the boat rolling over on him. Mechanic Michael "Jack" Willcocks survived with a broken arm after being thrown from the craft. Segrave, rescued unconscious as the boat sank, regained consciousness for a moment and asked about the fate of "his men". Shortly after being told that he had broken the record he died from acute lung hemorrhages. Although a large floating branch was discovered near the crash, there has been no definitive cause for the accident. Other theories include the boat's construction. Concerns were raised that its hull was too light in design and construction around the craft hydroplane, found detached after the crash.
Kaye Don subsequently broke two mo
Julius Timothy "Tim" Flock was an American stock car racer. He was a two-time NASCAR series champion, he was a brother to Bob and Fonty Flock. Tim Flock finished 5th in NASCAR's inaugural Strictly Stock race at Charlotte, North Carolina in 1949. NASCAR's first official season ended with Tim in eighth, Tim's brother Fonty Flock in fifth, his other brother Bob Flock in third in the overall points standing. Tim sat out the 1950 NASCAR season recovering from a four car pile up at Charlotte. Returning to racing in 1951, Flock won seven races. 1952 brought four poles. At the end of the 1952 NASCAR season, Tim Flock had 106 more points than Herb Thomas, earning Flock his first Grand National Championship title, despite flipping in the final race at West Palm Beach. Flock joked, "I was the only driver to win a championship upside-down." In 1954, Flock was disqualified despite winning at the Daytona Beach Road Course for illegally screwed carburetor screws.1955 was a record setting year for Flock as well as NASCAR.
On the way to Flock's second Grand National Championship title, Flock had 19 poles and 18 victories in 45 races. The 18 victories stood as a record until broken by "The King", Richard Petty, in 1967; the 19 poles is still the highest number in a NASCAR season. The 1956 season, was filled with off-track frustration for Flock with team owner Carl Kiekhaefer. Despite their combined on-track success, Flock left Kiekhaefer's team after his victory in the April 8th race at North Wilkesboro, North Carolina, citing stomach ulcers. Upon departing from the Kiekhaefer camp, he had compiled 21 triumphs out of his 46 starts with Kiekhaefer. In his final race before "retiring" Tim Flock was disqualified and banned from NASCAR as a result of "having too much solder on his carburetor screw", illegal; this was known by the public to be retaliation by NASCAR management for Flock's support of a NASCAR driver's union. Like Curtis Turner, he faced a life ban from NASCAR. Flock continued to race under other sanctioning bodies, including the Midwest Association for Race Cars, competing in the 100-mile event on the dirt at Lakewood Speedway, Georgia, in October 1961, where he finished second.
He raced at a USAC event in Concord, North Carolina, in 1963. Flock was employed by the Ford Motor Company to entertain customers at track events. Flock was reinstated to NASCAR competition in 1966. Flock died of liver and throat cancer on March 1998, aged 73, during NASCAR's 50th anniversary. Darrell Waltrip honored him in a special paint scheme named "Tim Flock Special" at Darlington Raceway weeks before Flock died. Flock was without medical insurance, Waltrip wanted to help raise money for Flock and his family. A month before his death, Flock was honored as one of NASCAR's 50 Greatest Drivers, he has been inducted in numerous halls of fame, including the: International Motorsports Hall of Fame, Motorsports Hall of Fame of America, National Motorsports Press Association Hall of Fame, State of Georgia Hall of Fame, Charlotte Motor Speedway Court of Legends. He was inducted in the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame in May 2006. On May 22, 2013, Flock was named member of the NASCAR Hall of Fame for 2014, to be inducted during Acceleration Weekend in January.
Flock won the only NASCAR Cup event held at Road America in 1956. No other stock car events of any type were held at the track until the 1990s, in 2010 the Nationwide Series began racing there. Tim had a rhesus monkey co-driver named "Jocko Flocko" with him in his May 16, 1953 Grand National win at Hickory Motor Speedway. Jocko Flocko became the only winning monkey ever; the monkey was retired two weeks at Raleigh, where the monkey pulled the device to allow the driver to observe the right front tire and was hit by a pebble. At the time, drivers used a device to lift the wheel well to observe tire wear in case of a tire failing. Tim had to do a pit stop to remove the monkey, he finished third, his last race was the Battle of the NASCAR Legends race at Charlotte Motor Speedway in 1991. The race featured such drivers as Cale Yarborough, Junior Johnson, Pete Hamilton, Donnie Allison; the winner was Elmo Langley. He finished 10th out of 22 drivers. Fireball Roberts Official website Go NASCAR Go: Tim Flock Tim Flock driver statistics at Racing-Reference
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company, best known for stock-car racing. Its three largest or National series are the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series, the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. Regional series include the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East and West, the Whelen Modified Tour, NASCAR Pinty's Series, NASCAR Whelen Euro Series, NASCAR PEAK Mexico Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 48 US states as well as in Canada and Europe. NASCAR has presented races at the Suzuka and Motegi circuits in Japan, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia. NASCAR ventures into eSports via the PEAK Antifreeze NASCAR iRacing Series and a sanctioned ladder system on that title; the owned company was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1948, Jim France has been CEO since August 6, 2018. The company's headquarters is in Florida. Internationally, its races are broadcast on television in over 150 countries. In the 1920s and 30s, Daytona Beach became known as the place to set world land speed records, supplanting France and Belgium as the preferred location for land speed records, with 8 consecutive world records set between 1927 and 1935.
After a historic race between Ransom Olds and Alexander Winton in 1903, the beach became a mecca for racing enthusiasts and 15 records were set on what became the Daytona Beach Road Course between 1905 and 1935. By the time the Bonneville Salt Flats became the premier location for pursuit of land speed records, Daytona Beach had become synonymous with fast cars in 1936. Drivers raced on a 4.1-mile course, consisting of a 1.5–2.0-mile stretch of beach as one straightaway, a narrow blacktop beachfront highway, State Road A1A, as the other. The two straights were connected by two tight rutted and sand covered turns at each end. Stock car racing in the United States has its origins in bootlegging during Prohibition, when drivers ran bootleg whiskey made in the Appalachian region of the United States. Bootleggers needed to distribute their illicit products, they used small, fast vehicles to better evade the police. Many of the drivers would modify their cars for speed and handling, as well as increased cargo capacity, some of them came to love the fast-paced driving down twisty mountain roads.
The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 dried up some of their business, but by Southerners had developed a taste for moonshine, a number of the drivers continued "runnin' shine", this time evading the "revenuers" who were attempting to tax their operations. The cars continued to improve, by the late 1940s, races featuring these cars were being run for pride and profit; these races were popular entertainment in the rural Southern United States, they are most associated with the Wilkes County region of North Carolina. Most races in those days were of modified cars. Street vehicles were lightened and reinforced. Mechanic William France Sr. moved to Daytona Beach, from Washington, D. C. in 1935 to escape the Great Depression. He was familiar with the history of the area from the land speed record attempts. France entered the 1936 Daytona event, he took over running the course in 1938. He promoted a few races before World War II. France had the notion. Drivers were victimized by unscrupulous promoters who would leave events with all the money before drivers were paid.
In 1947, he decided this racing would not grow without a formal sanctioning organization, standardized rules, regular schedule, an organized championship. On December 14, 1947, France began talks with other influential racers and promoters at the Ebony Bar at the Streamline Hotel at Daytona Beach, that ended with the formation of NASCAR on February 21, 1948; the first Commissioner of NASCAR was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker. A former stock car and open-wheel racer who competed in the Indianapolis 500 and set over one hundred land speed records. Baker earned most of his fame for his transcontinental speed runs and would prove a car's worth by driving it from New York to Los Angeles. After his death, the famous transcontinental race the'Cannonball Run' and the film, inspired by it were both named in his honor. Baker is enshrined in the Automotive Hall of Fame, the Motorcycle Hall of Fame, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame; this level of honor and success in each diverse racing association earned Baker the title of "King of the Road".
In the early 1950s, the United States Navy stationed Bill France Jr. at the Moffett Federal Airfield in northern California. His father asked him to look up Bob Barkhimer in California. Barkhimer was a star of midget car racing from the World War II era, ran about 22 different speedways as the head of the California Stock Car Racing Association. Young Bill developed a relationship with his partner, Margo Burke, he went to events with them, stayed weekends with them and became familiar with racing on the west coast. "Barky", as he was called by his friends, met with Bill France Sr.. In the spring of 1954, NASCAR became a stock car sanctioning body on the Pacific Coast under Barky. Wendell Scott was the first African-American to win a race in the Grand National Series, NASCAR's highest level, he was posthumously inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, N. C. January 30, 2015. On March 8, 1936, a collection of drivers gathered at Florida; the drivers brought coupes, hardtops and sports cars to compete in an event to determine the fastest cars, best dr