Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−, is therefore an alkali metal nitrate, it occurs in nature as niter. It is a source of nitrogen. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre. Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks, it is one of the major constituents of gunpowder. In processed meats, potassium nitrate generates a pink color. Potassium nitrate, because of its early and global use and production, has many names. Hebrew and Egyptian words for it had the consonants n-t-r, indicating cognation in the Greek nitron, Latinised to nitrum or nitrium. Thence Old French had Middle English nitre. By the 15th century, Europeans referred to it as saltpeter and as nitrate of potash, as the chemistry of the compound was more understood; the Arabs called it "Chinese snow". It was called "Chinese salt" by the Iranians/Persians or "salt from Chinese salt marshes".
Potassium nitrate has an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature, which transforms to a trigonal system at 129 °C. Potassium nitrate is moderately soluble in water; the aqueous solution is neutral, exhibiting pH 6.2 at 14 °C for a 10% solution of commercial powder. It is not hygroscopic, absorbing about 0.03% water in 80% relative humidity over 50 days. It is not poisonous. Between 550–790 °C, potassium nitrate reaches a temperature dependent equilibrium with potassium nitrite: 2 KNO3 ⇌ 2 KNO2 + O2 The earliest known complete purification process for potassium nitrate was outlined in 1270 by the chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya. In this book, al-Rammah describes first the purification of barud by boiling it with minimal water and using only the hot solution the use of potassium carbonate to remove calcium and magnesium by precipitation of their carbonates from this solution, leaving a solution of purified potassium nitrate, which could be dried.
This was used for the manufacture of gunpowder and explosive devices. The terminology used by al-Rammah indicated a Chinese origin for the gunpowder weapons about which he wrote. At least as far back as 1845, Chilean saltpeter deposits were exploited in Chile and California, USA. A major natural source of potassium nitrate was the deposits crystallizing from cave walls and the accumulations of bat guano in caves. Extraction is accomplished by immersing the guano in water for a day and harvesting the crystals in the filtered water. Traditionally, guano was the source used in Laos for the manufacture of gunpowder for Bang Fai rockets; the most exhaustive discussion of the production of this material is the 1862 LeConte text. He was writing with the express purpose of increasing production in the Confederate States to support their needs during the American Civil War. Since he was calling for the assistance of rural farming communities, the descriptions and instructions are both simple and explicit.
He details the "French Method", along with several variations, as well as a "Swiss method". N. B. Many references have been made to a method using only straw and urine, but there is no such method in this work. Turgot and Lavoisier created the Régie des Poudres et Salpêtres few years before the French Revolution. Niter-beds were prepared by mixing manure with either mortar or wood ashes, common earth and organic materials such as straw to give porosity to a compost pile 4 feet high, 6 feet wide, 15 feet long; the heap was under a cover from the rain, kept moist with urine, turned to accelerate the decomposition finally leached with water after one year, to remove the soluble calcium nitrate, converted to potassium nitrate by filtering through potash. LeConte describes a process using only urine and not dung. Urine is collected directly, in a sandpit under a stable; the sand itself is dug out and leached for nitrates which were converted to potassium nitrate using potash, as above. From 1903 until the World War I era, potassium nitrate for black powder and fertilizer was produced on an industrial scale from nitric acid produced using the Birkeland–Eyde process, which used an electric arc to oxidize nitrogen from the air.
During World War I the newly industrialized Haber process was combined with the Ostwald process after 1915, allowing Germany to produce nitric acid for the war after being cut off from its supplies of mineral sodium nitrates from Chile. Potassium nitrate can be made by combining potassium hydroxide. NH4NO3 + KOH → NH3 + KNO3 + H2O An alternative way of producing potassium nitrate without a by-product of ammonia is to combine ammonium nitrate, found in instant ice packs, potassium chloride obtained as a sodium-free salt substitute. NH4NO3 + KCl → NH4Cl + KNO3 Potassium nitrate can be produced by neutralizing nitric acid with potassium hydroxide; this reaction is exothermic. KOH + HNO3 → KNO3 + H2O On industrial scale it is prepared by the double displacement reaction between sodium nitrate and pota
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
Luray is a town in and the county seat of Page County, United States, in the Shenandoah Valley in the northern part of the commonwealth. The population was 4,895 at the 2010 census; the town was started by Willian Staige Marye in 1812, a descendent of a family native to Luray, France. Luray is located at 38°39′51″N 78°27′16″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.8 square miles, of which, 4.7 square miles of it is land and 0.21% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,871 people, 2,037 households, 1,332 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,026.8 people per square mile. There were 2,191 housing units at an average density of 461.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.45% White, 5.52% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.45% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.35% of the population. There were 2,037 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families.
30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.85. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $34,306, the median income for a family was $39,972. Males had a median income of $30,039 versus $19,841 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,205. About 11.3% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.4% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Luray Caverns is located in the western part of Luray. Luray is the nearest town to the Thornton Gap entrance to Skyline Drive, as well as serving as the headquarters for Shenandoah National Park.
Murder Mountain, located off Old Wagon Road in Luray, has become a destination for ghost hunters. The Luray Downtown Historic District is a Virginia Main Street Community and a registered National Historic District, it is home to the 2010 Valley Baseball League Champion Luray Wranglers. One of the dominant hills in the Town of Luray is the location of the Grand Old Mimslyn Inn, a 1931 classic Southern mansion style hotel; the hotel is a popular site for wedding receptions. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt visited the Mimslyn during a short visit in the late 1930s and former Virginia Governor Mark Warner visited in January 2008; the site of the Mimslyn is on the former location of "Aventine Hall," the home of Peter Bouck Borst, a mid-19th century lawyer. Aventine was removed to make way for the construction of the Mimslyn in the 1930s. "Aventine Hall" is now located on South Court Street in the Town of Virginia. The only high school in Luray is home of the Bulldogs; the town is home to The Page News and Courier, the major newspaper for the county.
In 1893 was founded the Blue Ridge Bank, one of the oldest still functioning banks in Virginia. The community's proximity to the South Fork of the Shenandoah River provides recreational opportunities connected with boating, white water rafting, fishing as well as hunting in the fall; the Luray Singing Tower known as the Belle Brown Northcott Memorial, was erected in 1937 in memory of Colonel Theodore Clay Northcott's wife. At 117 feet high the Luray Singing Tower contains a carillon of 47 bells from John Taylor & Co of Loughborough, Great Britain; the largest bell is six feet in diameter. The smallest weighs a mere 12½ pounds. Recognized as one of the country's major carillons scheduled recitals are held, free of charge, through the spring and fall; the carillon is situated in a park opposite Luray Caverns. Archeological Site No. AU-154, Blackrock Springs Site, Jeremey's Run Site, Paine Run Rockshelter are archaeological sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to the Luray Downtown Historic District, Aventine Hall, archaeological sites, the Heiston-Strickler House, Luray Norfolk and Western Passenger Station, Massanutton Heights, Mount Calvary Lutheran Church, Page County Courthouse and Sallie Printz Farm, Redwell-Isabella Furnace Historic District, Ruffner House, Skyline Drive Historic District, Isaac Spitler House, Stover House, Wall Brook Farm are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Page County Public Schools serve Luray, as well as the rest of Page County. Luray Elementary, Luray Middle, Luray High School serve the entire town and nearby surrounding areas. Luray Middle and High serve northern Page County, from feeder elementary school, located near Rileyville. Mount Carmel Christian Academy is a private Christian school. Lord Fairfax Community College has a campus in Luray which provides students with nearly all necessary classes needed to graduate from the institution. Many students that attend the Luray Center of Lord Fairfax are from Page, southern Shenandoah, southern Warren Counties. Well over three quarters of the town's population lives in one of the several planned neighborhoods of Luray; each neighborhood serves as a landmark to the residents of Luray citing their neighborhoods a
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
Putnam County, Tennessee
Putnam County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 72,321, its county seat is Cookeville. Putnam County is part of TN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Putnam County is named in honor of Israel Putnam, a hero in the French and Indian War and a general in the American Revolutionary War; the county was established on February 2, 1842, when the Twenty-fourth Tennessee General Assembly enacted a measure creating the county from portions of Jackson, Overton and White counties. After the survey was completed by Mounce Gore, the Assembly instructed the commissioners to locate the county seat, to be called "Monticello," near the center of the county. Contending, that the formation of Putnam was illegal because it reduced their areas below constitutional limits and Jackson counties secured an injunction against its continued operation. Putnam officials failed to reply to the complaint, in the March 1845 term of the Chancery Court at Livingston, Chancellor Bromfield L. Ridley declared Putnam unconstitutionally established and therefore dissolved.
The 1854 act reestablishing Putnam was passed after Representative Henderson M. Clements of Jackson County assured his colleagues that a new survey showed that there was sufficient area to form the county. White Plains, near modern Algood, acted as a temporary county seat; the act specified the "county town" be named "Cookeville" in honor of Richard F. Cooke, who served in the Tennessee Senate from 1851 to 1854, representing at various times Jackson, Macon and White Counties; the act authorized Joshua R. Stone and Green Baker from White County, William Davis and Isaiah Warton from Overton County, John Brown and Austin Morgan from Jackson County, William B. Stokes and Bird S. Rhea from DeKalb County, Benjamin A. Vaden and Nathan Ward from Smith County, to study the Conner survey and select a spot, not more than two and one-half miles from the center of the county, for the courthouse; the first County Court chose a hilly tract of land owned by Charles Crook, for the site. Putnam County was the site of several saltpeter mines.
Saltpeter is the main ingredient of gunpowder and was obtained by leaching the earth from several local caves. Calfkiller Saltpeter Cave, located in the Calfkiller Valley, was a major mining operation, as was Johnson Cave located in the Calfkiller Valley. Both caves still contain significant remnants of the mining activity. Several other caves in the county were the site of smaller operations. Most saltpeter mining in Middle Tennessee occurred during the War of the Civil War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 403 square miles, of which 401 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. The county is part of the greater Cumberland River watershed; the southern part of the county is drained by tributaries of the Caney Fork, the northeastern part by tributaries of the Obey River, the north-central and northwestern parts of the county drain into the Cumberland's Cordell Hull Lake impoundment. The sources of two tributaries of the Caney Fork, the Falling Water River and the Calfkiller River, lie near Monterey in the eastern part of the county.
Overton County Fentress County Cumberland County White County DeKalb County Smith County Jackson County Burgess Falls State Natural Area Burgess Falls State Park As of the census of 2010, there were 72,321 people, 28,930 households, 18,489 families residing in the county. The population density was 181 people per square mile. There were 31,882 housing units at an average density of 80 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.0% White, 2.0% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.8% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. 5.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 28,930 households out of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 9.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.00% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the county, the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 14.70% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,092, the median income for a family was $39,553. Males had a median income of $29,243 versus $21,001 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,892. About 10.30% of families and 16.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.90% of those under age 18 and 16.10% of those age 65 or over. According to the US Census for 2013 Putnam County has the highest wealth inequality in America. Cookeville, the largest town in Putnam County, is the home of Tennessee Technological University, known for engineering, education and the arts; the largest college at Tennessee Tech is the College of Sciences. The university student population of 11,800 comprises a third of the resident population of Cookeville.
The Putnam County school system enrolls 12,000 students in 18 schools throughout the county. All schools are accredited. Cookeville High School is the largest non-metropolitan school in the state and is one of only eight high schools in the
Edgar Evins State Park
Edgar Evins State Park is a state park in DeKalb County, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. The park consists of 6,000 acres along the shores of Center Hill Lake, an impoundment of the Caney Fork; the State of Tennessee leases the land from the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. James Edgar Evins, the park's namesake, was a Smithville businessman and state senator who played a vital role in the development of the Center Hill Dam and Reservoir in the 1940s, he was the father of former United States Representative Joe L. Evins, for whom the nearby Joe L. Evins Appalachian Center for Craft is named; the Evins family began pushing for the establishment of a state park along the DeKalb portion of Center Hill Lake as early as the 1950s. The Caney Fork flows down from its source atop the Cumberland Plateau and winds its way northwestward across the Eastern Highland Rim before emptying into the Cumberland River near Carthage, Tennessee. Center Hill Dam, located 26.6 miles above the mouth of the Caney Fork, has created a reservoir that spans a 68-mile stretch of the river between the dam and the Great Falls Dam at Rock Island State Park in adjacent Warren County.
Edgar Evins State Park covers the northeast shore of the reservoir upstream from Center Hill Dam. The park is situated amidst rolling hills that comprise part of the geological boundary between the Eastern Highland Rim and the Central Basin; these hills are underlain by Mississippian period limestone, the erosion of which has created karst-like formations throughout the Center Hill Basin. Outcroppings of this limestone are visible along the cliffs overlooking the lake. Most of Edgar Evins State Park is coated in a second-growth hardwood forest typical of the Eastern Highland Rim. Common tree species include the tuliptree, white basswood, sugar maple, white ash, various species of oak and hickory. A pre-inundation archaeological survey of the Center Hill Basin conducted by the Smithsonian Institution located several possible prehistoric village and mound sites, including a 10-foot platform mound at the mouth of Mine Lick Creek, just upstream from the modern park boundary. Early settlers in the area claimed to have found Native American graves and other objects.
More extensive excavations, failed to uncover any major prehistoric sites. The earliest Euro-American settlers in the DeKalb area arrived in the late 1790s and established the town of Liberty just west of the modern park. Over the years, several families settled in the hollows and valleys of what is now Edgar Evins State Park and adjacent lands that would be inundated by Center Hill Lake. One such settler, Alexander Dunham, whose family arrived in the area in the 1830s, is buried on a hill within the park that overlooks Center Hill Lake. Dunham's son lived near the present site of Center Hill Dam; the Caney Fork has long been notorious for its volatility. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, business venture after business venture tried to harness the river's power, only to be defeated by one of several catastrophic floods that occurred along the river during this period. Major floods in 1902, 1915, 1928, 1929 wiped out mills, bridges and farms, led to increased calls for flood control.
In the 1930s, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated several flood control projects in the Cumberland River watershed, including Center Hill Dam, the construction of, authorized in 1938. Flood control and power production were the primary goals of the Center Hill Dam project. Center Hill Lake's revised management plan in the 1940s called for the inclusion of recreational areas along the lake's shores; these included several small local boatramps at first. In the late 1960s, the State of Tennessee began construction of facilities for Edgar Evins State Park; the park was dedicated in 1975. Edgar Evins State Park maintains a 300-slip marina and full service dock. Various types of watercraft may be rented at the marina. Lodging areas include a 34-cabin lodging complex and a campground with both modern and primitive campsites. Hiking trails maintained by the park include the 2-mile Highland Rim Trail, which loops down and back up through a hillside forest characteristic of the Eastern Highland Rim, the Dunham Cemetery Trail, a short trail that ascends to a small cemetery where former resident Alexander Dunham and two of his children are buried.
The Millennium Trail consists of a 2.2-mile loop that descends to the shores of Center Hill Lake and passes several pre-1940s homesteads before looping back into the forest. The Merritt Ridge Trail, a 5-mile extension of the Millennium Trail, traverses Merritt Ridge, a steep ridge that became a peninsula with the reservoir's creation; the Friends of Edgar Evins State Park was organized in 2003 to support park preservation efforts. The group conducts several annual tours of the park's flora and waterfalls. Official website