Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
Mansfield is a small city in and the parish seat of DeSoto Parish, United States. The population was 5,001 at the 2010 census, a decline of more than 10 percent from the 2000 tabulation. Mansfield is 77 percent African American. Mansfield is part of the Shreveport–Bossier City Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Battle of Mansfield, a Confederate victory under General Richard Taylor, was fought here on April 8, 1864. This battle turned 42,000 Union troops away from their conquest of the Louisiana Confederate capital and sent them in retreat to New Orleans; the battle is commemorated at the Mansfield State Historic Site some four miles south of Mansfield off Louisiana Highway 175. In 1855 the first woman's college west of the Mississippi River, Mansfield Female College, founded by the Methodist Church, opened in Mansfield. A two-year college, its first class graduated in 1856. Financial difficulties and the threat of war closed the college from 1860 to the end of the American Civil War, during which its buildings served as a hospital for soldiers wounded in the battle of Mansfield.
In 1930, Mansfield Female College merged with Centenary College of Louisiana in Shreveport and closed its doors permanently. In 2003, the Louisiana State Legislature moved to convert the main building of Mansfield Female College, the Lyceum, into a future museum; the film The Great Debaters was shot in Mansfield and released on December 25, 2007. The story line involves a 1930s debate team from Texas; the downtown scenes of Marshall, were shot on location in downtown Mansfield. The film stars Denzel Washington and Forest Whitaker and was nominated for a Golden Globe award in 2008. Mansfield has an elevation of 335 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.7 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,001 people, 2,500 households, 1,450 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,515.4 people per square mile. There were 2,298 housing units at an average density of 623.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city in 2000 was 64.26% African American, 34.13% White, 0.13% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.47% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.59% of the population. There were 2,054 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.3% were married couples living together, 27.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.6% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,981, the median income for a family was $26,683. Males had a median income of $30,239 versus $19,854 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,850. About 27.2% of families and 33.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.1% of those under age 18 and 26.4% of those age 65 or over.
In a runoff election held in May 2014, Roy Rogers Jones unseated Republican Troy N. Terrell, a local pastor who ran unsuccessfully in 2011 for the Louisiana State Senate against another Republican, Sherri Smith Buffington of Keithville in southern Caddo Parish. Questions have since arisen about Jones' residence in a different district than the District B, from which he was elected. Jones moved out of the district because of a house fire, but he has not yet returned to the area he represents on the city council. In 2013, he pleaded guilty to four misdemeanor theft counts in connection with a misappropriation of funds at the DeSoto Parish Council on Aging. Jones' wife is the former COA director. Two of her relatives were convicted of felonies in the matter. Mansfield was the childhood home of Joshua Logan, an award-winning director, producer and screenwriter for film and stage, he is most famous for directing Hollywood classics such as South Pacific, Paint Your Wagon, Bus Stop and Fanny. Logan received the Pulitzer Prize at the age of forty for the libretto of South Pacific, which he cowrote with Oscar Hammerstein II.
Logan used Mansfield as the setting for his play The Wisteria Trees. Ocie Lee Smith was an American singer, who performed with Count Basie's band from 1961 to 1965 and sang on the 1969 Grammy Award-winning recording of the song "Little Green Apples", he was born in Mansfield on June 21, 1932. Mansfield is the birthplace of major league baseball player Vida Blue, a left-handed starting pitcher. In a 17-year career, he played for the Oakland Athletics, San Francisco Giants, Kansas City Royals. Mansfield is the birthplace of Albert Lewis. Lewis made his professional debut in the NFL in 1983 with the Kansas City Chiefs, he played for the Kansas City Chiefs, Oakland Raiders, Los Angeles Raiders over the course of his 16-year career. NFL cornerback Fakhir Brown attended Mansfield High School. Others affiliated with Mansfield by birth or residence include: John T. "Tommy" Allen, staff photographer for The Washington Post from 1960 to 2004 Sylura Barron, first African-American woman delegate to a national p
Battle of Pleasant Hill
The Battle of Pleasant Hill, formed part of the Red River Campaign during the American Civil War, when Union forces were aiming to occupy the state capital Shreveport. The battle was a continuation of the Battle of Mansfield, a Confederate victory, which had caused the Union commander Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks to send his wagons, with most of his artillery, downriver in retreat. However, both sides had been reinforced through the night, when the Confederate commander Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor launched an assault against the Union line, it was repulsed, though at a high cost in casualties; this led the demoralised Union army to retreat the next day. For this reason, the result of the battle, technically a Union victory, has been disputed by historians. After the success of the Confederates at the Battle of Mansfield, April 8, 1864, Union forces retreated during the night and next morning took up a position on Pleasant Hill; the road from Mansfield to Pleasant Hill was "littered by burning wagons, abandoned knapsacks and cooking utensils.
Federal stragglers and wounded were met by the hundreds and were rounded up and sent to the rear," explains the historian John D. Winters of Louisiana Tech University in his The Civil War in Louisiana; the Battle of Mansfield took place about 3 miles southeast of the town of Mansfield at Sabine Cross Roads. Pleasant Hill was located about 16 miles southeast of Sabine Cross Roads. Confederate reinforcements had arrived late on the April 8—Churchill's Arkansas Division arrived at Mansfield at 3.30 p.m. and Parson's Missouri Division arrived at Mansfield at 6 p.m. Neither of these Divisions participated in the Battle of Mansfield — however, both would play a major role during the Battle of Pleasant Hill. On the Union side reinforcements arrived, when Maj. Gen. Andrew J. Smith, commanding detachments of XVI and XVII Corps, arrived from Grand Ecore late on the April 8, around nightfall, encamped about 2 miles from Pleasant Hill. On the morning of the April 9, Franklin ordered the baggage train to proceed to Grand Ecore.
It included many pieces of artillery. Most of Franklin's Cavalry and the XIII Corps left with it; this included the Corps D'Afrique commanded by Colonel William H. Dickey and Brig. Gen. Thomas E. G. Ransom's detachment of the XIII Corps, now under the command of Brig. Gen. Robert A. Cameron — Ransom was wounded on the April 8; the baggage train made slow progress and was still only a few miles from Pleasant Hill when the major fighting began that day. Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone, Chief of Staff, others, attempted to get Cameron to return to Pleasant Hill throughout the day, but he failed to do so — he stated that he never received any written orders to return. Banks doesn't appear to have been aware of the exact orders Cameron had received from Franklin; the Union side lost 18 pieces of artillery at the Battle of Mansfield. These were turned on the Union forces the next day at Pleasant Hill. Confederate Brig. Gen. Jean Jacques Alexandre Alfred Mouton was killed during the Battle of Mansfield, April 8, 1864.
Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department commander Lt. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith, at Shreveport, received a dispatch from Taylor that reached him at 4 a.m. April 9, it informed him of the Battle of Mansfield. Smith rode 45 miles to Pleasant Hill, but did not reach there in time for the battle — arriving around nightfall. Among the Union regiments fighting at Pleasant Hill on April 9 was the 47th Pennsylvania Infantry. Part of the Second Brigade in Emory's XIX Corps, the 47th Pennsylvania was the only regiment from the Keystone State to fight in the Union's 1864 Red River Campaign. Led by Col. Tilghman H. Good, the 47th Pennsylvania sustained a significant number of casualties, including several men who were captured by Confederate troops. Held at Pleasant Hill, POWs from the 47th Pennsylvania and other Union regiments were marched and moved by rail to the largest CSA prison west of the Mississippi, Camp Ford, situated near Tyler, Texas. Other members of the 47th ended up at Camp Groce near Hempstead, and/or at the Confederate hospital in Shreveport.
In 1864, Pleasant Hill was a small village, situated about 2 miles north the current village of Pleasant Hill — a new village that grew up nearby and that took the same name, after the old village was abandoned. The site of old village is today referred to as the "Old town" or "Old Pleasant Hill". Dr. Harris H. Beecher, Assistant-Surgeon, 114th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, present at the battle, described the village of Pleasant Hill as a town of about twelve or fifteen houses, situated on a clearing in the woods, of a mile or so in extent, elevated a trifle above the general level of the surrounding country. In 1864, the countryside in this part of Louisiana consisted of pine forests and scrub oaks. According to Banks, The shortest and only practicable road from Natchitoches to Shreveport was the stage road through Pleasant Hill and Mansfield, through a barren, sandy country, with less water and less forage, the greater portion an unbroken pine forest. A newspaper described Pleasant Hill as "a little village situated on a low ridge, containing in peace-times 300 inhabitants."
It further stated that, The battle-field of Pleasant Hill...is a large, open field, which had once been cultivated, but is now overgrown with weeds and bushes. The slightly-elevated centre of the field, from which the name Pleasant Hill is taken is nothing m
Mansfield State Historic Site
Mansfield State Historic Site known as Mansfield Battle Park, is a Louisiana state historic site which preserves the site of the 1864 Battle of Mansfield in the American Civil War. It is located four miles south of the seat of DeSoto Parish in northwestern Louisiana; the battle is considered significant because Confederate troops succeeded in the overall Red River Campaign in turning back large Union forces, preventing the progression of the war into Texas, delaying the final southern surrender on April 9, 1865. The Union expected the Red River Campaign to lead to the seizure of cotton for New England mills, to prevent a French-Mexican force from joining the Confederates, provide protection for Union loyalists in Texas and bring the state back into the Union; the capture of Shreveport the Louisiana capital as well as headquarters of Trans-Mississippi Confederate operations, was another Union goal. The Union army and navy progressed through Alexandria and reached Natchitoches by early April 1864.
The army separated from the navy at Natchitoches and veered toward Mansfield, a situation which left ground troops without naval backup. Confederate General Richard Taylor, son of U. S. President and General Zachary Taylor, decided to challenge the Union at Mansfield, rather than waiting until Union commander Nathaniel P. Banks reached Shreveport; this tactic allowed Taylor to face the enemy on more equal terms because the Confederate troops were outnumbered. At noon on April 8, 1864, some 6,400 Union troops faced 10,500 Confederates; the Union formed a line of battle along a rail fence and ridge called "Honeycutt Hill". On orders from Taylor, General Alfred Mouton and his division charged the rail fence. Mouton was killed in the attack, but General Camille Armand de Polignac, a native of France, continued the advance and overwhelmed Union troops. In a plaque in the museum Taylor is quoted as having said: "The death of the gallant Mouton affected me, he joined me soon after I reached Western Louisiana and had proven faithful to duty.
Modest and patriotic, he showed best in action, always leading his men." In addition to the monument in his honor, Mouton is honored with an interpretative nature trail in the park. An infusion of two thousand Union troops failed to change the outcome, as Taylor and his men took many prisoners and seized the weaponry and wagons abandoned by the enemy. Fighting continued the next day at the Battle of Pleasant Hill in Sabine Parish south of Mansfield. A military draw at Pleasant Hill caused the Union to retreat south toward Alexandria; the battle site encourages visitors to "step back in time" through its military exhibits, a film, monthly interpretative programs. There is an interpretative trail and a picnic area. Candlelight tours of the battlefield are offered around Halloween every year. Among the exhibits is the sculpture "Spirit of the Confederacy", based on St. Barbara, patron saint of artillerymen; the museum contains a collection of medical instruments required to treat the wounded from battle.
A large celebration was held for the centennial of the battle in 1964. Lieutenant Governor of Texas Preston Smith and F. Jay Taylor, an historian of the Civil War, president of Louisiana Tech University at Ruston, led the processions. Smith, who served as governor from 1969-1973, headed an eight-mile caravan of vehicles from Texas, which supplied Confederate troops at Mansfield; the Texas Tech University historian Alwyn Barr in 1998 released the second edition of his Polignac's Texas Brigade, a study of Polignac and the Texan who fought in Mansfield and Sabine Crossroads. The site, comprising a 44 acres area, was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 13, 1973. National Register of Historic Places listings in DeSoto Parish, Louisiana Mansfield State Historic Site - Official website Mansfield State Historic Site - Facebook page
Jean-Jacques-Alfred-Alexandre "Alfred" Mouton was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. Although trained at West Point, he soon resigned his commission to become a civil engineer and a sugarcane grower, while serving as a brigadier general in the Louisiana State Militia. On the outbreak of the Civil War, he commanded the 18th Louisiana Infantry Regiment, where he proved a strict disciplinarian, notably friendly and sociable with the rank and file. Wounded at Shiloh, he was made a brigade commander under General Richard Taylor, with whom he obstructed Union efforts to secure the Bayou Teche region of southern Louisiana. In the Red River Campaign, Mouton was killed at the Battle of Mansfield, while leading his men in a cavalry charge. Mouton was born in Opelousas, the son of former Governor of Louisiana Alexandre Mouton. Alfred enrolled in St. Charles College in Louisiana. Upon his graduation from St. Charles College, Alexandre Mouton secured for Alfred an appointment to the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York.
Alfred was hesitant to go at first because up until that point in his life he had been only around French-speaking people and customs. However, his father was adamant, he was enrolled in 1846. At West Point, Mouton was an average student scoring good marks in certain areas, including French, but it was evident that he struggled with the new language he was around. Alfred graduated from West Point on July 1, 1850, 38th out of 44, he stayed with the United States Army just before resigning his commission that September. As soon as he resigned his commission, Mouton took up a civil engineering position as an assistant engineer for the New Orleans and Great Western Railroad, he held that position from 1852 to 1853. After resigning from the railroad business, Mouton took up farming sugar cane in Lafayette Parish, Louisiana. While living in Lafayette Parish, Mouton became a prominent member of the community due to his family connections, he served as leader of a local militia company. He served as brigadier general in the Louisiana State Militia from 1850 to 1861.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Mouton organized a company of men from the local population in Lafayette Parish. The company consisted of farmers from around the area. Mouton was elected captain of the company upon its organization; when the company was organized into the 18th Louisiana Infantry Regiment, he was elected colonel. Mouton made a reputation for himself as a strict disciplinarian and an efficient drillmaster. However, after drill he mingled with his soldiers in camp, stopping to talk to anyone of the regiment. One of his soldiers had this to say about him: "As a drillmaster, he had few, if any, equals. I have seen him drill the regiment for an hour in a square, the sides of which ware equal to the length of his line of battle, without once throwing a company outside or recalling a command when given, he was a strict disciplinarian and allowed no deviation from orders either by officers or soldiers." During the weeks before the Battle of Shiloh, the 18th Louisiana was one of the regiments called to the tiny crossroads town of Corinth, for Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston's planned attack on Union forces encamped near Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee.
At Shiloh, the 18th Louisiana was organized into Col. Preston Pond's brigade, it was while serving in this brigade that the regiment and their commander received their baptism by fire. Pond's brigade attacked the Federal right, against the divisions of Union generals William Tecumseh Sherman and John A. McClernand. During one of these attacks, Colonel Mouton was wounded. After this Confederate defeat in April 1862, General P. G. T. Beauregard ordered a withdrawal back to Corinth. After arriving there, the 18th Louisiana was sent back to Louisiana to replenish its depleted ranks. While back in Louisiana, Mouton was made interim commander of the District of West Louisiana, part of the Trans-Mississippi Department, did what he could with the limited men and supplies that he had to fight off Federal attempts to move into the state, his army, attempting to protect the sugar cane farms along Bayou Lafourche, was brushed aside by the U. S. Volunteers under Brigadier General Godfrey Weitzel in the Battle of Georgia Landing at Labadieville, Louisiana, in October 1862, which led to Weitzel destroying much of the crops in that area.
With the arrival of Confederate Major General Richard Taylor, Mouton was made a brigade commander and given the rank of brigadier general. The duo of Mouton and Taylor would prove to be one of the most efficient during the war and they, along with cavalry commander Thomas Green, would harass, confuse and delay Union attempts to secure the Bayou Teche region of southern Louisiana. Mouton's leadership in his Louisiana brigade helped the Confederates undermine Union attempts to access the rich Bayou Teche region, he was a key participant in the battles of Irish Bend, Fort Bisland and Bayou Borbeau, along with numerous other smaller skirmishes. Mouton's brigade was used as the lead unit in the Confederate attack at the Battle of Mansfield. While leading his brigade in a charge against the Union position, Mouton was killed. Historian John D. Winters reports on the battle: "On his horse, Mouton made a perfect target, a Federal marksman dropped him from his saddle; the gallant Polignac now took over the command.
With tears of grief and rage in their eyes, the yelling men followed Polignac. They ran on through the deadly hail, determined to avenge the death of their leader.... Mouton's division lost about one third of
Bossier City, Louisiana
Bossier City is a city in Bossier Parish, located on the northwestern border of Louisiana in the United States. It is the second most populous city in the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area, with a 2017 census estimate of 68,554. Bossier City is located on the eastern bank of the Red River and is tied economically and to its larger sister city Shreveport on the opposite bank; the Shreveport–Bossier City area is the center of the region known as the Ark-La-Tex. Bossier City is the largest city in Louisiana, not the parish seat; the City of Bossier City is stimulated by Barksdale Air Force Base and Bossier Parish Community College. In the 1830s, the area of Bossier City was the plantation Elysian Grove, purchased by James Cane and his second wife Mary D. C. Cane. James had come to the area with his first wife Rebecca Bennett, her brother, William Bennett, his wife Mary Doal Bennett, they ran a trading post across the river on what was Caddo Indian Land, a portion called "Bennett's Bluff". The trading post partners and William's father Samuel Bennett became a 1/7 partner in the new Shreve Town, which developed as Shreveport.
Elysian Grove plantation was located along the Red River for access to transportation, where the Texas Trail crossed the Red River. The trading post on the west side operated a ferry between what would become Shreveport and Bossier City; the plantation loading and unloading dock was recorded as Cane's Landing in the old ferry log books. For a short time, Cane's Landing was known as Cane City; the Canes and Bennetts were among the earliest settlers in the area. Mary D. C. Bennett gave birth to the first white baby of the area, William Smith Bennett Jr. who died at an early age. In 1843, a section of land east of the Red River was divided from the Great Natchitoches District and Claiborne Parish areas and was called Bossier Parish, it was named in honor of Pierre Evariste John Baptiste Bossier, a former Creole general, who became a cotton planter in Bossier Parish. He was one of the first European settlers in the area. In the 1840s, the Great Western Migration of Americans and immigrants began, the parish grew in population.
Many early settlers passed through the region on their way to the West. By 1850, more than 200 wagons a week passed through many intending to settle in Texas; some of these settlers stayed in Louisiana, attracted by the fertile river valley. In 1850, the census listed the population at around 6,962. During the Civil War, companies of Confederate soldiers shipped out of Cane's Landing aboard steamboats for distant battlefields. Mrs. Cane hosted hundreds of Confederate troops who were heading off to war. Mrs. Cane's plantation was fortified to protect Shreveport by three batteries, with Fort Kirby Smith in the center; the others were Batteries Price, Walker & Ewell. Fort Smith protected the area from an eastern invasion; the Civil War reached Bossier Parish in 1861, ended in Shreveport four years when the Trans-Mississippi Department surrendered. In the 20th century, Bossier High School was constructed near the former site of the fort. Shed Road, the first all-weather turnpike in the American South, was constructed in the 1870s and operated from 1874 to 1886.
It extended for 9 miles from Red Chute to the Red River. There was a plantation at the end of the elevated and covered roadway, accessible by a ferry boat; the covered road made the transportation of goods easier before the arrival of the railroads. Anna B. granddaughter of James and Mary Cane, felt the area would prosper and began promoting the idea of a riverfront city. Anna B. and J. J. Stockwell sold lots in 1883; the area grew as did transportation through it. Cane City was said as being incorporated by former Governor Newton C. Blanchard and renamed as the village of Bossier City. Blanchard named Ewald Max Hoyer, as the first Bossier City mayor. Hoyer continued to reside in what is known as the Bliss-Hoyer House in Shreveport's Highland neighborhood. Bossier City has grown from an area of one square mile to a city containing more than 40 square miles. Continued growth led to Bossier City's classification being changed from village to town by Governor John M. Parker. Governor Earl Kemp Long issued a proclamation classifying Bossier City a city.
The "golden spike" commemorated the completion of the east-west Vicksburg and Pacific Railroad. It was driven at Bossier City on July 1884, by Julia "Pansy" Rule, it was the first such spike to be driven by a woman. The north-south Shreveport and Arkansas Railroad was completed on April 6, 1888; the Louisiana-Arkansas Railroad was completed on November 2, 1909. The Dixie Overland Highway from the East to the West Coast was built in 1918; these railroads and highways combined to make Bossier City a hub for future activity. The discovery of crude oil, in 1908, thrust Bossier City into the nationwide oil boom. Bossier's central location to the rural oil fields made it a major player in the oil patch. Several international oil companies are located here; the advantages brought by black gold fueled many civic and economic improvements. A fire on June 23, 1925, consumed one-half of downtown Bossier City. Local citizens were unable to battle the blaze; the loss spurred civic improvements including a modern water system capable of fighting such fires, a new City Hall, a modern fire alarm system, modern sidewalks and the first city park.
In the 1930s, construction began on Barksdale Airfield. The land on which the base is built was unincorporated property south of Bossier City in 1929; this land was annexed by the city of Shreveport and donated to the federal govern
U.S. Route 84
U. S. Route 84 is an east–west U. S. Highway, it started as a short Georgia–Alabama route in the original 1926 scheme, but by 1941 it had been extended all the way to Colorado. The highway's eastern terminus is a short distance east of Midway, Georgia, at an interchange with Interstate 95; the road continues toward the nearby Atlantic Ocean as a county road. Its western terminus is in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, at an intersection with U. S. 160. The section from Brunswick, Georgia to Roscoe, Texas has been designated by five state legislatures as part of the El Camino East/West Corridor; the designation was in recognition of its history as a migration route from the Atlantic coast to the present Mexico–United States border, one of the routes that Spanish settlers called El Camino Real. The designation is intended to promote the route for both tourism and NAFTA-facilitated trade with Mexico. States are asking for federal funds to widen the US 84 El Camino East/West Corridor; the western terminus of US 84, Pagosa Springs, was made famous by C. W. McCall in the 1975 song and album Wolf Creek Pass.
US 84 ends 1 mile east of downtown Pagosa Springs at a T-intersection with US 160. South of Pagosa Springs, the 28 miles of the Colorado section of US 84 pass through a portion of San Juan National Forest; the highway climbs Confar Hill, a drainage divide between the Rio Blanco and Navajo River, before descending into the village of Chromo and passing into New Mexico. US 84 enters Rio Arriba County, New Mexico 28 miles south of its terminus at US 160. About 6 miles south of the Colorado–New Mexico state line, US 64 comes from the west and travels concurrently with US 84 for the next 28 miles. Only 3 miles east of this intersection, the concurrency crosses the Continental Divide at Sargent Pass, elevation 7,718 feet above sea level or more than 3,100 feet lower than Wolf Creek Pass, the next Continental Divide highway pass to the north. Therefore, only 37 miles of US 84 are located west of the Continental Divide. About 12 miles east of the intersection, US 64/US 84 enters the town of Chama. At a T-intersection, New Mexico State Road 17 enters from the north and terminates at said intersection, while US 64 and US 84 enter from the south and west.
After heading south from Chama, US 64 and US 84 combine for about 14 miles to Tierra Amarilla, where US 64 departs from US 84 and heads southeast, while US 84 continues south. About 57 miles down the road, US 84 is joined by US 285 south of the small community of Chili. About 5 miles further, US 84/US 285 enters the city of Española from the north as North Paseo de Onate Street. At the south end of the town, US 84/US 285 becomes an expressway. About 9 miles further, US 84/US 285 becomes a limited-access freeway. 15 miles further south, the two return to surface street status, travel past downtown Santa Fe via St. Francis Drive. On the south side of Santa Fe at Interstate 25's exit 282A, US 84/US 285 merges with northbound I-25/US 85. All four highways head east and to the south to avoid the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Just before turning north, US 285 continues south. After winding north and south, the freeway begins heading north, US 84 exits about 55 miles at exit 339 near Romeroville and travels in an east/southeast direction, while I-25/US 85 continue north to Colorado.
Following a path southeast and south for 42 miles, US 84 merges with I-40 at I-40's exit 256. After 17 miles I-40/US 84 enters Santa Rosa. About 21 miles from its confluence with I-40, US 84 diverges at exit 277; the highway travels south/southeast for 42 miles until merging with US 60 in downtown Fort Sumner. From the intersection with US 60, US 60/US 84 travels east, passing through Taiban and Melrose before intersecting US 70 after 61 miles in Clovis. From the intersection with US 70, US 64/US 70/US 84 travels east 8.7 miles entering Texico. Here, about 280 feet before the Texas–New Mexico state line, US 60 splits from US 70/US 84 with US 70/US 84 continuing east into Farwell, Texas. Despite being an east-west route, US-84 is signed as north-south between Ft. Sumner and the Colorado border. US 70/US 84 crosses into Texas at Farwell. After passing through Farwell, US 70/US 84 veers to the southeast, continuing as a concurrency until Muleshoe. From Muleshoe, US 70 leaves the route, while US 84 continues on a southeasterly direction across the level plains of the Llano Estacado.
Along this stretch, US 84 travels parallel to the BNSF Railway, crosses a sandy section called the Muleshoe Dunes, passes Littlefield, the birthplace of country singer Waylon Jennings. US 84 continues in a southeasterly direction through cotton fields and small towns such as Anton and Shallowater entering Lubbock, the largest city in the South Plains and the birthplace of Buddy Holly. Signed as Avenue Q, US 84 passes through the heart of downtown Lubbock before making a sharp easterly turn on the southeast side of the city, where it is known as the Slaton Highway. After bypassing the town of Slaton, US 84 makes another gentle turn to the east, following a southeasterly heading through Post and Roscoe, where it merges with I-20. From this point, US 84 follows I-20, until Abilene, where it leaves the interstate, making a hard southerly turn and forming the western side of a three-quarter loop around the city. From the south side of Abilene, US 84 continues as a concurrency with US 83 (signed as US 84 West/East