2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Monroe County, Arkansas
Monroe County is located in the Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for the fifth President of the United States. Created as Arkansas's 20th county on November 2, 1829, Monroe County is home to two incorporated town and three incorporated cities, including Clarendon, the county seat, Brinkley, the most populous city; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. Occupying only 621 square miles, Monroe County is the 22nd smallest county in Arkansas; as of the 2010 Census, the county's population is 8,149 people in 4,455 households. Based on population, the county is the fifth-smallest county of the 75 in Arkansas. Located in the Arkansas Delta, the county is flat with fertile soils. Covered in forest, bayous and grasslands, the area was cleared for agriculture by early European-American settlers who used enslaved African Americans to do the work and to cultivate cotton, it is drained by the Cache River, Bayou DeView, the White River.
Three large protected areas preserve old growth bald cypress forest and wildlife habitat in the county: Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Dagmar Wildlife Management Area and White River NWR and provide places for hunting and fishing. Interstate 40 is the only Interstate highway in Monroe County, crossing the county from east to west through Brinkley, the largest city; the county has three United States highways and twelve Arkansas state highways run in the county. A Union Pacific Railroad line crosses the county from southwest to northeast. Shortly after the United States had completed the Louisiana Purchase, officials began to survey the territory at a site near the intersection of Monroe and Lee counties. From forested wetlands in what would become southern Monroe County 900,000 square miles of land would be explored after President James Madison commissioned a survey of the purchase area; the point was commemorated in 1961 by the Arkansas General Assembly as part of Louisiana Purchase State Park.
Settlement in Monroe County began when Dedrick Pike settled in 1816 where the Cache River enters the White River. The settlement was named Mouth of the Cache, a post office by that name was opened years later; the community renamed itself Clarendon in 1824 in honor of the Earl of Clarendon. Monroe County was established under the Arkansas territorial legislature in 1829, the county seat was established at Lawrenceville, where a jail and courthouse were erected. A ferry across the White River was founded in 1836. In 1857 the county seat was moved to Arkansas; the new brick courthouse was nearly finished by the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. The county sent five units into Confederate service. After Union troops captured Clarendon in 1863, they destroyed the small city; the Union had dismantled the brick courthouse and shipped the bricks to De Valls Bluff. After the war, during Reconstruction, there was a high level of violence by insurgent whites seeking to suppress the rights of freedmen and to keep them from voting.
After Republican Congressman James M. Hinds was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan in Monroe County in October, 1868, Governor Powell Clayton established martial law in ten counties, including Monroe County, as the attacks and murders were out of control. Four military districts were operated for four years in an effort to suppress guerrilla insurgency by white paramilitary groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan and others, they continued to challenge enfranchisement of blacks and the increasing power of Republicans in the county. The Monroe County Sun newspaper was established in 1876. Violence continued after Reconstruction, when Democrats had regained control of the state legislature. Whites struggled to re-establish white supremacy, by violence and intimidation of black Republican voters. At the turn of the century, the state legislature passed measures that disenfranchised most blacks for decades; the Equal Justice Initiative reported in 2015 that the county had 12 lynchings of African Americans from 1877-1950, most in the decades near the turn of the 20th century.
This was the fourth-highest of any county in the state. To escape the violence, thousands of African Americans left the state in the Great Migration to northern and western cities after 1940. Mechanization of farming and industrial-scale agriculture have decreased the need for workers; the rural county has continued to lose population because of the lack of work opportunities. There has been a decrease in population every decade since 1940; the county is located in one of the six primary geographic regions of Arkansas. The Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois. Large portions of Monroe County are within the Grand Prairie, a subdivision of the Arkansas Delta known today for rice farming and aquaculture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 621 square miles, of which 607 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Prior to settlement, Monroe County was densely forested, with bayous and swamps crossing the land.
Seeking to take advantage of the area's fertile soils, settlers cleared the land to better suit row crops. Although some swampland has been preserved in the conservation areas like the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, some former farmland has undergone reforestation, the majority of the county remains in cultivation. Another large land use in Monroe County is the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, owned by the
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
White River (Arkansas–Missouri)
The White River is a 722-mile long river that flows through the U. S. states of Missouri. Originating in the Boston Mountains of northwest Arkansas, it flows northwards into southern Missouri, turns back into Arkansas, flowing southeast to its mouth at the Mississippi River; the source of the White River is in the Boston Mountains of northwest Arkansas, in the Ozark–St. Francis National Forest southeast of Fayetteville; the river flows northwards from its source in northwest Arkansas, loops up through southwest Missouri through Branson, Missouri. In Branson the river forms Lake Taneycomo; the Powersite was the first dam on the White River. The flow into this comes from Table Rock Lake, down stream it flows into Bull Shoals Lake, from where it travels back into Arkansas, heads southeast to its mouth at the Mississippi River. On entering the Mississippi River Valley region near Batesville, the river becomes navigable to shallow-draft vessels, its speed decreases considerably; the final 10 miles of the river serves as the last segment of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System.
Despite being much shorter than the Arkansas River, it carries nearly as much water—normally more than 20,000 cubic feet per second, more than 100,000 cubic feet per second during floods. Lake Taneycomo was created in 1913 when the Empire District Electric Company built a dam just south of Forsyth, Missouri. Beaver Lake, Bull Shoals Lake, Table Rock Lake are man-made lakes or reservoirs created by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers under the authority of the Flood Control Act of 1938. A total of eight dams impound six in Arkansas and two in Missouri; the White River National Wildlife Refuge lies along the lower part of the river. The tributaries of the White River include Cache River, Bayou des Arc, Little Red River, Black River, North Fork River, Crooked Creek, Buffalo River, Kings River, James River, Roaring River; some cities that lie on the White River are Newport, Calico Rock, Batesville, all in Arkansas, as well as Branson and Hollister in Missouri. Fishing for trout is popular in the upper portions of the river from the Beaver Lake tailwaters in northwestern Arkansas, through its course through southwest Missouri, back down through Arkansas to the Highway 58 bridge in Guion.
The river has long been ranked one of the top trout fisheries in the country. Fishing is popular in these waters for a number of trout species including rainbow and cutthroat trout. A number of trout fishing resorts lie on the tailwaters of Bull Shoals Lake and the North Fork River. Fishing for white bass is popular in these waters. Cotter Bridge Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project List of rivers of Arkansas List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Missouri Whitewater Development Corporation White River Monster Cushing, Charles Phelps. "Floating Through The Ozarks". The Outing Magazine. LVIII: 537–547. Retrieved 2009-08-16. Media related to White River at Wikimedia Commons
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U. S. states of Colorado, Kansas and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges, it flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas. At 1,469 miles, it is the sixth-longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi–Missouri system, the 45th longest river in the world, its origin is in the Rocky Mountains in Lake County, near Leadville. In 1859, placer gold discovered in the Leadville area brought thousands seeking to strike it rich, but the recovered placer gold was exhausted; the Arkansas River's mouth is at Napoleon and its drainage basin covers nearly 170,000 sq mi. In terms of volume, the river is much smaller than the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, with a mean discharge of about 40,000 cubic feet per second.
The Arkansas from its headwaters to the 100th meridian west formed part of the U. S.-Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty until the Texas Annexation or Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Name pronunciation varies by region. Many people in western states, including Kansas and parts of Colorado, pronounce it ar-KAN-zəs, People in Oklahoma, parts of Colorado, the majority of the remaining United States pronounce it AR-kən-saw, how the Arkansas state is always pronounced according to a state law passed in 1881; the path of the Arkansas River has changed over time. Sediments from the river found in a palaeochannel next to Nolan, a site in the Tensas Basin, show that part of the river's meander belt flowed through up to 5200 BP. Whilst it was thought that this relict channel was active at the same time as another relict of Mississippi River's meander belt, it has been shown that this channel of the Arkansas was inactive 400 years before the Mississippi channel was active; the Arkansas has three distinct sections in its long path through central North America.
At its headwaters beginning near Leadville, the Arkansas runs as a steep fast-flowing mountain river through the Rockies in its narrow valley, dropping 4,600 feet in 120 miles. This section supports extensive whitewater rafting, including The Numbers, Brown's Canyon, the Royal Gorge. At Cañon City, the Arkansas River valley widens and flattens markedly. Just west of Pueblo, the river enters the Great Plains. Through the rest of Colorado and much of Oklahoma, it is a typical Great Plains riverway, with wide, shallow banks subject to seasonal flooding and periods of dwindling flow. Tributaries include the Salt Fork Arkansas River. In eastern Oklahoma the river begins to widen further into a more contained consistent channel. To maintain more reliable flow rates, a series of large reservoir lakes have been built on the Arkansas and its intersecting tributaries including the Canadian, Neosho and Poteau rivers; these locks and dams allow the river to be navigable by barges and large river craft downriver of Muskogee, where the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System joins in with the Verdigris River.
Into western Arkansas, the river path works between the encroaching Boston and Ouachita Mountains, including many isolated, flat-topped mesas, buttes, or monadnocks such as Mount Nebo, Petit Jean Mountain, Mount Magazine, the highest point in the state. The river valley expands as it encounters much flatter land beginning just west of Little Rock, Arkansas, it continues eastward across the plains and forests of eastern Arkansas until it flows into the Mississippi River. Water flow in the Arkansas River has dropped from 248 cubic feet per second average from 1944-1963 to 53 cubic feet per second average from 1984–2003 because of the pumping of groundwater for irrigation in eastern Colorado and western Kansas. Important cities along the Arkansas River include Colorado; the I-40 bridge disaster of May 2002 took place on I-40's crossing of Kerr Reservoir on the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. Since 1902, Kansas has claimed Colorado takes too much of the river's water, resulting in a number of lawsuits before the U.
S. Supreme Court that continue to this day under the name of Kansas v. Colorado; the problems over the possession and use of Arkansas River water by Colorado and Kansas led to the creation of an interstate compact or agreement between the two states. While Congress approved the Arkansas River Compact in 1949, the compact did not stop further disputes by the two states over water rights to the river; the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Basin Compact was created in 1965 to promote mutual consideration and equity over water use in the basin shared by those states. It led to the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Commission, charged with administering the compact and reducing pollution; the compact was approved and implemented by both states in 1970, has been in force since then. The McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System begins at the Tulsa Port of Catoosa on the Verdigris River, enters the Arkansas River near Muskogee, runs via an extensive lock and dam system to the Mississippi River. Through Oklahoma and Arkansas, dams which artificially deepen and widen the river to sustain comme
Willis A. Gorman
Willis Arnold Gorman was an American lawyer, politician, a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Gorman was born near Kentucky, he was the only child of both of Irish descent. In 1835, the family moved to Bloomington, where Gorman graduated from Indiana University's law school in 1835 and established a law practice. In January 1836, he married Martha Stone in Bloomington. By 1837 he began his move into politics. From 1841 to 1844, he was elected to the Indiana House of Representatives. In 1846 he volunteered for the army, enlisted as a private, went to fight in the Mexican–American War, he was appointed as a major in the 3rd Indiana Volunteer Infantry, led an independent rifle battalion at the Battle of Buena Vista, where he was wounded. When his term of service expired, he was appointed colonel of the 4th Indiana, he served in the capture of Huamantla and in several other campaigns and battles under General Joseph Lane. In 1848 he was military governor of Puebla, but soon after he returned to Indiana.
He served in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1849, to March 3, 1853, as a representative of that state. Gorman, politically a Democrat, served as the second Territorial Governor of Minnesota from May 15, 1853, to April 23, 1857, at the appointment of President Franklin Pierce. During his time as Governor of Minnesota, he masterminded an unsuccessful plan to move the capital of the territory from St. Paul to St. Peter, where he owned land that would have been eminently suitable for use as the new capitol grounds; the plan was sidetracked when legislator Joe Rolette disappeared with the bill until the last seconds of the legislative session. He spent a number of years practicing law in St. Paul and served in the Minnesota House of Representatives from May 11, 1858, to January 1859. With the secession of several Southern slave states, Gorman offered his services to the army, he was appointed Colonel of the 1st Minnesota Infantry, serving in the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861.
On September 7, 1861, he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and assigned to command a brigade in the II Corps in Army of the Potomac during the Peninsular Campaign. His troops suffered high casualties during the Battle of Antietam in an ill-fated attack on Confederate positions in the West Woods. In the year, he was assigned to command the District of Eastern Arkansas. In 1864 he resumed his law practice in St. Paul, he was elected City attorney in 1869, continued in that position until his death. He is buried in Oakland Cemetery in St. Paul. List of American Civil War generals United States Congress. "Willis A. Gorman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-14 Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army 1789-1903, Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office Folsom, William Henry Carman. Willis A. Gorman at Find a Grave