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De Administrando Imperio

De Administrando Imperio is the Latin title of a Greek-language work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. The Greek title of the work is Πρὸς τὸν ἴδιον υἱὸν Ρωμανόν, it is a domestic and foreign policy manual for the use of Constantine's son and successor, the Emperor Romanos II. Constantine was a scholar-emperor, who sought to foster learning and education in the Eastern Roman Empire. Emperor Constantine VII gathered a group of educated people and dedicated himself to writing books about the administration and history of the Eastern Roman Empire. A circle educated people formed around Constantine VII written three unfinished books and finished a biography of his grandfather, Basil I. De Administrando Imperio was written between 948 and 952, it contains advice on running the heterogeneous empire as well as fighting foreign enemies. The work combines two of Constantine's earlier treatises, "On the Governance of the State and the various Nations", concerning the histories and characters of the nations neighbouring the Empire, including the Turks, Kievan Rus', South Slavs, Lombards and Georgians.

To this combination were added Constantine's own political instructions to his son, Romanus. The book content, according to its preface, is divided into four sections: a key to the foreign policy in the most dangerous and complicated area of the contemporary political scene, the area of northerners and Scythians, a lesson in the diplomacy to be pursued in dealing with the nations of the same area a comprehensive geographic and historical survey of most of the surrounding nations and a summary of the recent internal history and organization of the Empire; as to the historical and geographic information, confusing and filled with legends, this information is in essence reliable. The historical and antiquarian treatise, which the Emperor had compiled during the 940s, is contained in the chapters 12—40; this treatise contains traditional and legendary stories of how the territories surrounding the Empire came in the past to be occupied by the people living in them in the Emperor's times. Chapters 1 -- 8, 10 -- 12 explain imperial policy toward the Turks.

Chapter 13 is a general directive on foreign policy coming from the Emperor. Chapters 43—46 are about contemporary policy in the north-east; the guides to the incorporation and taxation of new imperial provinces, to some parts of civil and naval administration, are in chapters 49—52. These chapters were designed to give practical instructions to the emperor Romanus II, are added during the year 951–52, in order to mark Romanus' fourteenth birthday. There are four surviving copies: The Greek text in its entirety was published seven times; the editio princeps, based on V, was published in 1611 by Johannes Meursius, who gave it the Latin title by which it is now universally known, which translates as On Administering the Empire. This edition was published six years with no changes; the next edition – which belongs to the A. Bandur – is collated copy of the first edition and manuscript P. Banduri's edition was reprinted twice: in 1729 in the Venetian collection of the Byzantine Historians, in 1864 Migne republished Banduri's text with a few corrections.

Constantine himself had not given the work a name, preferring instead to start the text with the standard formal salutation: "Constantine, in Christ the Eternal Sovereign, Emperor of the Romans, to own son Romanos, the Emperor crowned of God and born in the purple". The language Constantine uses is rather straightforward High Medieval Greek, somewhat more elaborate than that of the Canonic Gospels, comprehensible to an educated modern Greek; the only difficulty is the regular use of technical terms which – being in standard use at the time – may present prima facie hardships to a modern reader. For example, Constantine writes of the regular practice of sending basilikoí to distant lands for negotiations. In this case, it is meant that "royal men", i.e. imperial envoys, were sent as ambassadors on a specific mission. In the preamble, the emperor makes a point that he has avoided convoluted expressions and "lofty Atticisms" on purpose, so as to make everything "plain as the beaten track of common, everyday speech" for his son and those high officials with whom he might choose to share the work.

It is the extant written text that comes closest to the vernacular employed by the imperial palace bureaucracy in 10th-century Constantinople. In 1892 R. Vari planned a new critical edition of this work and J. B. Bury proposed to include this work in his collection of Byzantine Texts, he gave up the plan for an edition, surrendering it to Gyula Moravcsik in 1925. The first modern edition of the Greek text and its English translation appeared in Budapest in 1949; the next editions appeared in 1962 in 1967 and 1993. Byzantine Relations with Northern Peoples in the Tenth Century Of the Pechenegs, how many advantages accrue from their being at peace with the emperor of the Romans Chapters 29-36 at the Internet Archive

Why Courage Matters

Why Courage Matters: The Way to a Braver Life is a 2004 book by United States Senator John McCain with his frequent collaborator and aide Mark Salter. Published by Random House, it is mini-biographies and mini-commentaries on others, but contains a small autobiographical element; the book followed McCain's two memoirs, Faith of My Fathers and Worth the Fighting For. McCain starts by saying that in contemporary usage people talk too loosely in characterizing acts as being courageous - it should be not only "the capacity for action despite our fears" but involve a physical self-sacrifice for the benefit of others, he says that during his time as a POW in North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, he relied on his fellow POWs for moral support but "I was not always a match for my enemies." In press interviews for the book, McCain said that courage materializes when "our fear is overcome by our conscience and our beliefs and forces us to act."Most of the book consists of his portraits of people, both leaders and ordinary people, he thinks have shown courage.

The book starts with the story of U. S. Special Forces soldier Roy Benavidez, who won the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Vietnam War. Others whose stories are in the book include American civil rights leader John Lewis, American Indian chiefs Manuelito and Barboncito, explorer John Wesley Powell, Jewish resistance fighter Hannah Szenes, Burmese dissident Aung San Suu Kyi, Baltimore anti-drugs-crime mass murder victim Angela Dawson, U. S. Korean War soldier and Medal of Honor recipient Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.. McCain relates how courage is needed in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks. In a review, Publishers Weekly said that "These compelling life stories stand up against the best passages of McCain's previous works. Alas, his writing becomes more vague and less interesting when he shifts to a more abstract discussion of the need for courage in the post–September 11 era."Booklist Review said "The authors draw thoughtful lessons about the sources and types of courage and the importance of facing down fear in a world defined by color-coded terrorism alerts."Library Journal Review said that "Unfortunately, though message comes through loud and clear, the steps one must take to increase one's courage are not as outlined as one would hope."

A St. Petersburg Times review said that "McCain's blunt talk and raw honesty provide a dose of reality for the nation at this critical time."McCain appeared in media interviews to promote the book. The book was not the major commercial success Faith of My Fathers had been, nor the lesser best seller that Worth the Fighting For had been, it did not appear on the New York Times Best Seller list. Why Courage Matters was published in paperback by Ballantine Books on July 15, 2008, at the height of the John McCain presidential campaign, 2008; the book was mentioned during the 2016 United States presidential election, when politically embattled parent Khizr Khan said he mailed a copy of it to his U. S. Army son Humayun Khan shortly before he was killed during the Iraq War. Official website Booknotes interview with McCain on Why Courage Matters, August 1, 2004, C-SPAN

Tokyo International Music Competition for Conducting

The Tokyo International Music Competition is a music competition held in Tokyo, Japan. It has been organized by Min-On Concert Association. Competitions have been held in the three areas of conducting and chamber music, competitions in conducting are being held on a triennial basis; the Tokyo International Music Competition for Conducting has become an official member of the World Federation of International Music Competitions in 2014. Established in 1966 with the aim of discovering and supporting outstanding musical talents, the Tokyo International Music Competition vigorously promotes the growth of young musicians who display a broad range of promise in an international forum, it serves to promote cultural exchanges between representatives of different countries and to contribute to the further development of musical culture. The first competition for singing was held in 1966, followed by the first competition for conducting in 1967; the competition for chamber music was established in 1974.

The Tokyo International Music Competition for Conducting has been renamed in 1988 from Min-On Competition. 1st Competition in 1967 1st Prize: Yukinori Tezuka, Japan 2nd Prize: Shigenobu Yamaoka, Japan 3rd Prize: Hiroshi Koizumi, Japan Finalists: Kotaro Sato, Japan.