Johannes Andreas Brinkman known as Jan Brinkman, was a Dutch architect and exponent of Nieuwe Bouwen, modern architecture in the Netherlands. Brinkman was born in Rotterdam, Netherlands, in 1902, he was the son of architect Michiel Brinkman, who established a firm in Rotterdam in 1910 and was known for designing the Spangen neighborhood of Rotterdam in 1922. Johannes studied civil engineering at the Delft University of Technology. After Michiel's death in 1925, Johannes took charge of the father's architectural firm and entered into a partnership with architect Leendert van der Vlugt; the results of that collaboration include the Feijenoord Stadion. After the death of Van der Vlugt in 1936, Brinkman teamed up with architect Johannes Hendrik van den Broek; the firm's work during this time including a new Rotterdam Cruise Terminal for the Holland-America Line. Brinkman died in 1949 and the architect Jaap Bakema joined the firm, which in 1951 was renamed Architectenbureau Van den Broek en Bakema and today is known an Broekbakema.
Van der Leeuw House, Rotterdam Van Nelle Factory, Rotterdam Sonneveld House, Rotterdam Stadion Feyenoord, Rotterdam Cruise Terminal, Rotterdam List of Dutch architects Emmanuel, Muriel. Contemporary Architects. New York: St. Martin's Press. Pp. 119–121. ISBN 0-312-16635-4. Van Nelle Factory Van der Leeuw House Sonneveld House
Eric Patrick Clapton, is an English rock and blues guitarist and songwriter. He is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist and separately as a member of the Yardbirds and of Cream. Clapton has been referred to as one of the most influential guitarists of all time. Clapton ranked second in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" and fourth in Gibson's "Top 50 Guitarists of All Time", he was named number five in Time magazine's list of "The 10 Best Electric Guitar Players" in 2009. In the mid-1960s Clapton left the Yardbirds to play with the Bluesbreakers. After leaving Mayall, Clapton formed the power trio Cream with drummer Ginger Baker and bassist Jack Bruce, in which Clapton played sustained blues improvisations and "arty, blues-based psychedelic pop". After Cream broke up, he formed blues rock band Blind Faith with Baker, Steve Winwood, Ric Grech. Clapton's solo career began in the 1970s, where his work bore the influence of the mellow style of J. J. Cale and the reggae of Bob Marley.
His version of Marley's "I Shot the Sheriff" helped. Two of his most popular recordings were "Layla", recorded with the Dominos. Following the death of his son Conor in 1991, Clapton's grief was expressed in the song "Tears in Heaven", which appeared on his Unplugged album. Clapton has been the recipient of 18 Grammy Awards, the Brit Award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. In 2004 he was awarded a CBE at Buckingham Palace for services to music, he has received four Ivor Novello Awards from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors, including the Lifetime Achievement Award. In his solo career, Clapton has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling musicians of all time. In 1998, Clapton, a recovering alcoholic and drug addict, founded the Crossroads Centre on Antigua, a medical facility for recovering substance abusers. Clapton was born on 30 March 1945 in Ripley, England, to 16-year-old Patricia Molly Clapton and Edward Walter Fryer, a 25-year-old soldier from Montreal, Quebec.
Fryer shipped off to war prior to Clapton's birth and returned to Canada. Clapton grew up believing that his grandmother and her second husband, Jack Clapp, Patricia's stepfather, were his parents, that his mother was his older sister; the similarity in surnames gave rise to the erroneous belief. Years his mother married another Canadian soldier and moved to Germany, leaving young Eric with his grandparents in Surrey. Clapton received an acoustic Hoyer guitar, made in Germany, for his thirteenth birthday, but the inexpensive steel-stringed instrument was difficult to play and he lost interest. Two years Clapton picked it up again and started playing consistently. Clapton was influenced by the blues from an early age, practised long hours to learn the chords of blues music by playing along to the records, he preserved his practice sessions using his portable Grundig reel-to-reel tape recorder, listening to them over and over until he felt he'd got it right. In 1961, after leaving Hollyfield School in Surbiton, Clapton studied at the Kingston College of Art but was dismissed at the end of the academic year because his focus remained on music rather than art.
His guitar playing was so advanced. Around this time, Clapton began busking around Kingston and the West End. In 1962, Clapton started performing as a duo with fellow blues enthusiast David Brock in pubs around Surrey; when he was seventeen years old, Clapton joined his first band, an early British R&B group, the Roosters, whose other guitarist was Tom McGuinness. He stayed with this band from January until August 1963. In October of that year, Clapton did a seven-gig stint with the Engineers. In October 1963, Clapton joined the Yardbirds, a blues-influenced rock and roll band, stayed with them until March 1965. Synthesising influences from Chicago blues and leading blues guitarists such as Buddy Guy, Freddie King, B. B. King, Clapton forged a distinctive style and became one of the most talked-about guitarists in the British music scene; the band played Chess/Checker/Vee-Jay blues numbers and began to attract a large cult following when they took over the Rolling Stones' residency at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond.
They toured England with American bluesman Sonny Boy Williamson II. Yardbirds' rhythm guitarist, Chris Dreja, recalled that whenever Clapton broke a guitar string during a concert, he would stay on stage and replace it; the English audiences would wait out the delay by doing what is called a "slow handclap". Clapton's nickname of "Slowhand" came from Giorgio Gomelsky, a pun on the slow handclapping that ensued when Clapton stopped playing while he replaced a string. In December 1964, Clapton made his first appearance at the Royal Albert Hall, with the Yardbirds. Since Clapton has performed at the Hall over 200 times, has stated that performing at the venue is like "playing in my front room". In March 1965, Clapton and the Yardbirds had their first major hit, "For Your Love", written by songwriter Graham Gouldman, who wrote hit songs for Herman's Hermits and the Hollies. In part because of its success, the Yardbirds elected to move toward a pop-oriented sound, much
Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club referred to as Tottenham or Spurs, is a professional football club in Tottenham, England, that competes in the Premier League. Tottenham Hotspur Stadium has been the club's home ground since 2019, replacing their former home of White Hart Lane, demolished to make way for the new stadium on the same site, their training ground is on Hotspur Way in Bulls Cross in the London Borough of Enfield. Tottenham have played in a first strip of white shirts and navy blue shorts since the 1898–99 season; the club's emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football, with a Latin motto Audere est Facere. Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, the only non-League club to do so since the formation of the Football League in 1888. Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners' Cup.
They were the inaugural winners of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. They have collected at least one major trophy in each of the six decades from the 1950s to 2000s – an achievement only matched by Manchester United. In total, Spurs have won two league titles, eight FA Cups, four League Cups, seven FA Community Shields, one European Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Cups; the club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby club Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby. Named Hotspur Football Club, the club was formed on 5 September 1882 by a group of schoolboys led by Bobby Buckle, they were members of the Hotspur Cricket Club and the football club was formed to play sports during the winter months. A year the boys sought help with the club from John Ripsher, the Bible class teacher at All Hallows Church, who became the first president of the club and its treasurer. Ripsher helped and supported the boys through the club's formative years and found premises for the club.
In April 1884 the club was renamed "Tottenham Hotspur Football Club" to avoid confusion with another club, London Hotspur, whose post had been mistakenly delivered to North London. Nicknames for the club include "Spurs" and "the Lilywhites"; the boys played games between themselves and friendly matches against other local clubs. The first recorded match took place on 30 September 1882 against a local team named the Radicals, which Hotspur lost 2–0; the team entered their first cup competition in the London Association Cup, won 5–2 in their first competitive match on 17 October 1885 against a company's works team called St Albans. The club's fixtures began to attract the interest of the local community and attendances at its home matches increased. In 1892, they played for the first time in the short-lived Southern Alliance; the club turned professional on 20 December 1895 and, in the summer of 1896, was admitted to Division One of the Southern League. On 2 March 1898, the club became a limited company, the Tottenham Hotspur Football and Athletic Company.
Soon after, Frank Brettell became the first manager of Spurs, he signed John Cameron, who took over as player-manager when Brettell left a year later. Cameron would have a significant impact on Spurs, helping the club win its first trophy, the Southern League title in the 1899-1900 season; the following year Spurs won the 1901 FA Cup by beating Sheffield United 3–1 in a replay of the final, after the first game ended in a 2-2 draw. In doing so they became the only non-League club to achieve the feat after the formation of The Football League in 1888. In 1908, the club was elected into the Football League Second Division and won promotion to the First Division in their first season, finished runners-up in their first year in the league. In 1912, Peter McWilliam became manager. Spurs were relegated to the Second Division on the resumption of league football after the war, but returned to the First Division as Second Division champions of the 1919–20 season. On 23 April 1921, McWilliam guided Spurs to their second FA Cup win, beating Wolverhampton Wanderers 1–0 in the Cup Final.
Spurs finished second to Liverpool in the league in 1922, but would finish mid-table in the next five seasons. Spurs were relegated in the 1927–28 season after McWilliam left. For most of the 1930s and 40s, Spurs languished in the Second Division, apart from a brief return to the top flight in the 1933–34 and 1934–35 seasons. Former Spurs player Arthur Rowe became manager in 1949. Rowe developed a style of play, known as "push and run", that proved to be successful in his early years as manager, he took the team back to the First Division after finishing top of the Second Division in the 1949–50 season. In his second season in charge, Tottenham won their first top tier league championship title when they finished top of the First Division for the 1950–51 season. Rowe resigned in April 1955 due to a stress-induced illness from managing the club. Before he left, he signed one of Spurs' most celebrated players, Danny Blanchflower, who would win the FWA Footballer of the Year twice while at Tottenham.
Bill Nicholson took over as manager in October 1958. He would become the club's most successful manager, guiding the team to major trophy success three seasons in a row in the early 1960s: the Double in 1961, the FA Cup in 1962 and the Cup Winners' Cup in 1963. Nicholson signed Dave Mackay and John White in 1959, two influential players of the Double-winning team, Jimmy Greaves in 19
UEFA Euro 2000 Final
The UEFA Euro 2000 Final was a football match played on 2 July 2000 at Feijenoord Stadion in Rotterdam, Netherlands, to determine the winner of UEFA Euro 2000. France won the match, defeating Italy 2–1. Marco Delvecchio gave Italy the lead in the 55th minute and they held on until the final minute of injury time, when Sylvain Wiltord crashed a low drive past Italian keeper Francesco Toldo to take the game into extra time. France won the game just before half-time in extra-time when Robert Pires cut the ball back for David Trezeguet to fire the golden goal and win the tournament for France. France–Italy football rivalry UEFA Euro 2000 official website
UEFA Euro 2000
The 2000 UEFA European Football Championship known as Euro 2000, was the 11th UEFA European Championship, held every four years and organised by UEFA, association football's governing body in Europe. The finals of Euro 2000 were co-hosted by Belgium and the Netherlands, between 10 June and 2 July 2000. Spain and Austria bid to host the event; the final tournament was contested by 16 nations. With the exception of the national teams of the hosts and the Netherlands, the finalists had to go through a qualifying round to reach the final stage. France won the tournament, by defeating Italy 2–1 in the final, via a golden goal; the finals saw the first major UEFA competition contested in the King Baudouin Stadium since the events of the 1985 European Cup Final and the Heysel Stadium disaster, with the opening game being played in the rebuilt stadium. A high-scoring tournament with many exciting matches and a high standard of play, Euro 2000 is named by football writers as one of the greatest international tournaments ever.
Belgium and the Netherlands were selected as co-hosts on 14 July 1995 by the UEFA Executive Committee at a meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. Football hooliganism was a significant problem in the Netherlands in the 1990s the fierce rivalry between AFC Ajax and Feyenoord. There was concerns. Many instances of violence occurred, including several football riots in Rotterdam between 1995 and 1999, which would host the Euro 2000 final. One of the most infamous incidents was the Battle of Beverwijk in 1997. Although the violence is associated with domestic clubs, there were concerns that it could attach to the Dutch national team. Violence did occur during the Euro 2000 finals, albeit not involving the Dutch team. On 17 June, 174 England fans were arrested in Brussels, following violence with Germans ahead of an England v Germany match. One of the biggest surprises of the tournament was Portugal, winning Group A with three wins, including a 3–0 win against Germany, with Sérgio Conceição scoring a hat-trick, a 3–2 win over England, in which they came back from 2–0 down.
Romania was the other qualifier from the group, beating England with a late penalty in their last group game. Belgium had a surprise exit in the group stage, winning the tournament's first game against Sweden, but losing to Turkey and Italy, they finished third behind Italy and Turkey. The other co-host and favourite, the Netherlands, progressed as expected from Group D, along with World Cup winners France; the Netherlands won the group, by beating France in their last group match. In Group D, Denmark's three losses with eight goals conceded and none scored set a new record for the worst team performance in the group stages of a Euros. Group C was memorable for the match between FR Spain. Spain needed a win to ensure progression, but found themselves trailing 3–2, after Slobodan Komljenović scored in the 75th minute; the Spanish side rescued their tournament by scoring twice in injury time to record a 4–3 victory. FR Yugoslavia managed to go through as well, despite losing because Norway and Slovenia played to a draw.
Italy and Portugal maintained their perfect records in the quarter-finals, beating Romania and Turkey and the Netherlands started a goal-avalanche against FR Yugoslavia, winning 6–1. Spain fell 2–1 to France. Italy eliminated the Netherlands in the semi-finals, despite going down to ten men and facing two penalty kicks. Italian goalkeeper Francesco Toldo, drafted into the starting XI as Gianluigi Buffon missed the tournament through injury, made two saves in the penalty shootout to carry the Italians to the final. In the other semi-final, Portugal lost in extra time to France after Zinedine Zidane converted a controversial penalty kick. Several Portuguese players challenged the awarding of the penalty for a handball and were given lengthy suspensions for shoving the referee. France won the tournament, defeating Italy 2–1 in the final with a golden goal by David Trezeguet after equalising with a last-minute goal, became the first team to win the European championship while being world champion.
In Britain, Match of the Day named Stefano Fiore's goal against Belgium the Goal of the Tournament, ahead of Patrick Kluivert's against France and Zinedine Zidane's against Spain. Qualification for the tournament took place throughout 1998 and 1999. Forty-nine teams were divided into nine groups and each played the others in their group, on a home-and-away basis; the winner of each group and the best runner-up qualified automatically for the final tournament. The eight other runners-up played an additional set of play-off matches to determine the last four qualifiers. Belgium and the Netherlands automatically qualified for the tournament as co-hosts; the composition of pots 1 to 3 was based on the teams' UEFA coefficient at the end of 1999. The finals draw took place on 12 December 1999. Prior to the draw, the seeded teams in Pot 1 were assigned positions: Germany to A1, Belgium to B1, Spain to C1, the Netherlands to D1. Teams were drawn consecutively from Pots 2 to 4 into a group, with each team being assigned a specific position.
The draw resulted in the following groups: Capacity figures are those for matches at UEFA Euro 2000 and are not the total capacity that the stadium is capable of holding. The 16 national teams each stayed in their own "team base camp" during the tournament; each national team had to submit a sq
Feijenoord, not to be confused with the neighbourhood Feijenoord is a district in Rotterdam and is located south of the Nieuwe Maas. As of 1 January 2004 there were 72.320 citizens. The area is 6.44 km². It is not the home of the city's main football club, situated in the neighbouring township of IJsselmonde; the district gained significance in the 19th century as a centre of shipbuilding, principally at the Fijenoord yard. Afrikaanderwijk Bloemhof Feijenoord Hillesluis Katendrecht Kop van Zuid Noordereiland Vreewijk The majority of the population of Feijenoord are immigrants 36% of the population are Dutch natives, 8% are western immigrants and 56% are non-western immigrants; the biggest non-western immigrant groups are Moroccan, Netherlands Antillean and Turks. According to a list made by Eberhard van der Laan, 4 out of the 8 neighbourhoods in Feijenoord are amongst the most problematic neighbourhoods in The Netherlands; the neighbourhood Bloemhof ranks at number 4 on the list, making it the most problematic neighbourhood in its district and the second in the south of Rotterdam, followed by Hillesluis at rank 13, Afrikaanderwijk at rank 33 and Vreewijk at rank 44.
Around 29% of the total population of Feijenoord lives on welfare, while the average of Rotterdam is 21%. Neighbourhoods such as Bloemhof and Hillesluis have an unemployment rate above 40%, a lot higher than the average of Rotterdam and The Netherlands. 63% of the population of Feijenoord is low educated, compared to a Rotterdam average of 49%. Official website History of Feijenoord
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, the team that scores more goals wins. Modern handball is played on a court of 40 with a goal in the middle of each end; the goals are surrounded by a 6-meter zone. The sport is played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball and beach handball; the game is fast and high-scoring: professional teams now score between 20 and 35 goals each, though lower scores were not uncommon until a few decades ago. Body contact is permitted, the defenders trying to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. No protective equipment is mandated, but players may wear soft protective bands and mouth guards; the game was codified at the end of the 19th century in Denmark. The modern set of rules was published in 1917 in Germany, had several revisions since; the first international games were played under these rules for men in 1925 and for women in 1930.
Men's handball was first played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin as outdoors, the next time at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich as indoors, has been an Olympic sport since. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics; the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946 and, as of 2016, has 197 member federations. The sport is most popular in the countries of continental Europe, which have won all medals but one in the men's world championships since 1938. In the women's world championships, only two non-European countries have won the title: South Korea and Brazil; the game enjoys popularity in East Asia, North Africa and parts of South America. There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called expulsim ludere. There are records of handball-like games in medieval France, among the Inuit in Greenland, in the Middle Ages. By the 19th century, there existed similar games of håndbold from Denmark, házená in the Czech Republic, handbol in Ukraine, torball in Germany.
The team handball game of today was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe: in Denmark, Germany and Sweden. The first written set of team handball rules was published in 1906 by the Danish gym teacher and Olympic medalist Holger Nielsen from Ordrup grammar school, north of Copenhagen; the modern set of rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Karl Schelenz, Erich Konigh from Germany. After 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz; the first international games were played under these rules, between Germany and Belgium by men in 1925 and between Germany and Austria by women in 1930. In 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to draw up international rules for field handball; the International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928 and the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946. Men's field handball was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. During the next several decades, indoor handball flourished and evolved in the Scandinavian countries.
The sport re-emerged onto the world stage as team handball for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. Due to its popularity in the region, the Eastern European countries that refined the event became the dominant force in the sport when it was reintroduced; the International Handball Federation organised the men's world championship in 1938 and every four years from World War II to 1995. Since the 1995 world championship in Iceland, the competition has been held every two years; the women's world championship has been held since 1957. The IHF organizes women's and men's junior world championships. By July 2009, the IHF listed 166 member federations - 795,000 teams and 19 million players; the rules are laid out in the IHF's set of rules. Two teams of seven players take the field and attempt to score points by putting the game ball into the opposing team's goal. In handling the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions: After receiving the ball, players can pass, keep possession, or shoot the ball.
If possessing the ball, players must dribble, or can take up to three steps for up to three seconds at a time without dribbling. No attacking or defending players other than the defending goalkeeper are allowed to touch the floor of the goal area. A shot or pass in the goal area is valid. Goalkeepers are allowed outside the goal area, but are not allowed to cross the goal area boundary with the ball in their hands; the ball may not be passed back to the goalkeeper. Notable scoring opportunities can occur. For example, an attacking player may catch a pass while launching inside the goal area, shoot or pass before touching the floor. Doubling occurs. Handball is played on a court 40 with a goal in the centre of each end; the goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called the zone or the crease, defined by a line six meters from the goal. A dashed near-semicircular line nine metres f