World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Peotone Mill known as the Rathje Mill, is located in the village of Peotone, in Will County, United States. The mill was donated to the Village of Peotone in the early 1980s; the building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as well as the Will County Register of Historic Places. Henry A. Rathje is credited with building the windmill, but it was his father, Frederick Rathje, with Christoph Elling, who agreed to build the mill; the warranty deed from July 3, 1871 confirms this. An account of the Rathje family was contained in the 1900 Genealogical and Biographical Record of Will County. According to it, Rathje married Wilhelmina Luhmann in 1874, Luhmann was an immigrant from Hanover, Germany. After marrying, Rathje entered the milling business during which time he acquired the windmill at Peotone and operated it for twelve years. Henry Rathje is listed as the proprietor on a mill invoice; the structure was designed by Dutch millwrights. The design, which included the mill's 60 foot tower, makes it the only "skyscraper" in Peotone.
The mill's integrity has, for the most part, been maintained throughout its existence and it is a familiar visual landmark in Peotone and Will County. The windmill at Peotone provided a variety of grain products. Fine wheat and buckwheat flours, as well as cornmeal were common products the grist mill offered; the local livestock industry depended upon the mill as its primary source for feed. Thus, the mill's busiest time of year was during the autumn when livestock farmers would stock up for the winter with the mill's freshly ground grain products; the mill's surplus product was stored in a building, once attached to west side of the windmill. Income for Rathje came from a "toll"; the toll was a fraction of the finished product, these tolls were governed by state laws. In 1885 the wind powered grist mill was switched over to steam power. Tales handed down through the Rathje family speak of the windmill's sails rotting and cite this as the reason for the change over to steam power; the exact date the mill ceased.
It is suspected that the mill ended operations sometime around 1889. It is known, from the Genealogical Record of 1900 that by that date the mill had been rendered unprofitable by modern mill methods and Rathje had abandoned it; the mill, continued to operate in some capacity until World War I when it closed in 1917. For nearly 100 years the windmill in Peotone stood empty. Rathje's son, Paul W. Rathje, performed routine maintenance on the mill during this time. Paul had two children and Helen, the mill was passed on to Paul C. Rathje, the grandson of Henry, he realized the historic importance of the mill structure and donated it to the Village of Peotone in 1982. That same year, the mill was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Peotone Historical Society undertook the task of restoring the mill to its original, working condition. They continue maintenance and restoration. In 2004 the Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois did grant the Peotone Historical Society $5,000 to conduct a structural assessment of the mill.
History and Photos of Peotone Mill
The Bronson Windmill is an historic windmill at 3015 Bronson Road in Fairfield, Connecticut. It is an octagonal wood frame structure 80 feet high, with a large wooden water tank in its interior and a cistern below ground, it was built in 1893-94 for Frederic Bronson to provide water for use on his large dairy farm, is the only windmill in Fairfield. The mill was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fairfield County, Connecticut Historic American Buildings Survey No. CT-325, "Frederic Bronson Windmill, 3015 Bronson Road, Fairfield County, CT", 11 photos, 2 measured drawings, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page
Solvang is a city in Santa Barbara County, California. It is located in the Santa Ynez Valley; the population was 5,245 at the 2010 census, down from 5,332 at the 2000 census. Solvang was incorporated as a city on May 1, 1985. Solvang was founded in 1911 on 9,000 acres of the Rancho San Carlos de Jonata Mexican land grant, by a group of Danes who traveled west to establish a Danish community far from the midwestern winters; the city is home to a number of bakeries and merchants offering a taste of Denmark in California. The architecture of many of the façades and buildings reflects traditional Danish style. There is a copy of the famous Little Mermaid statue from Copenhagen, as well as one featuring the bust of famed Danish fable writer Hans Christian Andersen. A replica of Copenhagen's Round Tower or Rundetårn in the scale 1:3 was finished in 1991 and can be seen in the town center. Mission Santa Inés, one of the California missions, is located near the center of the town, at the junction of State Route 246 and Alisal Road.
Solvang is located at 34°35′38″N 120°8′23″W. At an elevation of 505 ft, it lies in the Santa Ynez Valley some 46 miles north-west of Santa Barbara and about 15 miles north of the Pacific coast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles, 99.95% of it land and 0.05% of it water. Solvang enjoys sunshine throughout the year with cool nights. Average temperatures vary between 54 and 76 °F with highs reaching the upper 80s °F and winter lows in the 40s °F. Average annual rainfall for Solvang is 19.31 inches. Solvang is 140 miles north of Los Angeles; the Santa Ynez Valley, in which Solvang lies, was inhabited by the Chumash, identified by Father Pedro Font, chaplain of the 1776 Anza Expedition, as an ingenious and industrious people. They are good fishermen and hunters; as part of the expansion of the mission system established in California by Spanish missionaries, Father Estévan Tapís founded Mission Santa Inés, now located near the center of Solvang, in order to relieve overcrowding at Mission Santa Barbara and Mission La Purísima Concepción since it was located midway between the two.
It served as a gateway to the Chumash Indians living east of the Coast Range. After the Mexican War of Independence, the Mexican Assembly passed the Secularization Laws which confiscated Mission lands, along with other property, transferred them to the control of local ranchers, with Solvang being founded on what became known as the Rancho San Carlos de Jonata. With secularization, Mission Santa Inés began to decline and the Chumash Indian population in the area along with it. For a time, the mission soon began to deteriorate. However, it was renovated by Fr. Alexander Buckler in 1904. Between 1850 and 1930, a considerable number of Danes left Denmark, suffering from poor economic prospects. According to some estimates, as many as one in ten Danes emigrated during this period to the United States; the most popular destinations for Danish settlers were Utah, Illinois, Iowa and South Dakota. In many of the new communities and schools were set up in accordance with the ideas of N. F. S. Grundtvig, an influential Danish philosopher, hymn-writer and Lutheran pastor.
In particular, the so-called folk schools introduced a new approach to education based on a spirit of freedom and disciplined creativity. Folk schools were established in Iowa. One of the most enthusiastic proponents of the Danish approach to religion and education was Benedict Nordentoft, born in Brabrand near Aarhus in 1873. After graduating in theology in 1898, he was soon tempted to travel to the United States, where he began coordinating relations between Danish Lutheran churches in Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut and Maine. In 1901, he returned to Denmark to be ordained in Aarhus Cathedral. Back in America, he continued his work as a lecturer at Grand View College, a folk high school in Des Moines, set up by the Danish Lutheran Church, he was appointed president in 1903, a post which he held until 1910, when disagreements with his Grundtvigian colleagues forced him to resign. From 1906, together with Jens M. Gregersen, a pastor from Kimballton and Peder P. Hornsyld, a lecturer at Grand View, had discussed the possibility of creating a new Danish colony with a dedicated Lutheran church and school on the west coast.
In 1910, together with other Danish-Americans, they created the Danish-American Colony Company in San Francisco. That year, suitable land was found in the Santa Ynez Valley northwest of Santa Barbara. On January 23, 1911, the contract was signed and Solvang was founded; the Danes had bought 9,000 acres of the Rancho San Carlos de Jonata land grant, paying an average of $40 per acre. Among the other early arrivals with Mads Frese were Mr. and Mrs. Sophus Olsen, Hans Skytt, John Petersen and John Ahrenkild. Skytt was to play an important role as the carpenter, who constructed many of Solvang's early buildings; the first to be constructed was a hotel close to the Mission. Gregersen became president of the Danish-American Colony Company, Nordentoft was named head and Hornsyld a teacher at the
Holland is a city in the western region of the Lower Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is situated near the eastern shore of Lake Michigan on Lake Macatawa, fed by the Macatawa River; the city spans the Ottawa/Allegan county line, with 9.08 square miles in Ottawa and the remaining 8.13 square miles in Allegan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,051, with an Urbanized Area population of 113,164, Holland, MI Urbanized Area as of 2015, ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: Holland is the largest city in Ottawa County, as of 2013 part of the Grand Rapids-Wyoming-Muskegon Metropolitan Statistical Area. Holland was founded by Dutch Americans, is in an area that has a large percentage of citizens of Dutch American heritage, it is home to Hope College and Western Theological Seminary, institutions of the Reformed Church in America. In February of 1996 the Holland City Council approved a sister city relationship between Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro and the City of Holland, Michigan, USA.
Ottawa County was populated by Ottawa Indians. In 1846, Reverend Alex Tomasik established the Old Wing Mission as an outreach to the native population. Holland was settled in 1847 by Dutch Calvinist separatists, under the leadership of Dr. Albertus van Raalte. Dire economic conditions in the Netherlands compelled them to emigrate, while their desire for religious freedom led them to unite and settle together as a group. Van Raalte and his colony settled on land in the midst of the Ottawa people's Old Wing Mission Colony near the Black River where it streamed to Black Lake which, in turn, led to Lake Michigan. Joint occupation by the two communities was not a marriage made in heaven; the Dutch settlers purchased the land from the natives, who moved north in an effort to preserve their way of life and culture. In 1848, Michigan suffered from a smallpox epidemic. In consideration of the massive influx settlers into the Ottawa County area, Chief Peter Waukazoo and Reverend George Smith decided to move the community as well as the Holland-area Ottawa Mission from Holland up to Northport via on boats and canoes.
In Holland's early history, Van Raalte was a spiritual leader, as well as overseeing political and financial matters. In 1847 Van Raalte established a congregation of the Reformed Church in America, which would be called the First Reformed Church of Holland. On March 25, 1867, Holland was incorporated as a city with Isaac Cappon being the city's first mayor; the city suffered a major fire on October 8–9, 1871, the same time as the Great Chicago Fire in Illinois and the deadly Peshtigo Fire in Wisconsin. Because of the Great Michigan Fire and Port Huron, Michigan burned at the same time. Holland was known as the "City of Churches." There are 170 churches in the greater Holland area, many of which are with the Reformed Church in America and Christian Reformed Church in North America denominations. The city is the home to the church that started the trend of the "What Would Jesus Do?" bracelets in 1989. In 1987, a 23-year-old City Council member Phil Tanis was elected mayor of Holland, becoming its youngest mayor while he was still a Hope College student.
The city is best known for its Dutch heritage, which serves not only as a part of the city's cultural identity, but the local economy as well: the Tulip Time Festival in May and various Dutch-themed attractions augment the nearby Lake Michigan shoreline in attracting thousands of tourists annually. The Holland Museum contains exhibits about the city's history. Another, the Cappon House Museum, was built in 1874 and is a historic museum that once housed the first mayor of Holland, Dutch immigrant Isaac Cappon; the Settlers House Museum, a building that survived the great fire, contains furnishings and relics from the 19th Century. Holland's downtown is listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the "Snowmelt Project" established pipes transporting warm water from the nearby power plant to travel underneath downtown with the purpose of clearing the streets and sidewalks in the downtown area of any snow. Nearby Holland State Park is a Michigan State Park. Across the channel from the State Park is the Holland Harbor Light, known as "Big Red."
De Zwaan, an original 250-year-old Dutch windmill, is situated on a municipal park. Its height is 125 feet with 40-foot sails. Holland boasts an annual Fiesta, organized by Latin Americans United for Progress on the Saturday closest to May 5. Holland is host to the annual Tulipanes Latino Art & Film Festival, held to celebrate the Latino contribution to the culture. In 2013, Farmer's Insurance named the Holland/Grand Haven Area the most secure mid-sized city in the United States. In 2010, Holland was ranked the second healthiest/happiest town in the United States by the Well-being Index. In 2006, CNN Money named Holland as one of the top five places to retire; each May Holland hosts an annual Tulip Time Festival. Tulip planting and the festival began in 1930. Six million tulips are used throughout the city. Tulips are planted along many city streets, in city parks and outside municipal buildings as well as at tourist attractions like Dutch Village, the city-owned Windmill Island Gardens, at a large tulip farm named Veldheer Tulip Gardens.
It is held the second week of May, during to the tulip blooming season. Cruise ships such as the Yorktown from the Great Lakes Cruising Company make Holland a port of call. About one million tourists visit Tulip Time each year, for which the community finds innovat
Old Higgins Farm Windmill
Old Higgins Farm Windmill is a historic Smock windmill off of Old King's Highway at Drummer Boy Park in Brewster on Cape Cod in Massachusetts. The windmill was built in 1795, it last ground grain around 1900; the windmill was moved a number of times the last from Ellis Landing in Brewster to its current location in 1974. In 1975 it was added to the National Historic Register of Historic Places; the windmill was donated its owner, Mrs. Samuel Nickerson, in memory of her husband, to the Brewster Historical Society which continues to maintain it at its current location. National Register of Historic Places listings in Barnstable County, Massachusetts Brewster Historical Society Town of Brewester
The Jamestown Windmill is a smock mill in Jamestown, Rhode Island within the Windmill Hill Historic District on North Road north of Weeden Lane. The 30-foot high windmill was built in 1787 to grind corn after the British occupational forces destroyed the previous mill around the time of the Battle of Rhode Island, it operated until 1896. Several renovations were done in the 20th century, it is maintained by the Jamestown Historical Society, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. National Register of Historic Places listings in Newport County, Rhode Island Jamestown tourism information - including hours of the mill "Historic and Architectural Resources of Jamestown, Rhode Island,"