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De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus of the Polish Renaissance. The book, first printed in 1543 in Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire, offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system, accepted since ancient times. Copernicus outlined his system in a short, anonymous manuscript that he distributed to several friends, referred to as the Commentariolus. A physician's library list dating to 1514 includes a manuscript whose description matches the Commentariolus, so Copernicus must have begun work on his new system by that time. Most historians believe that he wrote the Commentariolus after his return from Italy only after 1510. At this time, Copernicus anticipated that he could reconcile the motion of the Earth with the perceived motions of the planets with fewer motions than were necessary in the Alfonsine Tables, the version of the Ptolemaic system current at the time. In particular, the heliocentric Copernican model made use of the Urdi Lemma developed in the 13th century by Mu'ayyad al-Din al-'Urdi, the first of the Maragha astronomers to develop a non-Ptolemaic model of planetary motion.

Observations of Mercury by Bernhard Walther of Nuremberg, a pupil of Regiomontanus, were made available to Copernicus by Johannes Schöner, 45 observations in total, 14 of them with longitude and latitude. Copernicus used three of them in De revolutionibus, giving only longitudes, erroneously attributing them to Schöner. Copernicus' values differed from the ones published by Schöner in 1544 in Observationes XXX annorum a I. Regiomontano et B. Walthero Norimbergae habitae. A manuscript of De revolutionibus in Copernicus' own hand has survived. After his death, it was given to his pupil, who for publication had only been given a copy without annotations. Via Heidelberg, it ended up in Prague, where it was studied in the 19th century. Close examination of the manuscript, including the different types of paper used, helped scholars construct an approximate timetable for its composition. Copernicus began by making a few astronomical observations to provide new data to perfect his models, he may have begun writing the book.

By the 1530s a substantial part of the book was complete. In 1539 Georg Joachim Rheticus, a young mathematician from Wittenberg, arrived in Frauenburg to study with him. Rheticus read Copernicus' manuscript and wrote a non-technical summary of its main theories in the form of an open letter addressed to Schöner, his astrology teacher in Nürnberg. Rheticus' friend and mentor Achilles Gasser published a second edition of the Narratio in Basel in 1541. Due to its friendly reception, Copernicus agreed to publication of more of his main work—in 1542, a treatise on trigonometry, taken from the second book of the still unpublished De revolutionibus. Rheticus published it in Copernicus' name. Under strong pressure from Rheticus, having seen that the first general reception of his work had not been unfavorable, Copernicus agreed to give the book to his close friend, Bishop Tiedemann Giese, to be delivered to Rheticus in Wittenberg for printing by Johannes Petreius at Nürnberg, it was published just before Copernicus' death, in 1543.

Copernicus kept a copy of his manuscript which, sometime after his death, was sent to Rheticus in the attempt to produce an authentic, unaltered version of the book. The plan failed but the copy was found during the 18th.c. and it has been published later. It is kept at the Jagiellonian University Library in Kraków where it remains bearing the library number BJ 10 000; the book is dedicated to Pope Paul III in a preface that argues that mathematics, not physics, should be the basis for understanding and accepting his new theory. De revolutionibus is divided into six "books", following the layout of Ptolemy's Almagest which it updated and replaced: Book I chapters 1–11 are a general vision of the heliocentric theory, a summarized exposition of his cosmology; the world is spherical, as is the Earth, the land and water make a single globe. The celestial bodies, including the Earth, have regular everlasting movements; the Earth rotates around the Sun. Answers to why the ancients thought the Earth was central.

The order of the planets around the Sun and their periodicity. Chapters 12–14 give theorems for chord geometry as well as a table of chords. Book II describes the principles of spherical astronomy as a basis for the arguments developed in the following books and gives a comprehensive catalogue of the fixed stars. Book III describes his work on the precession of the equinoxes and treats the apparent movements of the Sun and related phenomena. Book IV is a similar description of its orbital movements. Book V explains how to calculate the positions of the wandering stars based on the heliocentric model and gives tables for the five planets. Book VI deals with the digression in latitude from the ecliptic of the five planets. Copernicus argued; the outermost consisted of fixed stars, with the Sun motionless at the center. The known planets revolved about the Sun, each in its own sphere, in the order: Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn; the Moon, revolved in its sphere around the Earth. What appeared to be the daily revolution of the Sun and fixed stars around the Earth was the Ea

USS Wasp (1893)

The seventh USS Wasp was the former yacht Columbia, purchased by the U. S. Navy and converted to an armed yacht serving from 1898 to 1919, with service in the Spanish–American War and World War I. Columbia was built in 1893 by William Sons for Joseph Harvey Ladew, Sr. of New-York. The hull, built under sub-contract by the Charles Hillman Company, was launched from Philadelphia on 23 August 1893; the yacht was completed February 1894 as Cramp hull number 274 and on registration assigned the official number 127018 and the signal letters KLVB. As built characteristics were 202 ft length overall, 180 ft length on load waterline, beam of 23 ft and a cruising draft of 10 ft 9 in. Ladew had wanted to own the "fastest pleasure vessel afloat" so the yacht had both cruising and racing specifications; the cruising draft was at a displacement of 526 tons, but a racing draft of 9 ft 6 in would be at 436 tons displacement. Steam was from two single ended boilers 11 ft 5 in long with a 12 ft 2 in diameter driving a four cylinder triple expansion engine that at forced draught developed 1,900 indicated horsepower.

On leaving the yard on completion the yacht made a trial run on the New York Yacht Club course from Larchmont, on Long Island, to New London, Connecticut making a mean speed of 17.85 knots and 18.35 knots over a deep water segment of the course where drag was minimized. Registered tonnage was 190 net tons. Columbia was purchased by the United States Navy for $95,000, renamed USS Wasp, commissioned at New York City on 11 April 1898; the converted yacht departed New York on 26 April 1898, Lieutenant Aaron Ward in command, headed south for Spanish–American War duty blockading Cuba. She stopped at Key West, from 1 to 7 May 1898 and arrived off Havana on 7 May. From there, she moved west along the northern coast to Bahia Honda arriving there on 7 May. On 12 May 1898, while cruising on blockade station off the Cuban coast between Havana and Bahia Honda, Wasp joined a small convoy escorted by the revenue cutter USRC Manning and made up of merchantman SS Gussie and tugs Triton and Dewey. Gussie carried two companies of United States Army troops scheduled to land at Bahia Honda, while Triton and Dewey carried representatives of the press.

Just before 1500 that afternoon, some of the soldiers from Gussie went ashore near Cabañas, purportedly the first American troops to land on Cuban soil. They started their advance through dense underbrush. At about 1515, Spanish Army forces counterattacked the American troops and opened fire on the ships in the bay. Wasp returned fire with her portside six-pounders avoiding the area occupied by friendly forces. At that point, she received word that the 100 or so soldiers fighting ashore were outnumbered and outflanked to the west; the only course of action open to them was to disengage the reembark in Gussie. During that operation, Wasp joined Manning and arrived unarmored cruiser Dolphin in providing covering gunfire for the evacuation; when another landing, scheduled for the following day, did not occur, Wasp lobbed a few shells at an adobe watch-tower from which Spanish riflemen had taken the ships under fire, she resumed her patrol station off the coast. On 15 May 1898, the converted yacht departed the Cuban coast to return to Florida.

She arrived at Key West that same day and remained in the Florida Keys, either at Key West or Sand Key until the end of May 1898. Wasp returned to the blockade, at Cienfuegos on 29 May 1898 but was back at Key West on 31 May 1898. During June 1898, the yacht moved from blockade station to blockade station, returning periodically to the Florida Keys for necessities. From 9 June 1898 to 11 June 1898, she stood off Havana. After a three-day return to Key West, Wasp took station off the southeastern coast of Cuba on 20 June 1898, patrolling between Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo Bay. At the beginning of July 1898, she paid a five-day visit to Key West, returning to the Santiago de Cuba area again on 10 July 1898. On 19 July 1898, the converted yacht cleared Guantanamo Bay for Nipe Bay on Cuba's northeastern coast, she arrived at Nipe Bay late on the morning of 21 July 1898 and, on orders to reconnoiter the bay in company with armed tugboat USS Leyden, started in toward Port Nipe. Upon entering, Wasp sighted a Spanish warship at anchor some four miles up the bay.

She fired several shots at the signal station located at the entrance sped forward to engage the enemy ship. At 1244, the Spanish ship opened fire at extreme range, Wasp returned fire immediately. Leyden, followed by gunboats USS Annapolis and USS Topeka joined in; as the range decreased, American gunfire became more accurate, all four ships began scoring telling hits on the enemy. At 1312, the Spaniard's colors disappeared. Wasp and her three colleagues ceased fire and watched their quarry, the sloop Jorge Juan, sink at 1342. After making a complete reconnaissance of the southern and western portions of the bay, Wasp anchored there for the night. On 23 July 1898, Wasp departed Cuba, bound for Puerto Rico, arrived off Fajardo that same day. For the next seven weeks, she cruised the coasts of Puerto Rico in company with auxiliary cruiser USS Dixie and gunboat USS Gloucester. Throughout the entire period, only one noteworthy event occurred. On 27 July 1898, the four ships encountered three Spanish brigantines at Ponce but evaluated them as too insignificant to take as prizes.

On 8 September 1898, Wasp departed San Juan to return to the United States. After a five-day stop at Charleston, South Carolina, she continued her voyage north on 18 September 1898 and entered the Norfolk Navy Yard at

Surendra (actor)

Surendra was an Indian singer-actor of Hindi films. Known by his mononym, Surendra was educated in Punjab to be a lawyer by profession, he came to Bombay to become a singer on the recommendation of his friends. He was "picked" by Mehboob Khan whom he met at Sagar Movietone, to sing and act in films as an alternative to the Calcutta-based singer-actor, K. L. Saigal. Surendra started his career with his debut starring role in Deccan Queen, directed by Mehboob Khan, he soon became a part of Sagar Movietone when his song "Birha Ki Aag Lagi More Man Mein" from the film became an "instant hit". Surendra was born on 11 November 1910, in Gurdaspur District, Punjab British India, his father's name was Ralia Ram Sharma. While in school, Surendranath, as he was called, took part in concerts and earned the "reputation" of a singer. Surendra completed his education in 1935, from the Punjab University, in Ambala, at that time a part of Punjab, he got his B. A. LL. B started preparing to work as a lawyer in Punjab.

He was "spotted" by the leading distributor from Delhi, Lala Alopi Prashad who encouraged the young Surendra to join films. On the instigation of his friends who wanted him to try his luck in films as a singer, he left Punjab and came to Bombay, where he met Mehboob Khan. Surendra's parents were against the idea of his joining films, but on being persuaded they agreed, stipulating that Surendra's name in the credit roll of the films should appear as "Surendra Nath B. A. LL. B", a condition agreed to by Mehboob Khan. Mehboob Khan, who had made a commercially successful film Al Hilal in 1935, is credited for bringing Surendra into films, he offered him the leading role in Deccan Queen, produced by Sagar Movietone. Khan chose the singular name Surendra, to stay as his screen name. Deccan Queen, with music by Anil Biswas, was a story about a police inspector played by Surendra, who has twin sisters fall in love with him. A song sung by Surendra "Birha Ki Aag Lagi", which according to author Ashok Raj, was a "rehash" of K. L. Saigal's song from Devdas, "Baalam Aaye Baso", became popular.

The other notable song from this film was a popular ghazal sung by Surendra "Yaad Na Kar Dil-e-Haseen Bhooli Hui Kahaniyan". In 1936, Khan wanted to make a film in Bombay. Manmohan, directed by Khan had Surendra once again in the lead. Zia Sarhadi wrote the story and dialogues for the film. Though referred to as the "poor man's Devdas" the film went on to become a big hit; the third film in 1936 was Sagar's Grama Kanya, directed by Sarvottam Badami. The film had Surendra starring opposite Aruna Devi; the music of the film, composed by the famous bhajan singer Shankarrao Khatu became popular with the public. In 1938, while working for Gramophone Singer Surendra met with a car accident and had to be hospitalised; the film's shooting was halted for a few days. Gramophone Singer was Ramachandra Thakur's debut directorial venture, which he co-directed with V. C. Desai; the film had music composed by Anil Biswas. It was cited as a "music-dominated" love triangle starring Surendra with Bibbo and Prabha, who played the role of his wife.

Following the release of the film and Bibbo became a popular pair and worked together in several films together. Surendra's song "Ek Chhota Sa Mandir Banaya Hua Hai" went on to become popular. In 1940, Mehboob Khan produced Aurat under the banner of his National Studios. Mehboob was to remake Aurat as Mother India in 1957. In Aurat, he cast Surendra as the older brother, a role to be played by Rajendra Kumar in Mother India. Yakub was cast with Sardar Akhtar playing the mother's role; the song "Utth Sajni Khol Kiware, Tere Sajan Aye Duware", sung by Surendra and Jyoti went on to become a "big hit", with Baburao Patel, editor of the cine-magazine Filmindia claiming that "Surendra had never sung better" in the June 1940 issue. Ali Baba had Surendra starring in the title role, with Waheedan Bai; the film was a bilingual, made both in Hindi and Punjabi, with Surendra playing the double role of Alibaba and his son. The popular song from this film was "Hum Aur Tum Aur Ye Khushi Ye Kehkahe Ye Dillagi", sung by Surendra and Waheedan.

In 1940, it was reported by Baburao Patel, editor of Filmindia in the June 1940 issue that Surendra had fallen off a horse while riding at the Bombay Turf Club lawns. He was hospitalised for several months. Rumours surfaced at that time. However, quashing the report in the news, Surendra returned after ten months to complete his films, he was left with a limp. Following a hiatus of two years he went on to act in Jawani, directed by Wajahat Mirza. In 1943, he acted in Paigham, directed by music director Gyan Dutt, Vish Kanya, by Kidar Sharma and Vishwas, by Homi Wadia. In 1944, Surendra acted in three films, Lal Haveli and Miss Devi; the first two were successful films of 1944. Lal Haveli starred him opposite the reigning singer-actress Noor Jehan. Directed by K. B. Lall, it had music by Mir Sahib with the duet "Dil Le Ke Mukar Na Jaana, Nazuk Hai Bahut Zamana", sung by Noor Jehan and Surendra and two solos songs by Surendra, "Yehi Fiqar Hai Shyam Pichale Savere" and "Kyun Man Dhoondhe Prem Nadi Ka Kinara" becoming successful.

Bhatruhari called Raja Bhatruhari, directed by Chaturbhuj Doshi, had music composed by Khemchand Prakash. The popular songs were "Bhanwara Madhuban Mein Ja", Prem Bina Sab Soona", Bhiksha De De Maa" and "Allah Naam Ras Pina Prani".1946 had Surendra and Noor Jehan starring again with a third singer-actress Suraiya

Christopher Dell (cricketer)

Christopher Ronald Dell, is a former Australian cricketer who played first-class cricket for Tasmania in the 1985-86 Sheffield Shield competition. He was a bowler, he played for Devonport Cricket Club in the Tasmanian Grade Cricket competition. He made his first-class debut against South Australia at the Adelaide Oval on 10 January 1986, as cover for the overseas professional, West Indian fast bowler Winston Davis, out injured. Dell returned 0/40 off his six overs in the first innings, did not seem to trouble any of the South Australian batsmen, his second innings figures of 0/33 off six overs were not much better, the Tasmanian selectors concluded that he wasn't up to the quality required for Sheffield Shield cricket. He returned to play for his hometown side, where he had a successful career as an all-rounder. For Devonport he scored 6194 runs at an average of 28.03 to become their second highest all-time run scorer, took 405 wickets at 19.11 to become their fourth highest wicket taker. Dell took 111 catches for his club side.

Following his retirement from playing Christopher Dell took up a position as coach of Devonport Orions in his hometown. List of Tasmanian representative cricketers Cricinfo Profile

Dandongadale River

The Dandongadale River, a perennial river of the North-East Murray catchment of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the alpine region of Victoria, Australia. It flows from the northern slopes of the Alpine National Park in the Australian Alps, joining with the Buffalo River in remote national park territory; the Dandongadale River rises below the Cobbler Plateau, west of the Barry Mountains and to the east of Mount Buller, at an elevation exceeding 1,240 metres above sea level. The river flows north by east all of its course through the remote national park, joined by the Rose River, before reaching its confluence with the Buffalo River within the Mount Buffalo National Park; the river descends 959 metres over its 41-kilometre course. Near its source, the river is impounded by the forming 5-hectare Lake Cobbler. From the lake, the river spills over the Dandongadale Falls, the highest waterfall in Victoria, descending 255 metres over successive cascades in a series of significant drops, culminating in the final drop over the Cobbler Plateau.

Camping and hiking facilities are located in the area. List of rivers of Victoria Dandongadale Falls at Lake Cobbler. YouTube. 2012


Sesswick is a small rural local government community, the lowest tier of local government, part of Wrexham County Borough in Wales. It lies south-east of Wrexham near Marchwiel; the population of the community at the 2011 Census was 609. The area was part of Denbighshire, where it was one of the townships of the parish of Bangor Monachorum; the neighbouring township of Royton was incorporated in it in 1935. The name Sesswick, recorded as Sesewyke in 1286, is one of the names indicating an early English presence in this part of north-east Wales. However, the Wrexham historian Alfred Neobard Palmer, noting that the name was recorded as Chespric in the Domesday of Cheshire, speculated that it may have come from "Chadswick" in reference to land in the township being owned by St. Chad, the first bishop of Mercia; the community's only village is Cross Lanes: it includes several small hamlets. In the 2001 census Sesswick had a total population of 591 in 236 households; the area gave its name to a rural station, Sesswick Halt, on the former Cambrian Railways' Wrexham and Ellesmere Railway.