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Dead Presidents

Dead Presidents is a 1995 American crime thriller film co-written and directed by Albert and Allen Hughes. It stars Larenz Tate, Keith David, Chris Tucker, Freddy Rodriguez, N'Bushe Wright, Bokeem Woodbine; the film chronicles the life of Anthony Curtis, focusing on his teenage years as a high school graduate and his experiences during the Vietnam War. As he returns to his hometown in The Bronx, Curtis finds himself struggling to support himself and his family turning to a life of crime. Dead Presidents is based on the real-life experiences of Haywood T. Kirkland, whose true story was detailed in the book Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans by Wallace Terry. Certain characters from the film are based on real acquaintances of Kirkland, who served time in prison after committing robbery in facepaint; the film is loosely based on several incidents involving the Black Liberation Army, notably the Brink's armored truck robbery. In the spring of 1969, Anthony Curtis is about to graduate from high school, decides to enlist in the U.

S. Marine Corps rather than go to college, he is sent to Vietnam, leaving behind his middle-class family, his girlfriend Juanita, small-time crook Kirby, like a second father. Anthony's close friend, Skip joins Curtis' squad after flunking out of college and his other friend Jose, is drafted into the United States Army. Once in the Marines and his squad lose several fellow marines during combat, commit several atrocities of their own, such as executing enemy prisoners and beheading corpses for war trophies; when Anthony returns to the Bronx in 1973, after four years of service, he finds returning to "normal" life impossible. He finds Skip now an Agent Orange victim and heroin addict, Jose is a amputee with a prosthetic and pyromaniac, Cleon, a religious yet deadly staff sergeant, in his squad, is now a devoted minister in Mount Vernon, New York. After being laid off from his job at a butcher shop, Anthony finds himself unable to support Juanita or his daughter. After an argument with Juanita, Anthony meets his girlfriend's sister, now a member of the "Nat Turner Cadre", a revolutionary communist militant group.

Anthony, Skip, Jose and Cleon devise a plan to rob an armored car making a stop at the Noble Street Federal Reserve Bank of the Bronx. The next day, the group strategically position themselves around the street, armed with weapons and disguised with face paint, ready to ambush the truck; the plan goes awry when Cleon is approached by a beat officer who interferes in the robbery, leading to Kirby being shot in the arm and Skip killing the officer when Cleon freezes up. At the same time and Jose are spotted by the driver, causing a large shootout with the security guards. Jose plants an explosive device on the escaping truck to blow off the door, but instead it destroys the whole vehicle. Delilah saves Anthony's life by killing one of the guards. A second guard gets into a shootout with Delilah; as the group collects what cash they can from the burning wreckage, they flee and split up to escape the police. When Jose shoots the driver, he is hit by the car and killed as the police car crashes into a wall, crushing Jose.

Not long after the heist, Kirby hears that Cleon has been giving out $100 bills and has bought himself a new Cadillac that he can afford. Anthony drives over to Cleon's church to speak to him, only to find him being led out the front door in handcuffs by two detectives. NYPD officers storm Skip's apartment only to find; as Kirby and Anthony prepare to flee to Mexico, police raid the bar. Kirby tries to distract the officers to allow Anthony to flee to no avail, as multiple officers corner Anthony and arrest him. Anthony is convicted and found guilty of the robbery and the deaths of the security guards and the officer that Skip killed, he is sentenced to 15 years to life in prison by the judge, himself a World War II veteran. Anthony, furious at his sentence in spite of his years of service for his country, throws a chair at the judge before being escorted away; the films ends with Anthony looking out the window of his prison bus and reflecting on what could've been. The film depicts the struggle of returning war veterans of color who are neglected by the US government.

Many Black and Latino veterans of the Vietnam War were denied benefits and recognition for their efforts in serving their country. Dead Presidents received mixed reviews from critics. Film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 44% of critics gave the film a positive rating, based on 32 reviews with an average score of 5.7/10. Todd McCarthy of Variety gave the film a positive review stating, "In all respects an ambitious follow-up to their crackling debut, Menace II Society, the Hughes Brothers' mordant Dead Presidents may box itself into a narrative dead end, but its muscular engagement of weighty themes and explosive situations makes it a powerful drama." Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called the film "both expected and surprising and yet somehow different. Made with fluid skill and a passion for storytelling, its tale of how the Vietnam War and American society affect a black Marine remains accessible while confounding expectations."Caryn James of The New York

Benavides Independent School District

Benavides Independent School District is a public school district based in Benavides, Texas. The district is situated in the southwestern corner of Duval County. In addition to Benavides, the unincorporated communities of Concepcion and Realitos are part of the district. Seventh through twelfth grade students living in the Ramirez Common School District attend Benavides schools; as of the 2010-2011 school year, the appraised valuation of property in the district was $285,808,000. The maintenance tax rate was $0.104 and the bond tax rate was $0.021 per $100 of appraised valuation. In 2011, the school district was rated "academically acceptable" by the Texas Education Agency. In the 2011-2012 school year, the district had two open schools. Benavides Secondary School Benavides Elementary School List of school districts in Texas Benavides ISD


Rtf1, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RTF1 gene. This locus may represent a gene involved in regulation of transcription elongation and chromatin remodeling, based on studies of similar proteins in other organisms; the encoded protein may bind single-stranded DNA. Model organisms have been used in the study of RTF1 function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Rtf1tm1aWtsi was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program — a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists. Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty four tests were carried out on mutant mice and three significant abnormalities were observed. No homozygous mutant embryos were identified during gestation, therefore none survived until weaning; the remaining tests were carried out on heterozygous mutant adult mice.

Gmina Kolno, Podlaskie Voivodeship

Gmina Kolno is a rural gmina in Kolno County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland. Its seat is the town of Kolno; the gmina covers an area of 282.13 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 8,787. Gmina Kolno contains the villages and settlements of Bialiki, Brzózki, Czernice, Danowo, Filipki Duże, Filipki Małe, Glinki, Górskie, Górszczyzna, Gromadzyn-Wykno, Kiełcze-Kopki, Kossaki, Koziki-Olszyny, Kozioł, Lachowo, Łosewo, Obiedzino, Pachuczyn, Rydzewo-Świątki, Stare Kiełcze, Stary Gromadzyn, Truszki-Kucze, Truszki-Patory, Truszki-Zalesie, Tyszki-Łabno, Tyszki-Wądołowo, Wincenta, Wścieklice, Wykowo, Zakaleń, Zaskrodzie and Żebry. Gmina Kolno is bordered by the gminas of Biała Piska, Grabowo, Mały Płock, Stawiski, Turośl and Zbójna. Polish official population figures 2006


Grímsvötn is a volcano in southeast Iceland. It is in the highlands of Iceland at the northwestern side of the Vatnajökull ice-cap; the caldera is at 64°25′N 17°20′W, at an elevation of 1,725 m. Beneath the caldera is the magma chamber of the Grímsvötn volcano. Grímsvötn is a basaltic volcano which has the highest eruption frequency of all the volcanoes in Iceland and has a southwest-northeast-trending fissure system; the massive climate-impacting Laki fissure eruption of 1783–1784 was a part of the same fissure system. Grímsvötn was erupting at the same time as Laki during 1783, but continued to erupt until 1785; because most of the volcano lies underneath Vatnajökull, most of its eruptions have been subglacial and the interaction of magma and meltwater from the ice causes phreatomagmatic explosive activity. On 21 May 2011 at 19:25 UTC, an eruption began, with 12 km high plumes accompanied by multiple earthquakes, resulting in cancellation of 900 flights in Iceland, in the United Kingdom, Germany and Norway on 22–25 May.

Until 25 May, the eruption scale had been larger than that of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. The eruption stopped at 02:40 UTC on 25 May 2011, although there was some explosive activity from the tephra vents affecting only the area around the crater. Eruptions in the caldera cause glacial outbursts known as jökulhlaup. Eruptions melt enough ice to fill the Grímsvötn caldera with water, the pressure may be enough to lift the icecap, allowing huge quantities of water to escape rapidly; the Grímsvötn caldera is monitored carefully. When a large eruption occurred in 1996, geologists knew well in advance that a glacial burst was imminent, it did not occur until several weeks after the eruption finished, but monitoring ensured that the Icelandic ring road was closed when the burst occurred. A section of road across the Skeiðará sandur was washed away in the ensuing flood, but no one was hurt. A week-long eruption occurred at Grímsvötn starting on 28 December 1998, but no glacial burst occurred.

In November 2004, a week-long eruption occurred. Volcanic ash from the eruption fell as far away as mainland Europe and caused short-term disruption of airline traffic into Iceland, but again no glacial burst followed the eruption. Harmonic tremors were recorded twice around Grímsvötn on 2 and 3 October 2010 indicating an impending eruption. At the same time, sudden inflation was measured by GPS in the volcano, indicating magma movement under the mountain. On 1 November 2010 meltwater from the Vatnajökull glacier was flowing into the lake, suggesting that an eruption of the underlying volcano. On 21 May 2011 at 19:25 UTC, an eruption began, with 12 km high plumes accompanied by multiple earthquakes; the ash cloud from the eruption rose to 20 km, is so far 10 times larger than the 2004 eruption, the strongest in Grímsvötn in the last 100 years. Disruption to air travel in Iceland commenced on 22 May, followed by Greenland, Norway, Svalbard and a small part of Denmark on subsequent days. On 24 May the disruption spread to airports in northern England.

The cancellation of 900 out of 90,000 European flights in the period 23–25 May was much less widespread than the 2010 disruption after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. In 2004, a community of bacteria was detected in water of the Grímsvötn lake under the glacier, the first time that bacteria have been found in a subglacial lake; the lakes never freeze because of the volcanic heat. The bacteria can survive at low concentrations of oxygen; the site is a possible analogue for life on the planet Mars, because there are traces of volcanism and glaciers on Mars and thus the findings could help identify how to look for life on Mars. Studies indicate that volcanic activity in Iceland rises and falls so that the frequency and size of eruptions in and around the Vatnajökull ice cap varies with time, it is believed that four eruptions, that have taken place in the last fifteen years, are the beginning of an active period, during which an eruption in Grímsvötn in Vatnajökull may be expected every 2–7 years.

Parallel volcanic activity in nearby Bárðarbunga is known to be associated with increased activity in Grímsvötn. Seismic activity has been increasing in the area in recent years. Geography of Iceland Glacial lake outburst flood Iceland hotspot Iceland plume List of glaciers of Iceland List of islands of Iceland List of lakes of Iceland List of volcanoes in Iceland Plate tectonics Timeline of volcanism on Earth Volcanology of Iceland Grímsvötn in the Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes Update on Grímsvötn Activity – from the Icelandic Met Office and University of Iceland Current seismology around Grímsvötn – Earthquakes in last 48 hours Webcam by Míla, Iceland Webcam at Jökulsárlón, south of the volcano, by Míla, Iceland Grímsvötn volcanic ash advisory from regional Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre, London Grímsvötn updates from NATS – UK air traffic control plus the Eastern part of the North Atlantic BBC news report of the 23 May 2011 eruption Report on the start of the Grímsvötn eruption from the Icelandic Met Office "Grímsvötn".

Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Photo report of the November 2004 eruption Independent news report of the 2004 eruption

Queen Anne Revival architecture

The Queen Anne Revival was a historicist architectural style of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States, Canada and other countries. In Australia, it is called Federation architecture. In the United States, Queen Anne Revival architecture was popular from 1880 to 1910. "Queen Anne" was one of a number of popular architectural styles to emerge during the Victorian era. Within the Victorian era timeline, Queen Anne style followed the Stick style and preceded the Richardsonian Romanesque and Shingle styles; the style bears no relationship to the English Baroque architecture produced in the actual reign of Queen Anne from 1702 to 1714. It is loosely used of a wide range of picturesque buildings with "free Renaissance" details rather than of a specific formulaic style in its own right. "Queen Anne", as an alternative both to the French-derived Second Empire and the less "domestic" Beaux-Arts architecture, is broadly applied to architecture and decorative arts of the period 1880 to 1910.

Queen Anne Style buildings in America came into vogue in the 1880s, replacing the French-derived Second Empire as the "style of the moment." The popularity of high Queen Anne Style waned in the early 1900s, but some elements continued to be found on buildings into the 1920s, such as the wrap-around front porch. Distinctive features of the American Queen Anne style may include: asymmetrical façade dominant front-facing gable cantilevered beyond the plane of the wall below overhanging eaves round, square, or polygonal towers shaped and Dutch gables a porch covering part or all of the front facade, including the primary entrance area a second-story porch or balconies pedimented porches differing wall textures, such as patterned wood shingles shaped into varying designs, including resembling fish scales, terra cotta tiles, relief panels, or wooden shingles over brickwork, etc. dentils classical columns spindle work oriel and bay windows horizontal bands of leaded windows monumental chimneys painted balustrades wooden or slate roofs front gardens with wooden fencesThe "Queen Anne" style, formulated in Britain by Norman Shaw and other architects arrived in New York with the new housing for the New York House and School of Industry at 120 West 16th Street.

Gabled and domestically scaled, these early American Queen Anne homes were built of warm, soft brick enclosing square terracotta panels, with an arched side passage leading to an inner court and back house. Their detailing is confined to the treatment of picturesquely disposed windows, with small-paned upper sashes and plate glass lower ones. Triple windows of a Serlian motif and a two-story oriel window that projects asymmetrically were featured; the Astral Apartments built in Brooklyn in 1885–86 to house dock workers provide a similar example of red-brick and terracotta Queen Anne architecture in New York. E. Francis Baldwin's stations for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad are familiar examples of the style, built variously of brick and wood; the most famous American Queen Anne residence is the William Carson Mansion of California. Newsom and Newsom were notable builder-architects of 19th-century California homes and public buildings, they designed and constructed this 18-room home for one of California's first lumber barons.

Smaller and somewhat plainer houses can be Queen Anne. The William G. Harrison House is an example, built in 1904 in Georgia. Characteristics of the Queen Anne cottage style are: one-story frame house wrap-around porch with turned posts, decorative brackets, spindlework square layout with projecting gables to front and side pyramidal or hipped roof reflecting pyramidal massing rooms are asymmetrical and there is no central hallway interior-located chimneys interior detailing, such as door surrounds, window surrounds and mantels built in 1880s and 1890s for middle class in both urban and rural areas, with popularity in rural areas continuing into early 1900s; the Shingle style in America was made popular by the rise of the New England school of architecture, which eschewed the ornamented patterns of the Eastlake style. In the Shingle style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial. Architects emulated colonial houses' plain, shingled surfaces as well as their massing, whether in the simple gable of McKim Mead and White's Low House or in the complex massing of Kragsyde, which looked as if a colonial house had been fancifully expanded over many years.

This impression of the passage of time was enhanced by the use of shingles. Some architects, in order to attain a weathered look on a new building had the cedar shakes dipped in buttermilk and installed, to leave a grayish tinge to the façade; the Shingle style conveyed a sense of the house as continuous volume. This effect—of the building as an envelope of space, rather than a great mass, was enhanced by the visual tautness of the flat shingled surfaces, the horizontal shape of many shingle-style houses, the emphasis on horizontal continuity, both in exterior details and in the flow of spaces within the houses. McKim and White and Peabody and Stearns were two of the notable firms of the era that helped to popularize the shingle style, through their large-scale commissions for "seaside cottages" of the rich and the well-to-do in such places as Newport, Rhode Island. However, the most famous Shingle-style house built in America was "Kragsyde", the summer home commissioned by B