National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame
The National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame is located in Fort Worth, Texas, US. Established in 1975, it is dedicated to honoring women of the American West who have displayed extraordinary courage and pioneering fortitude; the museum is an educational resource with exhibits, a research library, rare photography collection. It annually adds Honorees to its Hall of Fame; the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame honors and documents the lives of women of the American West. The museum was started in 1975 in the basement of the Deaf Smith County Library in Hereford, it was removed to Fort Worth in 1994. The museum moved into its 33,000 square feet permanent location in the Cultural District of Fort Worth on June 9, 2002; as of 2013, there are over 200 Cowgirl Hall of Fame honorees, with additional women being added annually. Honorees include women from a variety of fields, including pioneers, businesswomen, educators and rodeo cowgirls. Women in the hall of fame include Georgia O'Keeffe, Annie Oakley, Dale Evans, Enid Justin, Temple Grandin and Sandra Day O’Connor.
Groundbreaking took place on February 22, 2001. The 33,000 square foot building was designed by architech David M. Schwarz/Architectural Services, Inc. Linbeck Construction Company built the structure and Sundance Projects Group, provided project management. Additional members of the construction/design team included: Gideon/Toal Architects, architect of record. There was a threefold goal in its design: to relate the building to the historic context of the site, to create a vibrant new space as the home for the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, to provide expansion possibilities for the Museum as its collections grow; the building’s location was part of the Western Heritage Plaza to be formed by the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, the Cattle Raisers Museum and the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History. The style of the building is compatible with the nearby Will Rogers Memorial Center; the exterior is constructed with brick and cast stone with terra cotta finials formed in a ‘wild rose’ motif and glazed in vibrant colors.
A large painted mural by Richard Haas, bas-relief sculpture panels, a series of hand-carved cast relief panels show scenes related to the Cowgirl’s story and depict thematic messages such as ‘East Meets West’ and ‘Saddle Your Own Horse’ that represent the story told inside the Museum. The Museum’s interior is designed to provide a clear circulation path for visitors and creates central spaces for after-hours functions. In addition to administrative offices, the building includes three gallery areas, a multipurpose theater, hands-on children’s areas, a flexible exhibit space, research library, catering area, a retail store. A 45–foot-high domed rotunda serves as an orienting point and houses the Hall of Fame honoree exhibits. Two grand staircases providing overlooks into the rotunda are made of different metal finishes and colors with art deco inspired ornamental railings; the floors are a honed Corton Bressandes French limestone on the ground floor. Doors of stained walnut mark the entrance to the theater.
Western themes are found throughout including native flowers, horse heads and the wild rose motif. The areas of the museum include the Spirit of the Cowgirl Theater, the Lifetiles murals, the children's Discovery Corral, the retail Cowgirl Shop and a large Rotating Exhibit Gallery. Permanent galleries include: The Hall of Fame Honoree Gallery features one honoree from each of the Hall of Fame categories: Champions and Competitive Performers, Entertainers and Writers, Trailblazers and Pioneers "Into the Arena," which covers women in the fields of rodeo and trick riding, as well as modern horsewomen of note such as Belmont Stakes winning jockey Julie Krone, it has interactive computer displays, rodeo memorabilia and other rodeo artifacts. The area displays saddles such as Sheila Welch’s cutting horse saddle, Julie Krone's racing saddle. Rodeo fashions are displayed in “Arena Style,” where a rotating rack moves in direct response to a flat-panel, touch-screen display placed in front of the case featuring details and additional information about various outfits, threading together a rodeo star’s story with her corresponding clothing.
In this gallery is an interactive bronc riding experience, where visitors can ride a fake horse, modified from training bulls used by rodeo riders. Visitor’s "rides" can be videoed, sped up, transformed into footage from an old-style rodeo for purchase. "Kinship with the Land," which includes exhibits related to ranching, including historic gear including saddles, women's clothing such as split skirts, pistols, a Victorian riding habit and a sidesaddle. It has plasma screen displays. An interactive exhibit allows children to saddle a model Shetland pony, other displays for children, show children's chaps, 4-H ribbons and a selection of toys. "Claiming the Spotlight" shows the cowgirl as represented in media, the varying roles the archetypical cowgirl has played in film, television and music. The gallery includes a collection of dime novels, displays on entertainers who have portrayed cowgirls such as Barbara Stanwyck, Dale Evans, Patsy Montana; the gallery includes an old-time theater with a looping film narrated by Katharine Ross about portrayals of cowgirls in mass media, a television area featuring clips from 1950s era series, jukeboxes playing music by country and western women performers.
Interactive exhibits allow Visitors to pose for a movie poster and purchase the ensuing image at the gift shop. The Rotating Exhibit Ga
The Texas Revolution was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico. While the uprising was part of a larger one that included other provinces opposed to the regime of President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government believed the United States had instigated the Texas insurrection with the goal of annexation; the Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag." Only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas, being annexed by the United States. The revolution began in October 1835, after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and the large population of American settlers in Texas; the Mexican government had become centralized and the rights of its citizens had become curtailed regarding immigration from the United States.
Colonists and Tejanos disagreed on whether the ultimate goal was independence or a return to the Mexican Constitution of 1824. While delegates at the Consultation debated the war's motives, Texians and a flood of volunteers from the United States defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835; the Consultation declined to declare independence and installed an interim government, whose infighting led to political paralysis and a dearth of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the fledgling Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas. Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to retake Texas, his Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians unprepared. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered.
Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar, where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing all of the defenders. A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston was on the move, while terrified civilians fled with the army, in a melee known as the Runaway Scrape. On March 31, Houston paused his men at Groce's Landing on the Brazos River, for the next two weeks, the Texians received rigorous military training. Becoming complacent and underestimating the strength of his foes, Santa Anna further subdivided his troops. On April 21, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his vanguard force at the Battle of San Jacinto; the Mexican troops were routed, vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s; the annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States, in 1845, led directly to the Mexican–American War.
After a failed attempt by France to colonize Texas in the late 17th century, Spain developed a plan to settle the region. On its southern edge, along the Medina and Nueces Rivers, Spanish Texas was bordered by the province of Coahuila. On the east, Texas bordered Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the United States claimed the land west of the Sabine River, all the way to the Rio Grande. From 1812 to 1813 anti-Spanish republicans and U. S. filibusters rebelled against the Spanish Empire in what is known today as the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition during the Mexican War of Independence. They won battles in the beginning and captured many Texas cities from the Spanish that led to a declaration of independence of the state of Texas as part of the Mexican Republic on April 17, 1813; the new Texas government and army met their doom in the Battle of Medina in August 1813, 20 miles south of San Antonio, where 1,300 of the 1,400 rebel army were killed in battle or executed shortly afterwards by royalist soldiers.
It was the deadliest single battle in Texas history. 300 republican government officials in San Antonio were captured and executed by the Spanish royalists shortly after the battle. What is significant is a Spanish royalist lieutenant named Antonio López de Santa Anna fought in this battle and followed his superiors' orders to take no prisoners. Another interesting note is two founding fathers of the Republic of Texas and future signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836, José Antonio Navarro and José Francisco Ruiz, took part in the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition. Although the United States renounced that claim as part of the Transcontinental Treaty with Spain in 1819, many Americans continued to believe that Texas should belong to their nation, over the next decade the United States made several offers to purchase the region. Following the Mexican War of Independence, Texas became part of Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, which defined the country as a federal republic, the provinces of Texas and Coahuila were combined to become the state Coahuila y Tejas.
Texas was granted only a single seat in the state legislature, which met in Saltillo, hundreds of miles away. After months of grumbling by Tejanos outraged at the loss of their political autonomy, state officials agreed to make Tex
Curry County, New Mexico
Curry County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 48,376, its county seat is Clovis. The county is named in honor of George Curry, territorial governor of New Mexico from 1907 to 1910. Curry County comprises the Clovis, NM Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Clovis-Portales, NM Combined Statistical Area, it is located on the far eastern state line, adjacent to the state of Texas, forming part of the region of Eastern New Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,408 square miles, of which 1,405 square miles is land and 3.2 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in New Mexico by area. Quay County - northwest Roosevelt County - southwest Bailey County, Texas - southeast Parmer County, Texas - east Deaf Smith County, Texas - northeast As of the 2000 census, there were 45,044 people, 16,766 households, 11,870 families residing in the county; the population density was 32 people per square mile.
There were 19,212 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 72.40% White, 6.86% Black or African American, 1.00% Native American, 1.78% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 14.08% from other races, 3.75% from two or more races. 30.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,766 households out of which 38.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.00% were married couples living together, 12.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.10% under the age of 18, 11.50% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 18.10% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 97.60 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,917, the median income for a family was $33,900. Males had a median income of $25,086 versus $19,523 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,049. About 15.50% of families and 19.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.10% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 48,376 people, 18,015 households, 12,341 families residing in the county; the population density was 34.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 20,062 housing units at an average density of 14.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 69.7% white, 6.3% black or African American, 1.3% Asian, 1.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 17.2% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 39.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.2% were German, 11.0% were American, 8.0% were Irish, 6.7% were English.
Of the 18,015 households, 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families, 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.18. The median age was 31.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,090 and the median income for a family was $48,933. Males had a median income of $35,743 versus $26,585 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,925. About 15.5% of families and 20.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.9% of those under age 18 and 13.5% of those age 65 or over. Clovis Texico Grady Melrose Cannon AFB Bellview Broadview Gallaher Pleasant Hill Portair Ranchvale St. Vrain National Register of Historic Places listings in Curry County, New Mexico USS Curry County Curry County Fair information, 2006 Curry County information on High Plains Historical Foundation A resource for the Clovis/ Portales/ Curry/ Roosevelt and Cannon Air Force Base Community
Interstate 40 in Texas
In the U. S. state of Texas, Interstate 40 runs west–east through the panhandle in the northwest part of the state. The only large city it passes through is Amarillo, where it meets the north end of Interstate 27. Before the U. S. Route system, this system of interconnected highway from New Mexico to Oklahoma was part of the Texas highway system and a portion of the Ozark Trails which paralleled the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway; when the United States Numbered Highway system was introduced in 1926, Route 66 across the Texas Panhandle was designated along existing roads in the Texas highway network. The entire route was paved by 1938. There have been various realignments, including one in 1959 to allow expansion of the Amarillo Air Force Base. In 1956, the Interstate Highway Act designated US 66 through Texas as a section of highway eligible for limited access upgrades. During the next 20 years, most of the highway was upgraded in place. With the limited access of the Interstates, towns on the highway had to be bypassed.
Most towns requested to remain as close to the new highway as possible to minimize tourism losses. Bypassed towns included Glenrio, Vega, Groom, Alanreed, McLean, Shamrock. A new routing along the south end of downtown Amarillo was built, connecting with the already-built expressway leading south from downtown toward Canyon. In 1985, the entire designation of U. S. Route 66 was removed as the entire route had been displaced by Interstate 40. I-40 in Texas is one of a few Interstate Highways with at-grade intersections; the westernmost part of I-40 in Texas, near the New Mexico border, lacks the frontage roads typical to Texas freeways, several driveways for ranches directly intersect the main lanes of I-40, in violation of Interstate standards. The entirety of Interstate 40 in Texas is located in the panhandle. Interstate 40 enters Texas from New Mexico just north of Glenrio; the highway's first exit, exit 0, is for BL I-40-A. I-40 runs through Deaf Smith County before entering Oldham County; the interstate gains frontage roads between exits 15 and 18 and turns from a northeast direction into a straight east direction.
I-40 bypasses the town of Adrian before turning southeast. I-40 next bypasses the town of Vega, where it meets with US 385 at exit 36; the interstate runs in a east direction through the town of Wildorado before turning back to the southeast. I-40 has a rural route before becoming more suburban in Bushland, with housing developments becoming visible from the highway; the interstate passes by Cadillac Ranch before the Hope Road interchange and enters the city limits of Amarillo just west of Loop 335. I-40 expands from four lanes to six at Loop 335 and runs through a developed area of the city. Near downtown, the highway serves as the northern terminus for Interstate 27 at a turbine interchange and begins an overlap with US 287. I-40 runs through eastern Amarillo, passing by the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame and The Big Texan Steak Ranch. Development along the route begins to lessen after S. Eastern Street as the highway passes near Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport. US 287 leaves I-40 at exit 78.
The highway runs through rural farm land after leaving the city and enters the town of Groom, passing near a 19–story cross and a leaning water tower. East of Groom, I-40 has an overlap with SH 70 between exits 121 and 124. After the overlap with SH 70 ends, the terrain along the interstate begins to change from flat plains to a rolling canyon ridge with an observation point near Alanreed. I-40 returns to flatland again after the town of McLean and bypasses the town of Shamrock before entering Oklahoma near Texola. I-40 has seven business routes in Texas, all of which are old alignments of US 66. A number of other old alignments of US 66 are present. Business Interstate Highway 40-A is a Business Spur that runs from I-40 at Glenrio, just east of the New Mexico state line, southwest to the border. In New Mexico, the road forks - the paved alignment has been cut by Interstate 40, the earlier alignment west to San Jon is now a dirt road, paved when it was US 66 prior to 1952 but the paving was removed by Quay County, NM commissioners due to high maintenance costs and low traffic volumes.
The old US 66/I-40 Business Loop through Glenrio was bypassed in 1973 by I-40. Business Interstate Highway 40-B is a Business Loop through Adrian; the road was bypassed c. 1969 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning. Business Interstate Highway 40-C is a Business Loop through Vega; the road was bypassed c. 1973 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning. Business Interstate Highway 40-D is a long Business Loop through Amarillo. An older alignment - Loop 279 - carried Business U. S. Highway 66. East of Amarillo, Farm to Market Road 2575 is old US 66, rerouted to today's Business I-40 in 1958 by the construction of Amarillo International Airport. Present Business I-40 was bypassed in 1968 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning. Farm to Market Road 2161 and State Highway 207 carry old US 66 through Conway; the road was bypassed c. 1966 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning. Business Interstate Highway 40-F is a Business Loop through Groom; the road was bypassed c. 1980 by I-40, carried US 66 until its 1985 decommissioning.
The short Loop 271, in addition to providing access to Farm to Market Road 291, is old US 66 through Alanreed. The road was bypassed in 1953 by US 66, but the bypass wa
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Castro County, Texas
Castro County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 8,062; the county seat is Dimmitt. The county was named for Henri Castro, consul general to France for the Republic of Texas and the founder of a colony in Texas; the county was created in 1876. It was organized in 1891, a courthouse was built about the town square. Temporary county office space, was obtained from businessman J. N. Morrison; the ornate two-story courthouse was completed but was destroyed by lightning in 1906. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 899 square miles, of which 894 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 60 U. S. Highway 385 State Highway 86 State Highway 194 Deaf Smith County Randall County Swisher County Hale County Lamb County Parmer County As of the census of 2000, there were 8,285 people, 2,761 households, 2,159 families residing in the county; the population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 3,198 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 75.35% White, 2.27% Black or African American, 1.17% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 19.12% from other races, 2.05% from two or more races. 51.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,761 households out of which 40.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.10% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.80% were non-families. 20.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.45. In the county, the population was spread out with 33.10% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 20.90% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,619, the median income for a family was $35,422.
Males had a median income of $25,379 versus $20,433 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,457. About 15.70% of families and 19.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.30% of those under age 18 and 13.90% of those age 65 or over. Dimmitt Hart Nazareth Hilburn Summerfield Sunnyside List of museums in the Texas Panhandle Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Castro County Castro County government's website Castro County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Interactive Texas Map Texas Map Collection Castro County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Hereford is a city in and county seat of Deaf Smith County, United States. It is 48 miles southwest of Amarillo; the population was 15,370 at the 2010 census. It is the only incorporated locality named "Hereford" in the country. Hereford's local water supply contains an unusually high level of occurring fluoride; because fluoride is used to protect against tooth decay, Hereford earned the title "The Town Without a Toothache". It is known as the "Beef Capital of the World" because of the large number of cattle fed in the area; the city is named for the Hereford breed. The local economy is affected by growth in the dairy and ethanol industries; the area is known for its semiarid climate, with heavy farming and ranching throughout the area sustained by irrigation from the Ogallala Aquifer and the saltier Santa Rosa Aquifer beneath it. Hereford is home to the headquarters of the Deaf Smith Electric Cooperative, which serves Deaf Smith, Castro and Oldham Counties. A rich Western heritage includes the Las Escarbadas ranch house of the XIT Ranch once located southwest of Hereford.
The restored historic structure can now be seen at the National Ranching Heritage Center at Texas Tech University in Lubbock. The Deaf Smith County Historical Museum at 400 Sampson Street in Hereford offers indoor and outdoor exhibits on the settlement of West Texas. In December 2015, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer voted Hereford not only the "most conservative" city in Texas, but in the United States, in terms of political contributions. Other West Texas communities in the most conservative lineup are Childress and Monahans. Princeton in Collin County north of Dallas was ranked number two. In contrast, Vashon Island, was named the "most liberal" city in the nation regarding political donations. Hereford was founded as "Blue Water" in 1899 after the Pecos and Northern Texas Railway connected Amarillo to Farwell. After a town named Blue Water was discovered, residents renamed the town "Hereford" in honor of the cattle of the local ranchers. During World War II, a prisoner-of-war camp existed there for Italian prisoners of war.
It was dismantled in 1947. Hereford is located in southeastern Deaf Smith County at 34°49′19″N 102°23′55″W and is located on the Llano Estacado. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.9 square miles, all land. U. S. Highway 60 passes through the city as 1st Street, leading northeast 48 miles to Amarillo and southwest 57 miles to Clovis, New Mexico. U. S. Highway 385 runs north-south through the city, leading north 30 miles to Interstate 40 at Vega and south 20 miles to Dimmitt. Hereford's climate is classified as a steppe climate using the 2006 map of Köppen climate classification, meaning it is semiarid. Hereford was named as the “coolest” city in Texas with an average summer temperature of 73 °F or 22.8 °C. As of the 2010 United States Census, 15,370 people resided in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 71.7% Hispanic or Latino, 26.3% White, 0.9% Black, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race, 0.5% from two or more races.
As of the census of 2000, 14,597 people, 4,839 households, 3,730 families resided in the city. The population density was 2,600.8 people per square mile. The 5,323 housing units averaged 948.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.86% White, 1.76% African American, 0.82% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 24.77% from other races, 2.41% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 61.37% of the population. Of the 4,839 households, 42.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.9% were not families. About 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.44. In the city, the population was distributed as 34.0% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,599, for a family was $33,387. Males had a median income of $26,488 versus $18,920 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,787. About 19.4% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over. The first public school was opened in 1900. Today, Hereford's seven public schools serve around 4,000 students and are directed by the Hereford Independent School District. Parker Bridwell, pitcher for MLB's New York Yankees, was born in Hereford. Ron Ely, best remembered for his role as Tarzan on an NBC television series in 1960s, was born in Hereford in 1938. Jesse Frank Ford, a nutritionist, began Arrowhead Mills, a health-food company in Hereford in 1960. Edgar Mitchell and astron