Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, that is, the capacity to place oneself in another's position. There are many definitions for empathy. Types of empathy include cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, somatic empathy; the English word empathy is derived from the Ancient Greek word εμπάθεια. This, in turn, comes from εν and πάθος; the term was adapted by Hermann Lotze and Robert Vischer to create the German word Einfühlung, translated by Edward B. Titchener into the English term empathy. However, in modern Greek, εμπάθεια means "malice", "hostility". Alexithymia is a word used to describe a deficiency in understanding, processing or describing emotions in oneself as opposed to in others; this term comes from the combination of two Ancient Greek words: ἀλέξω and θυμός. Thus alexithymia means "pushing away your emotions". Empathy definitions encompass a broad range of emotional states, including caring for other people and having a desire to help them.
It can be understood as having the separateness of defining oneself and another a blur. It is the ability to feel and share another person's emotions; some believe that empathy involves the ability to match another's emotions, while others believe that empathy involves being tenderhearted toward another person. Having empathy can include having the understanding that there are many factors that go into decision making and cognitive thought processes. Past experiences have an influence on the decision making of today. Understanding this allows a person to have empathy for individuals who sometimes make illogical decisions to a problem that most individuals would respond with an obvious response. Broken homes, childhood trauma, lack of parenting and many others factors can influence the connections in the brain which a person uses to make decisions in the future. Martin Hoffman is a psychologist. According to Hoffman everyone is born with the capability of feeling empathy. Compassion and sympathy are terms associated with empathy.
Definitions vary. Compassion is defined as an emotion we feel when others are in need, which motivates us to help them. Sympathy is a feeling of understanding for someone in need; some include in sympathy an empathic concern, a feeling of concern for another, in which some scholars include the wish to see them better off or happier. Empathy is distinct from pity and emotional contagion. Pity is a feeling that one feels towards others that might be in trouble or in need of help as they cannot fix their problems themselves described as "feeling sorry" for someone. Emotional contagion is when a person imitatively "catches" the emotions that others are showing without recognizing this is happening. Since empathy involves understanding the emotional states of other people, the way it is characterized is derived from the way emotions themselves are characterized. If, for example, emotions are taken to be centrally characterized by bodily feelings grasping the bodily feelings of another will be central to empathy.
On the other hand, if emotions are more centrally characterized by a combination of beliefs and desires grasping these beliefs and desires will be more essential to empathy. The ability to imagine oneself as another person is a sophisticated imaginative process. However, the basic capacity to recognize emotions is innate and may be achieved unconsciously, yet it can be achieved with various degrees of intensity or accuracy. Empathy has a "more or less" quality; the paradigm case of an empathic interaction, involves a person communicating an accurate recognition of the significance of another person's ongoing intentional actions, associated emotional states, personal characteristics in a manner that the recognized person can tolerate. Recognitions that are both accurate and tolerable are central features of empathy; the human capacity to recognize the bodily feelings of another is related to one's imitative capacities, seems to be grounded in an innate capacity to associate the bodily movements and facial expressions one sees in another with the proprioceptive feelings of producing those corresponding movements or expressions oneself.
Humans seem to make the same immediate connection between the tone of voice and other vocal expressions and inner feeling. In the field of positive psychology, empathy has been compared with altruism and egotism. Altruism is behavior, aimed at benefitting another person, while egotism is a behavior, acted out for personal gain. Sometimes, when someone is feeling empathetic towards another person, acts of altruism occur. However, many question. According to positive psychologists, people can be adequately moved by their empathies to be altruistic. Empathy is divided into two major components: Affective empathy called emotional empathy: the capacity to respond with an appropriate emotion to another's mental states. Our ability to empathize is based on emotional contagion: being affected by another's emotional or arousal state. Affective empathy can be subdivide
USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-E)
The USS Enterprise NCC-1701-E is a fictional starship in the Star Trek franchise. A Sovereign-class starship, it appears in the films Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Insurrection and Star Trek Nemesis, where it serves as the primary setting, it is the sixth Federation starship to carry the name "Enterprise". Ronald D. Moore, the co-writer of Star Trek Generations and Star Trek: First Contact, has suggested that construction of the Enterprise-E began during the final season of The Next Generation, that the ship was renamed USS Enterprise, which would become the latest flagship of the United Federation of Planets after the Enterprise-D had been destroyed; the Enterprise-E, a Sovereign class starship, launched in 2372 from the San Francisco Fleet Yards under the command of Captain Jean-Luc Picard, most of the key officers from the Enterprise-D. According to the non-canon novel Ship of the Line, the planned name for the vessel was USS Honorius, Montgomery Scott was part of the team of engineers that designed the Enterprise-E.
In the film Star Trek: First Contact, the Enterprise participates in the Battle of Sector 001, destroying a Borg cube, subsequently travels back in time to stop the Borg from interfering with Zefram Cochrane's first contact with the Vulcans. The Borg hijack and assimilate the ship until Captain Picard and Data reclaim it. In Star Trek: Insurrection, the crew stops a Son'a attempt to forcibly relocate the Ba'ku people from their homeworld. In Star Trek Nemesis, the Enterprise is damaged while stopping Shinzon from using a weapon of mass destruction to destroy all life on Earth; the ship returns to spacedock to undergo extensive repairs. In the novels published by Pocket Books after Nemesis, the Enterprise-E remains under the command of Picard as of 2385 in the 2013 novel miniseries Star Trek: The Fall. Data was resurrected in the novels to the comic miniseries Countdown, but he decided not to re-enter Starfleet. A designer's blueprints show that the Enterprise has new phaser banks and torpedo launchers in Star Trek Nemesis that were not present in Star Trek: Insurrection.
It shows the warp nacelles have been moved upwards and forward slightly. Star Trek: Ships of the Line, written by Star Trek's technical consultant Michael Okuda, states that the Enterprise can travel at up to warp 9.995. Captain Jean-Luc Picard Captain of the Enterprise from the ship's launch in 2372. Commander William Thomas Riker First officer of the Enterprise from its launch in 2372. Promoted to Captain in 2379, left the Enterprise with his wife, Ship's Counselor Commander Deanna Troi, to take command of the USS Titan. Lieutenant Commander Data Data was Operations Officer from its launch in 2372, was third in line of command, until his apparent death in 2379, at the end of Star Trek Nemesis. Commander Deanna Troi Commander Troi was the ship's Counselor from its launch in 2372, until the end of Star Trek: Nemesis, when she departed with her new husband, Captain Riker, for the Titan. Lieutenant Commander Worf After serving as Strategic Operations Officer on Deep Space Nine during the Dominion War, Worf was made an ambassador to Qo'noS, but returned to Starfleet by the time of the film Star Trek: Nemesis.
Following Riker's departure at the end of that film, Worf was promoted to First Officer in the non-canon 2007 novel Resistance, continues to serve in this role in the Destiny, Typhon Pact, The Fall novels. Commander Beverly Crusher, M. D. Crusher was the ship's Chief Medical Officer from its launch in 2372. In the non-canon 2007 novel Death in Winter, she again took a position as head of Starfleet Medical, but returned to the Enterprise in the novel Resistance, has since married Captain Picard. Lieutenant Commander Geordi La Forge Chief Engineer from the ship's acceptance into Starfleet service. Lieutenant Reginald Barclay Present during the events of Star Trek: First Contact. Lieutenant Hawk Flight Controller until assimilation by the Borg and death at the hands of Worf in Star Trek: First Contact. USS Enterprise at Memory Alpha
In the fictional universe of Star Trek, Starfleet Academy is where recruits to Starfleet's officer corps are trained. It was created in the year 2161; the Academy's motto is "Ex astris, scientia" – "From the stars, knowledge." This is derived from the Apollo 13 motto "Ex luna, scientia" – "From the moon, knowledge." In turn, the Apollo 13 motto was inspired by "Ex scientia, tridens," the motto of the United States Naval Academy, meaning "From knowledge, seapower." The main campus of the Academy is located on or near Starfleet headquarters on Earth, in and around what is now Fort Baker, across the Golden Gate from San Francisco in what is now Marin County. There are other campuses, it was created, based upon principles first postulated by David H. Longstreet; the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Coming of Age" revolved around Wesley Crusher's first attempt to enter Starfleet Academy, includes many details of the Academy's entrance exam. Admitted students undergo a four-year program of academics and training, after which they are commissioned as ensigns.
One of the groundskeepers of the Academy is a man called Boothby, a character played by Ray Walston, first featured in the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The First Duty". Boothby has offered advice to, taken interest in the careers of many students, including Jean-Luc Picard and Kathryn Janeway, both captains. Non-Federation citizens must present a letter of recommendation from a command-level officer in Starfleet before they can take the entrance examination. Commander Benjamin Sisko wrote such a letter for Nog in 2371 when he applied for Starfleet in the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Heart of Stone". In the prequel series Star Trek: Enterprise, the "Academy" is mentioned by Commander Tucker in the pilot "Broken Bow", but it is not established whether this refers to Starfleet Academy or some other service academy. If Tucker was referring to Starfleet Academy its founding must have been well before 2151. Given Reed's history with the still extant British Royal Navy, one assumes that Dartmouth and comparable officer training institutions were as yet separate entities.
In 1997, a computer game with a story surrounding the Academy, called Star Trek: Starfleet Academy, was released by Interplay and High Voltage Software. A television series based on Starfleet Academy was proposed, but never produced. An early draft of the script to Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country featured a flashback to Captain Kirk's time at the academy. According to producer Harve Bennett, that version of the sixth film got as far as preliminary casting with offers made to Ethan Hawke for the role of Captain Kirk and John Cusack as Spock; the Japanese Garden, located on the grounds of the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant in Van Nuys, designed by California architect Anthony J. Lumsden, 333 miles south, was used to film the main academy's campus near San Francisco. In 2009, the exterior of Oviatt Library at California State University, was used to depict Starfleet Academy in J. J. Abrams' Star Trek feature film; the "Starfleet Medical Academy" is responsible for training Starfleet Medical personnel.
It accepts only 200 students each year. It is one of several sub-campuses in the Academy system. List of fictional schools Starfleet Academy at Memory Alpha
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane; the gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, slows its rotation. Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water by oceans; the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms; some geological evidence indicates. Since the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely. Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans have developed diverse cultures. The modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most spelled eorðe, it has cognates in every Germanic language, their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest appearances, eorðe was being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world, the globe itself; as with Terra and Gaia, Earth was a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: the Angles were listed by Tacitus as among the devotees of Nerthus, Norse mythology included Jörð, a giantess given as the mother of Thor. Earth was written in lowercase, from early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, the earth became the Earth when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More the name is sometimes given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the, it always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?" The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4.54±0.04 Bya the primordial Earth had formed. The bodies in the Solar System evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, dust. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth taking 10–20 million years to form. A subject of research is the formation of some 4.53 Bya. A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object, named Theia, hit Earth.
In this view, the mass of Theia was 10 percent of Earth, it hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth. Between 4.1 and 3.8 Bya, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth. Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic outgassing. Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids and comets. In this model, atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. By 3.5 Bya, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. A crust formed; the two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or, more a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. Continents formed by plate tectonics
Starfleet is a fictional organization in the Star Trek media franchise. Within this fictional universe, Starfleet is a service maintained by the United Federation of Planets as the principal means for conducting deep-space exploration, defense and diplomacy. While the majority of Starfleet's members are human and it is headquartered on Earth, hundreds of other species are represented; the majority of the franchise's protagonists are Starfleet officers. During production of early episodes of the original series, several details of the makeup of the Star Trek universe had yet to be worked out, including the operating authority for the USS Enterprise; the terms Star Service, Spacefleet Command, United Earth Space Probe Agency, Space Central were all used to refer to the Enterprise's operating authority, before the term "Starfleet" became widespread from the episode "Court Martial" onwards. However, references to the United Earth Space Probe Agency, its abbreviation UESPA, are to be found in episodes of series.
For example, the Friendship One probe is marked with the letters UESPA-1 in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Friendship One". Other background props included additional UESPA references, such as Captain Jean-Luc Picard's family album in Star Trek Generations. During the production of Star Trek: Enterprise, some larger Starfleet insignia designs included the name "United Earth Space Probe Agency". Many Star Trek: Enterprise episodes refer to Starfleet having been in operation in 2119, when it funded research begun by Cochrane and Henry Archer leading to the first successful flight of Warp 3 vessels in the 2140s; this research is said to have evolved into the NX Program, which led to Starfleet launching its first Warp 5-capable starship, Enterprise, in 2151, followed by Columbia, in 2155, as well as other vessels. However, the Starfleet, in existence before the Federation is a different organization than that of the Federation Starfleet. Starfleet acts under a Prime Directive of non-interference with developing worlds or their internal politics.
This is said not to be a Human construct, but stems from policies implemented by the Vulcans, who regarded an alien civilization's attainment of warp speed as the sign of their importance and reason for making first contact with them. The Prime Directive and Starfleet's first-contact policies are at the center of several episodes in each Star Trek series and the film Star Trek: First Contact. Starfleet Headquarters is shown to be located on Earth, northeast of the Golden Gate Bridge in the present-day Fort Baker area. Starfleet Academy is located in the same general area. Additionally, various episodes show Starfleet operating a series of starbases throughout Federation territory, as ground facilities, or as space stations in planetary orbit or in deep space. Starfleet has been shown to handle scientific and diplomatic missions, although its primary mandate seems to be peaceful exploration in the search for sentient life, as seen in the mission statements of different incarnations of the USS Enterprise.
The flagship of Starfleet is considered to be the starship USS Enterprise. Starfleet has many components, including: As early as the original Star Trek, characters refer to attending Starfleet Academy. Series establish it as an officer training facility with a four-year educational program; the main campus is located near Starfleet Headquarters in what is now California. Starfleet Command is the headquarters/command center of Starfleet; the term "Starfleet Command" is first used in TOS episode "Court Martial". Its headquarters are depicted as being in Fort Baker, across the Golden Gate from San Francisco, in Star Trek: The Motion Picture and Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home. Overlooking the Command from the other side of the Golden Gate is the permanent site of the Council of the United Federation of Planets in what is now the Presidio of San Francisco. Throughout the Star Trek franchise, the main characters' isolation from Starfleet Command compels them to make and act upon decisions without Starfleet Command's orders or information in Voyager when the main protagonists have no means of contacting Earth for several years.
StarTrek.com notes. It states: Located on San Francisco's Mare Island, with additional starship assembly facilities located in Earth orbit, Starfleet's San Francisco Navy Yards is the site where the USS Enterprise NCC-1701 was built in 2245. Captain Robert April, the Enterprise's first commanding officer, was present at the San Francisco Navy Yards when the vessel's major components were built and prepared for assembly in Starfleet's orbital drydock facilities; the Enterprise-D and USS Voyager are depicted to have been constructed at a shipyard named Utopia Planitia in Mars orbit. Utopia Planitia served as Starfleet's main ship yards throughout a large portion of Starfleet's existence. After the Enterprise-D encountered the Borg in the episode "Q Who" the size of the Utopia Planitia shipyards was doubled out of fear of a Borg strike, they were once again doubled. In the 2009 film, Jim Kirk arrives at a shipyard near his home in Iowa and boards a shuttle to enlist in Starfleet. In the 2013 sequel, Montgomery "Scotty" Scott discovers a covert Starfleet facility, near Jupiter, that has built a m
Telepathy is the purported vicarious transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction. The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Frederic W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research, has remained more popular than the earlier expression thought-transference. Telepathy experiments have been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no convincing evidence that telepathy exists, the topic is considered by the scientific community to be pseudoscience. According to historians such as Roger Luckhurst and Janet Oppenheim the origin of the concept of telepathy in Western civilization can be tracked to the late 19th century and the formation of the Society for Psychical Research; as the physical sciences made significant advances, scientific concepts were applied to mental phenomena, with the hope that this would help to understand paranormal phenomena. The modern concept of telepathy emerged in this context.
Psychical researcher Eric Dingwall criticized SPR founding members Frederic W. H. Myers and William F. Barrett for trying to "prove" telepathy rather than objectively analyze whether or not it existed. In the late 19th century, the magician and mentalist, Washington Irving Bishop would perform "thought reading" demonstrations. Bishop ascribed his powers to muscular sensitivity. Bishop was investigated by a group of scientists including the editor of the British Medical Journal and the psychologist Francis Galton. Bishop performed several feats such as identifying a selected spot on a table and locating a hidden object. During the experiment Bishop required physical contact with a subject, he would hold the wrist of the helper. The scientists concluded that Bishop was not a genuine telepath but using a trained skill to detect ideomotor movements. Another famous thought reader was the magician Stuart Cumberland, he was famous for performing blindfolded feats such as identifying a hidden object in a room that a person had picked out or asking someone to imagine a murder scene and attempt to read the subject's thoughts and identify the victim and reenact the crime.
Cumberland claimed to possess no genuine psychic ability and his thought reading performances could only be demonstrated by holding the hand of his subject to read their muscular movements. He came into dispute with psychical researchers associated with the Society for Psychical Research who were searching for genuine cases of telepathy. Cumberland argued that both telepathy and communication with the dead were impossible and that the mind of man cannot be read through telepathy, but only by muscle reading. In the late 19th century the Creery Sisters were tested by the Society for Psychical Research and believed to have genuine psychic ability. However, during a experiment they were caught utilizing signal codes and they confessed to fraud. George Albert Smith and Douglas Blackburn were claimed to be genuine psychics by the Society for Psychical Research but Blackburn confessed to fraud: For nearly thirty years the telepathic experiments conducted by Mr. G. A. Smith and myself have been accepted and cited as the basic evidence of the truth of thought transference......the whole of those alleged experiments were bogus, originated in the honest desire of two youths to show how men of scientific mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in support of a theory they were wishful to establish.
Between 1916 and 1924, Gilbert Murray conducted 236 experiments into telepathy and reported 36% as successful, however, it was suggested that the results could be explained by hyperaesthesia as he could hear what was being said by the sender. Psychologist Leonard T. Troland had carried out experiments in telepathy at Harvard University which were reported in 1917; the subjects produced below chance expectations. Arthur Conan Doyle and W. T. Stead were duped into believing Julius and Agnes Zancig had genuine psychic powers. Both Doyle and Stead wrote. In 1924, Julius and Agnes Zancig confessed that their mind reading act was a trick and published the secret code and all the details of the trick method they had used under the title of Our Secrets!! in a London newspaper. In 1924, Robert H. Gault of Northwestern University with Gardner Murphy conducted the first American radio test for telepathy; the results were negative. One of their experiments involved the attempted thought transmission of a chosen number, out of 2010 replies none were correct.
In February 1927, with the co-operation of the British Broadcasting Corporation, V. J. Woolley, at the time the Research Officer for the SPR, arranged a telepathy experiment in which radio listeners were asked to take part; the experiment involved'agents' thinking about five selected objects in an office at Tavistock Square, whilst listeners on the radio were asked to identify the objects from the BBC studio at Savoy Hill. 24, 659 answers were received. The results revealed no evidence for telepathy. A famous experiment in telepathy was recorded by the American author Upton Sinclair in his book Mental Radio which documents Sinclair's test of psychic abilities of Mary Craig Sinclair, his second wife, she attempted to duplicate 290 pictures. Sinclair claimed Mary duplicated 65 of them, with 155 "partial successes" and 70 failures. However, these experiments were not condu
Star Trek uniforms
Star Trek uniforms are costumes worn by actors portraying personnel from the fictitious organization Starfleet in the Star Trek science fiction franchise. Costume design changed between various television series and films those representing different time periods, both for appearance and comfort. Deliberately mixing styles of uniforms from the various series was used to enhance the sense of time travel or alternative universes; the rank system of the Star Trek universe resembles that of the United States Navy in contrast to other science fiction franchises that use an army ranking system. In Star Trek: The Original Series and Star Trek: The Motion Picture, ranks are indicated by sleeve stripes. In television series, ranks are indicated by varying numbers of pips or bars on the individuals' uniform collars; the insignia are worn on the left breast by all personnel. They were metallic gold, with a black border. However, the specific shape differed based on the ship or base to which the person was assigned, as seen in such TOS episodes as "Court-Martial" or "The Doomsday Machine."
In the case of the Enterprise, the insignia was an arrowhead shape. A black symbol within the insignia indicated the wearer's division — a star with an elongated top point indicated command, a circle crossed by an oval science and medical, an angular spiral operations and engineering; these same symbols were used on most of the different insignia. In the second pilot, the science/medical and engineering/operations symbols were reversed, there were other slight variations between the insignia as used in the pilots and in the regular series; the original uniform designs were the product of designer William Ware Theiss. The original series uniforms consisted of a colored top and dark pants, with significant variations between the designs used in the pilot episodes and the rest of the series; the first uniforms, as seen in the unaired pilot "The Cage" and again in the second pilot "Where No Man Has Gone Before", are somewhat different from the Starfleet uniform seen in the rest of the original series.
The original concept used a heavy, ribbed turtle neck collar of the same color as the tunic for the men, with a cowl neck variation for the women, each in three colors: gold and light blue. Officers in the first Star Trek pilot, "The Cage," wore a single gold sleeve stripe, only the officer grades of "lieutenant" and "captain" were used in dialog. A "chief" was visible, but wearing a different sleeve stripe. Characters addressed. In the first pilot, the uniforms included gray coats with silver rank stripes on the sleeves, worn on away missions and identical for men and women, an optional gray cap. In the second pilot episode, "Where No Man Has Gone Before," most officers again wore a single stripe. Kirk wore two stripes; these differences between the rank indicators used in the pilots and those used in the main series could be explained by the fact that creator Gene Roddenberry and wardrobe designer William Ware Theiss had not yet worked out a consistent system for officer-grade indicator markings on the uniforms.
This they would work out after the second pilot, "Where No Man Has Gone Before," succeeded in selling the series. The original uniform material was velour; this was used in the first and second seasons because it was cheap and easy to care for, but it shrank after it was dry-cleaned, it tore easily. Thus, it was replaced, in the third season, by a nylon fabric used in professional baseball uniforms. Differently colored shirts were worn with dark gray trousers — which appeared black on camera — for the men. Miniskirt-length dresses with cheer briefs and dark tights were worn by the women. Black boots were worn by both sexes. Nichelle Nichols did not believe that the miniskirts were unusually short or revealing: I was wearing them on the street. What's wrong with wearing them on the air? I wore'em on airplanes, it was the era of the miniskirt. Everybody wore miniskirts. On certain occasions, the characters would wear dress uniforms that are made of a shinier fabric a polyester satin, are decorated with gold piping and colored badges that vary depending on rank.
Montgomery Scott's dress uniform as seen in "The Savage Curtain," includes a Scottish tartan. It is the tartan of the Clan Scott, one of Scotland's oldest clans. Jumpsuits in the same colors with black undershirts were worn by background characters. Beginning with the first regular series episode "The Man Trap", the department colors were altered from the pilot versions: command and helm personnel wear gold shirts; the most used Command Section shirts were olive-green in color, but they appeared to be a golden-yellow color called "tenne" both under the lights used on the set and in the post-development film stock. In series, the gold color was canonized in dialog. However, some uniforms – the alternate shirts worn by Captain Kirk, the Command Section dress uniforms – were made of a different material which, while the same color, showed up as olive-green under the lights and when photographed; the green shirts (seen in TOS: "The Trouble with Trib