Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Red Square is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and now the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod. Red Square is considered to be the central square of Moscow since the city's major streets, which connect to Russia's major highways, originate in the square; the name Red Square originates neither from the pigment of the surrounding bricks nor from the link between the colour red and communism. Rather, the name came about because the Russian word красная, which means "red" is related to the word красивая meaning "beautiful," was applied to a small area between St. Basil's Cathedral, the Spassky Tower of the Kremlin, the herald's platform called Lobnoe Mesto, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich extended the name to the entire square, called Pozhar, or "burnt-out place", in reference to the fact that several buildings had to be burned down to make place for the square. Several ancient Russian towns, such as Suzdal and Pereslavl-Zalessky, have their main square named Krasnaya ploshchad.
The rich history of Red Square is reflected in many paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon and others. The square was meant to serve as Moscow's main marketplace, it was the site of various public ceremonies and proclamations, a coronation for Russia's Tsars would take place. The square has been built up since that point and has been used for official ceremonies by all Russian governments since it was established; the East side of the Kremlin triangle, lying adjacent to Red Square and situated between the rivers Moskva and the now underground Neglinnaya River was deemed the most vulnerable side of the Kremlin to attack, since it was neither protected by the rivers, nor any other natural barriers, as the other sides were. Therefore, the Kremlin wall was built to its greatest height on this side, the Italian architects involved in the building of these fortifications convinced Ivan the Great to clear the area outside of the walls to create a field for shooting; the relevant decrees were issued in 1493 and 1495.
They called for the demolition of all buildings within 110 sazhens of the wall. From 1508 to 1516, the Italian architect Aloisio the New arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the Eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya; this moat, known as the Alevizov moat having a length of 541 metres, width of 36 metres, a depth of 9.5–13 m was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low, 4‑metre thick cogged brick walls. Three square gates existed on this side of the wall, which in the 17th century, were known as: Konstantino-Eleninsky, Nikolsky; the last two are directly opposite Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil's Cathedral. In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate and stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – "raskats".
The Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto. The square was called Veliky Torg or Torg Troitskaya by the name of the small Troitskaya Church, burnt down in the great fire during the Tatar invasion in 1571. After that, the square held the name Pozhar, which means "burnt", it was not until 1661 -- 62. Red Square was the landing trade centre for Moscow. Ivan the Great decreed that trade should only be conducted from person to person, but in time, these rules were relaxed and permanent market buildings began appearing on the square. After a fire in 1547, Ivan the Terrible reorganised the lines of wooden shops on the Eastern side into market lines; the streets Ilyinka and Varvarka were divided into the Upper lines, Middle lines and Bottom lines, although Bottom Lines were in Zaryadye). After a few years, the Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, was built on the moat under the rule of Ivan IV; this was the first building. In 1595, the wooden market lines were replaced with stone.
By that time, a brick platform for the proclamation of the tsar's edicts, known as Lobnoye Mesto, had been constructed. Red Square was considered a sacred place. Various festive processions were held there, during Palm Sunday, the famous "procession on a donkey" was arranged, in which the patriarch, sitting on a donkey, accompanied by the tsar and the people went out of Saint Basil's Cathedral in the Kremlin. During the expulsion of Poles from Moscow in 1612, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky entered the Kremlin through the square. In memory of this event, he built the Kazan Cathedral – in honour of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, followed his army in a campaign. At the same time, Spasskaya tower received contemporary tent roofs; this was done on the proposal and the draught of Christopher Galloway from Scotland, summoned to design the new tower's clock and suggeste
Hirudo medicinalis, the European medicinal leech, is one of several species of leeches used as "medicinal leeches". Other species of Hirudo sometimes used as medicinal leeches include H. orientalis, H. troctina, H. verbana. The Asian medical leech is Hirudo manillensis, the North American medical leech is Macrobdella decora; the general morphology of medicinal leeches follows that of most other leeches. Mature adults can be up to 20 cm in length, are green, brown, or greenish-brown with a darker tone on the dorsal side and a lighter ventral side; the dorsal side has a thin red stripe. These organisms have one at each end, called the anterior and posterior suckers; the posterior is used for leverage, whereas the anterior sucker, consisting of the jaw and teeth, is where the feeding takes place. Medicinal leeches have three jaws that look like little saws, on them are about 100 sharp teeth used to incise the host; the incision leaves a mark, an inverted Y inside of a circle. After piercing the skin, they suck out blood whilst injecting anaesthetics.
Large adults can consume up to ten times their body weight in a single meal, with 5–15 ml being the average volume taken. These leeches can live for up to a year between feeding. Medicinal leeches are hermaphrodites that reproduce by sexual mating, laying eggs in clutches of up to 50 near water, in shaded, humid places, their range extends over the whole of Europe and into Asia as far as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The preferred habitat for this species is muddy freshwater pools and ditches with plentiful weed growth in temperate climates. Over-exploitation by leech collectors in the 19th century has left only scattered populations, reduction in natural habitat though drainage has contributed to their decline. Another factor has been the replacement of horses in farming and provision of artificial water supplies for cattle; as a result, this species is now considered near threatened by the IUCN, European medicinal leeches are protected through nearly all of their natural range. They are sparsely distributed in France and Belgium, in the UK there may be as few as 20 remaining isolated populations.
The largest is estimated to contain several thousand individuals. There are small, transplanted populations in several countries outside their natural range, including the USA. Medicinal leeches have been found to secrete saliva containing about 60 different proteins; these achieve a wide variety of goals useful to the leech as it feeds, helping to keep the blood in liquid form and increasing blood flow in the affected area. Several of these secreted proteins serve as anticoagulants, platelet aggregation inhibitors and proteinase inhibitors, it is thought that the saliva contains an anesthetic, as leech bites are not painful. The first description of leech therapy, classified as blood letting, is found in the Sushruta Samhita, an ancient Sanskrit medical text, it describes 12 types of leeches. Diseases where leech therapy was indicated include skin diseases and musculoskeletal pains. In medieval and early modern medicine, the medicinal leech was used to remove blood from a patient as part of a process to balance the humors that, according to Galen, must be kept in balance for the human body to function properly.
Any sickness that caused the subject's skin to become red, so the theory went, must have arisen from too much blood in the body. Any person whose behavior was strident and sanguine was thought to be suffering from an excess of blood. Leeches were gathered by leech collectors and were farmed in large numbers. A unique 19th century'Leech House' survives in Bedale, North Yorkshire on the bank of the Bedale Beck, used to store medicinal leeches until the early 20th century. A recorded use of leeches in medicine was found during 200 B. C. by the Greek physician Nicander in Colophon. Medical use of leeches was discussed by Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine, by Abd-el-latif al-Baghdadi in the 12th century; the use of leeches began to become less widespread towards the end of the 19th century. Manchester Royal Infirmary used 50,000 leeches a year in 1831; the price of leeches varied between threepence halfpenny each. In 1832 leeches accounted for 4.4% of the total hospital expenditure. The hospital maintained an aquarium for leeches until the 1930s.
Medicinal leech therapy made an international comeback in the 1970s in microsurgery, used to stimulate circulation to salvage skin grafts and other tissue threatened by postoperative venous congestion in finger reattachment and reconstructive surgery of the ear, nose and eyelid. Other clinical applications of medicinal leech therapy include varicose veins, muscle cramps and osteoarthritis, among many varied conditions; the therapeutic effect is not from the small amount of blood taken in the meal, but from the continued and steady bleeding from the wound left after the leech has detached, as well as the anesthetizing, anti-inflammatory, vasodilating properties of the secreted leech saliva. The most common complication from leech treatment is prolonged bleeding, which can be treated
Polish United Workers' Party
The Polish United Workers' Party was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989. Ideologically it was based on the theories of Marxism-Leninism, it controlled the armed forces, the Polish People's Army. Until 1989, the PUWP held dictatorial powers, controlled an unwieldy bureaucracy, the military, the secret police, the economy, its main goal was to help to propagate Communism all over the world. On paper, the party was organised on the basis of democratic centralism, which assumed a democratic appointment of authorities, making decisions, managing its activity, yet in fact, the key roles were played by the Central Committee, its Politburo and Secretariat, which were subject to the strict control of the authorities of the Soviet Union. These authorities decided about the composition of the main organs. Between sessions, party conferences of the regional, county and work committees were taking place; the smallest organizational unit of the PUWP was the Fundamental Party Organization, which functioned in work places, cultural institutions, etc.
The main part in the PUWP was played by professional politicians, or the so-called "party's hard core", formed by people who were recommended to manage the main state institutions, social organizations, trade unions. In the crowning time of the PUWP's development it consisted of over 3.5 million members. The Political Office of the Central Committee and regional committees appointed the key posts not only within the party, but in all organizations having ‘state’ in its name – from central offices to small state and cooperative companies, it was called the nomenklatura system of the economy management. In certain areas of the economy, e.g. in agriculture, the nomenklatura system was controlled with an approval of the PUWP and by its allied parties, the United People's Party, the Democratic Party. After martial law began, the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth was founded to organize these and other parties; the Polish United Workers' Party was established at the unification congress of the Polish Workers' Party and Polish Socialist Party during meetings held from 15 to 21 December 1948.
The unification was possible because the PPS activists who opposed unification had been forced out of the party. The members of the PPR who were accused of "rightist – nationalistic deviation" were expelled. Thus, for all intents and purposes, the PUWP was the PPR under a new name. "Rightist-nationalist deviation" was a political propaganda term used by the Polish Stalinists against prominent activists, such as Władysław Gomułka and Marian Spychalski who opposed Soviet involvement in the Polish interior affairs, as well as internationalism displayed by the creation of the Cominform and the subsequent merger that created the PZPR. It is believed that it was Joseph Stalin who put pressure on Bolesław Bierut and Jakub Berman to remove Gomułka and Spychalski as well as their followers from power in 1948, it is estimated that over 25 % of socialists were expelled from political life. Bolesław Bierut, an NKVD agent and a hard Stalinist, served as first Secretary General of the ruling PUWP from 1948 to 1956, playing a leading role in the Sovietization of Poland and the installation of one of its most repressive regimes.
He had served as President since 1944. After a new constitution abolished the presidency, Bierut took over as Prime Minister, a post he held until 1954, he remained party leader until his death in 1956. Bierut oversaw the trials of many Polish wartime military leaders, such as General Stanisław Tatar and Brig. General Emil August Fieldorf, as well as 40 members of the Wolność i Niezawisłość organisation, various Church officials and many other opponents of the new regime including Witold Pilecki, condemned to death during secret trials. Bierut signed many of those death sentences. Bierut's mysterious death in Moscow in 1956 gave rise to much speculation about poisoning or a suicide, symbolically marked the end of Stalinism era in Poland. In 1956, shortly after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the PUWP leadership split in two factions, dubbed Natolinians and Puławians; the Natolin faction - named after the place where its meetings took place, in a government villa in Natolin - were against the post-Stalinist liberalization programs and they proclaimed simple nationalist and antisemitic slogans as part of a strategy to gain power.
The most well known members included Franciszek Jóźwiak, Wiktor Kłosiewicz, Zenon Nowak, Aleksander Zawadzki, Władysław Dworakowski, Hilary Chełchowski. The Puławian faction - the name comes from the Puławska Street in Warsaw, on which many of the members lived - sought great liberalization of socialism in Poland. After the events of Poznań June, they backed the candidature of Władysław Gomułka for First Secretary of party, thus imposing a major setback upon Natolinians. Among the most prominent members were Leon Kasman. Both factions disappeared towards the end of the 1950s. Initiall
Moscow Military District
The Moscow Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. In 2010 it was merged with the Leningrad Military District, the Northern Fleet and the Baltic Fleet to form the new Western Military District. In the beginning of the second half of the 19th century Russian officials realized the need for re-organization of the Imperial Russian Army to meet new circumstances. During May 1862, the War Ministry, headed by Army General Dmitry Milyutin, introduced to Tsar Alexander II of Russia proposals for the reorganization of the army, which included the formation of fifteen military districts. A tsarist edict of 6 August 1864, announced in a Defence Minister’s order on 10 August of the same year, established ten military districts, including Moscow; the District’s territory comprised 12 provinces: Vladimir, Kaluga, Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Smolensk, Tver and Yaroslavl. The District was intended as a reinforcement source for troops and equipment, being some distance from the frontier, rather than an operational area.
The District dispatched five infantry and a cavalry division south to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–8, as well as sending another division to the Caucasus area. This force totaled around 20,000 horses. Over 80,000 men were called into reserve units; the District housed 21,000 Turkish prisoners of war. During the First World War over a million men were stationed in the district. Much of the garrison was involved in the October Revolution of 1917, consequent establishment of a Soviet regime in the cities of Bryansk, Voronezh, Nizhniy Novgorod, Tver, Yaroslavl. By a resolution of the Moscow military revolutionary committee on 17 November 1917, Corps Commander N. I. Muralov was assigned as the new commander of the district. In the period of the Russian Civil War and military intervention in Russia 1917 - 22 the District prepared military personnel for all the fronts and supplied the Red Army with different forms of armament and allowances. From June to the middle of September 1919 the District conducted 33 callups totalling more than 500,000 people.
In Moscow the 1 Moscow Rifle Division, Warsaw revolutionary infantry regiment, 2nd revolutionary infantry regiment were formed, Latvian forces were brought to the Latvian Rifles Division. In Voronezh two cavalry divisions were formed, two rifle divisions and two rifle regiments in Nizhniy Novgorod, the 16th Rifle Division in Tambov. Artillery units too were being raised in the capital area. After the end of Civil War in the troops of region were demobilized, as a result of which their number was reduced from 580,000 to 85,000 in January 1923, the District was reorganised on a peacetime basis. In the 1920s the District had 10 rifle divisions: the 1st Moscow Proletariat Red Banner Rifle Division, the 6th Оrlovskaya. Autumn maneuvers began to be conducted yearly here in the district; the 2nd Rifle Corps was stationed in the district from 1922 to 1936. In the beginning of the 1930 tanks started to be introduced, including the MS or T-18, T-26, T-27, BT, T-28, the heavy T-35. In 1930 the first mechanized infantry brigade in the Soviet Army was formed in the district.
The Russian Ground Forces' official site notes that the first tactical parachute landing took place in the District on 2 August 1930. In World War II the District formed three fronts, 23 armies, 128 divisions of all arms, 197 brigades of all arms, an approximate total of 4.5 million men. In 1944–5 alone the District sent to the front 1,200,000 soldiers. From summer 1945 to summer 1946, in order to supervise the demobilisation process, the District was subdivided into four: the Moscow, Voronezh and Smolensk Military Districts. General Kirill Moskalenko took command of the District in 1953 and would be a Marshal of the Soviet Union after leaving his post; the Voronezh Military District was reactivated in 1949 and was active until 1960. In 1955 the district's forces comprised the 1st Guards Rifle Corps, the 13th Guards Rifle Corps, the 3rd Guards Rifle Division, the 15th, the 31st Guards, the 38th Guards Rifle Divisions, the 4th Guards Kantemirovskaya Tank Division, the 23rd Guards, 65th, 66th Guards Mechanised Divisions, the 71st Mechanised Division, the 38th Guards Airborne Corps.
On 22 February 1968, for the large contribution to the cause of strengthening the defense of the state, for its successes in combat and political training, in view of the 50th anniversary of the Soviet Army plus its important role in the 2nd World War, the District was awarded with the Order of Lenin. In 1979 Scott and Scott reported the HQ address as being A-252, Chapayevskiy Per. Dom 14; the District's dispositions at the end of the 1980s were: 13th Guards Army Corps, Gorkiy. In 1990 this corps was under the command of General Fyodor Reut. 60th Tank Division, Dzerzhinsk 206th Motor Rifle Division, Tambov District Troops 2nd Guards'Taman' Motor Rifle Division, Kalinnets 4th Guards Kantemirovskaya Tank Division, Naro-Fominsk 26th Guards Tank Training Division, Vladimir 32nd Guards Motor Rifle Divisio
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier. While presiding over a collective leadership as first among equals, he consolidated enough power to become the country's de facto dictator by the 1930s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth, he edited the party's newspaper and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies and protection rackets. Arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power during the 1917 October Revolution and created a one-party state under Lenin's newly renamed Communist Party, Stalin joined its governing Politburo.
Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death. During Stalin's rule, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma. Under the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialization, creating a centralized command economy; this led to significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate accused "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. By 1937, he had complete personal control over the state. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported anti-fascist movements throughout Europe during the 1930s in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland.
Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe; the Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as the two world superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U. S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through its post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the Doctors' plot. Stalin died in 1953. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of executions, famines which killed millions. Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori on 18 December 1878, he was the son of Besarion "Beso" Jughashvili and Ekaterine "Keke" Geladze, who had married in May 1872, had lost two sons in infancy prior to Stalin's birth. They were ethnically Georgian, Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language. Gori was part of the Russian Empire, was home to a population of 20,000, the majority of whom were Georgian but with Armenian and Jewish minorities. Stalin was baptised on 29 December, he was nicknamed "Soso", a diminutive of "Ioseb". Besarion owned his own workshop; the family found themselves living in poverty, moving through nine different rented rooms in ten years.
Besarion became an alcoholic, drunkenly beat his wife and son. To escape the abusive relationship, Keke took Stalin and moved into the house of a family friend, Fr. Christopher Charkviani, she worked as launderer for local families sympathetic to her plight. Keke was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the family had achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 Stalin enrolled at the Gori Church School; this was reserved for the children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that the boy received a place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, singing as a choirboy, he got into many fights, a childhood friend noted that Stalin "was the best but the naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health problems. Aged 12, he was injured after being hit by a phaeton, the cause of a lifelong disability to his left arm. At his teachers' recommendation, Stalin proceeded to the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis, he enrolled at the school in August 1894, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate.
Here he joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the semina
A political decoy is a person employed to impersonate a politician, to draw attention away from the real person or to take risks on that person's behalf. This can apply to military figures, or civilians impersonated for political or espionage purposes; the political decoy is an individual, selected because of strong physical resemblance to the person being impersonated. This resemblance can be strengthened by plastic surgery; such decoys are trained to speak and behave like the "target". The practice of decoying is little different from the profession of celebrity lookalike, in which people mimic famous entertainers whom they resemble; the only difference is. The decoy must conceal his or her imposture from the "audience". In 2001, Poland hosted the first-ever doppelganger convention, to which lookalikes from across the country turned up, offering the unlikely spectacle of Joseph Stalin hobnobbing with Elizabeth Taylor. Nearly all the doppelgangers at the event had complemented their resemblance to a famous person by costume.
Some "lookalikes" stop mimicking their targets and start pretending to be them. Comedian Robin Williams was one such victim, whose identity was "stolen" by professional look-alike Michael Clayton, for financial reasons. Since deception is the whole purpose of employing a political decoy, there are many instances of alleged decoying which remain uncertain. Joe R. Reeder, an undersecretary for the U. S. Army from 1993 to 1997, has gone on record with claims that a number of figures around the world have or have had decoys, including Manuel Noriega, Raoul Cédras, Enver Hoxha, Fidel Castro, George W. Bush and Osama bin Laden. Of Noriega's alleged four decoys, Reeder said, "They were good, they practiced his gait, his manner of speech and his modus operandi – what he did during the day and night." Information on these instances of decoying is hard to come by. And falsely accusing an enemy of using a decoy can be an effective psychological operations tactic; this means that the confusion generated by the existence of real decoys is deepened by counterclaims of decoys where there may be none.
The case of Osama bin Laden is instructive. In the absence of confirmed sightings of the terrorist figurehead, many sources speculated that videotaped messages from bin Laden were in fact recordings of a double - either as part of a "frame-up" operation, or as part of a strategy of deception on bin Laden's part. Speculation in such situations is liable to run high. For the purposes of this entry, only well-documented allegations or confirmed cases of political decoying are discussed. Instances which are still under debate will have section headings below in quotes. Soldier M. E. Clifton James impersonated General Bernard Montgomery for intelligence purposes during World War II. In 1940, James acted in an Army production called When Knights Were Bold and his photograph appeared in an Army newspaper with a remark about how much he resembled General Montgomery; as a result, he was approached by actor David Niven in May 1944. Niven a Colonel in the Army Kinematograph Section, told James he was wanted to impersonate "Monty", as this would allow Montgomery to be somewhere else, thus confusing the Germans.
James had to learn Montgomery's gestures, mannerisms and voice and had to give up smoking. Because James had lost his right-hand middle finger in the First World War, a realistic replacement was made, his wife had to be deceived and was both kept in the dark and sent back to Leicester. Once he was trained, his trip as "Monty" was from there to Algiers. "Monty's" presence succeeded in confusing the Germans in regard to the invasion plans. James was the subject of a biopic called I Was Monty's Double starring James himself in the double role as Monty and himself; the second "Monty's Double", Keith Deamer Banwell, was serving with the land-based Long Range Desert Group. Banwell was captured in a raid on Tobruk, but with a friend managed to steal a German vehicle and escape. During a subsequent raid on Crete he was taken prisoner at Heraklion and put under the personal supervision of former world heavyweight boxing champion Max Schmeling, serving in the German Army. Banwell and a few of his comrades managed to slip away from their captors and acquired an assault landing craft.
With the help of some Cretan fishermen they made their getaway, but the craft ran out of fuel and drifted for nine days before reaching the North African coast. The privations of this voyage put Banwell in hospital for 12 weeks; when he had recovered, someone noticed. It was decided that he participate in deception ploys, so Banwell was sent to Cairo to meet Montgomery, given the appropriate clothing and General's badges and sent on trips around the Middle East to confuse enemy spies. However, as he was taller than Montgomery, he was told that on no account should he get out of the car. Banwell, finding the assignment boring, sought a return to the infantry. Adolf Hitler is known to have employed Gustav Weler. British surgeon and historical writer W. Hugh Thomas reported in his 1996 book “Doppelgangers” that Gustav Weler was found alive after the war and that Allied troops interviewed Weler following Hitler’s death. Hugh Thomas claims that the man who committed suicide after his capture in Lüneburg in May 1945, was not in fact Heinrich Himmler.
Thomas's book on this subject, SS-1: The Unlikely Death of Heinrich Himmler, sets out the alleged deception in great detail. This theory is not accepted by historians. S