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Sergio Cragnotti

Sergio Cragnotti is an Italian entrepreneur and author. One of the most high-profile and wealthy business figures in Italy in recent times, Cragnotti is best known for having been President of S. S. Lazio. However, his most influential position was as head of food conglomerate Cirio; this company included all Cirio food brands as well as those of the acquired Del Monte Foods International from the late 1990s. In 1992 Cragnotti bought football team S. S. Lazio from previous owner Calleri. In December 1993, the Ontario Securities Commission fined him for insider trading; the Cragnotti family owned 80 % of the Cirio group. In 2002, the Cirio company declared default on its bonds; the default cost about 1.125 million euros to a plethora of small investors, most of them Italian. Cragnotti presided over the most successful period in Lazio's recent history, plowing in record amounts of money which attracted such luminaries as Pavel Nedvěd, Christian Vieri and Marcelo Salas, his successes included winning both Serie A along with the final European Cup Winners' Cup, both under the guidance of close friend, Sven-Göran Eriksson.

In November 2006 he published his autobiography, titled Un calcio al cuore, co-written with Fabrizio Pennacchia

Technical Education and Skills Development Authority

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority serves as the Philippines' Technical Vocational Education and Training authority. As a government agency, TESDA is tasked to both manage and supervise the Philippines' Technical Education and Skills Development, its goals are to develop the Filipino workforce with "world-class competence and positive work values" and to provide quality technical-educational and skills development through its direction and programs. Technical-Vocational Education was first introduced to the Philippines through the enactment of Commonwealth Act No. 3377, or the “Vocational Act of 1927.” On June 3, 1938, the National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act No. 313, which provided for the establishment of regional national vocational trade schools of the Philippine School of Arts and Trades type, as well as regional national vocational agricultural high schools of the Central Luzon Agricultural High School Type providing for the establishment of technical-vocational schools around the country.

On June 22, 1963, Republic Act. No. 3742, or “An Act Creating A Bureau of Vocational Education, Defining its Functions and Powers, Appropriating Funds Therefor” was passed, which provided for the creation of a Bureau of Vocational Education. The creation of the BVE led to the abolishment of the Vocational Education Division of the Bureau of Public Schools; the BVE was created with the purpose of “strengthening, promoting and expanding the programs of vocational education now being undertaken by the Bureau of Public Schools.” It was created “for the purpose of enhancing the socio-economic program of the Philippines through the development of skilled manpower in agricultural and trade-technical and other vocational courses.”The Manpower Development Council was created by virtue of Executive Order No. 53 on December 8, 1966, issued by President Ferdinand Marcos. The MDC was tasked with “developing an integrated long-term manpower plan as a component of the overall social and economic development plan.”

Targets which were to be established by the said manpower plan were to be “used by the Department of Education and the Budget Commission in programming public investments in education and out-of-school training schemes.”The MDC was replaced by the National Manpower and Youth Council, created by virtue of Republic Act. No. 5462, or the Manpower and Out-of-School Youth Development Act of the Philippines. The NMYC was placed under the Office of the President, was charged with establishing a “National Manpower Skills Center under its authority and supervision for demonstration and research in accelerated manpower and youth training.” It was tasked with establishing “regional and local training centers for gainful occupational skills,” as well as adopting “employment promotion schemes to channel unemployed youth to critical and other occupations.” Republic Act No. 5462 was repealed by Presidential Decree No. 422, otherwise known as the Labor Code, on May 1, 1974. President Marcos, on September 29, 1972, issued Presidential Decree No.

6-A, or the “Educational Development Decree of 1972,” which highlighted the government’s educational policies and priorities at the time. The decree provided for the “establishment and/or operation, upgrading or improvement of technical institutes, skills training centers, other non-formal training programs and projects for the out-of-school youth and the unemployed in collaboration with the programs of the National Manpower and Youth Council.”The 1975 reorganization of the Department of Education and Sports led to the abolishment of the Bureau of Vocational Education, along with the Bureau of Public Schools and the Bureau of Private Schools. In their place, the Bureau of Elementary Education, the Bureau of Secondary Education and the Bureau of Higher Education were established; the responsibilities of the Bureau of Vocational Education were absorbed by the newly established Bureau of Secondary Education. The Education Act of 1982 paved the way for the creation of the Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education.

The BTVE was tasked to “conduct studies, formulate and evaluate post-secondary vocational-technical programs and recommend educational standards for these programs,” as well as to “develop curricular designs and prepare instructional materials and evaluate programs to upgrade the quality of teaching and non-teaching staff, formulate guidelines to improve the physical plant and equipment of post-secondary vocational-technical schools.” The Philippine Congress enacted Joint Resolution No. 2 in 1990 creating the Congressional Commission for Education or EDCOM. The commission was tasked to review and assess the education and manpower training system of the country. Among the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, a government agency tasked with developing and overseeing the country’s vocational and technical education programs and policies; the commission further recommended that the new agency be created as a fusion of the following offices: the National Manpower and Youth Council of the Department of Labor and Employment, the Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education of the Department of Education and Sports, the Apprenticeship Program of the Bureau of Local Employment of DOLE.

Subsequently, the enactment of Republic Act No. 7796, or the “Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994,” authored by Senators Francisco Tatad and Edgardo Angara led to the establishment of the presen