Mary Frances "Debbie" Reynolds was an American actress and businesswoman. Her career spanned 70 years, she was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer for her portrayal of Helen Kane in the 1950 film Three Little Words, her breakout role was her first leading role, as Kathy Selden in Singin' in the Rain. Other successes include The Affairs of Dobie Gillis, Susan Slept Here, Bundle of Joy, The Catered Affair, Tammy and the Bachelor, in which her performance of the song "Tammy" reached number one on the Billboard music charts. In 1959, she released her first pop music album, titled Debbie, she starred in Singin' in the Rain, How the West Was Won, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, a biographical film about the famously boisterous Molly Brown. Her performance as Brown earned her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress, her other films include The Singing Nun, Divorce American Style, What's the Matter with Helen?, Charlotte's Web, In & Out. Reynolds was a cabaret performer.
In 1979, she founded the Debbie Reynolds Dance Studio in North Hollywood, which still operates today. In 1969, she starred on television in The Debbie Reynolds Show, for which she received a Golden Globe nomination. In 1973, Reynolds starred in a Broadway revival of the musical Irene and was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Musical, she was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance in A Gift of Love and an Emmy Award for playing Grace's mother Bobbi on Will & Grace. At the turn of the millennium, Reynolds reached a new younger generation with her role as Aggie Cromwell in Disney's Halloweentown series. In 1988, she released her autobiography, titled Debbie: My Life. In 2013, she released Unsinkable: A Memoir. Reynolds had several business ventures, including ownership of a dance studio and a Las Vegas hotel and casino, she was an avid collector of film memorabilia, beginning with items purchased at the landmark 1970 MGM auction, she served as president of an organization dedicated to mental health causes.
Reynolds continued to perform on stage and film into her eighties. In January 2015, Reynolds received the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award. In 2016, she received the Academy Awards Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award. In the same year, a documentary about her life was released titled Bright Lights: Starring Carrie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds, which turned out to be her final film appearance. Reynolds died following a stroke on December 28, 2016, one day after the death of her daughter, Carrie Fisher. Mary Frances Reynolds was born on April 1, 1932, in El Paso, Texas, to Maxene "Minnie" and Raymond Francis "Ray" Reynolds, a carpenter who worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad, she was raised in a strict Nazarene church. She had a brother two years her senior. Reynolds was a Girl Scout, once saying that she wanted to die as the world's oldest living Girl Scout. Reynolds was a member of The International Order of Job's Daughters, now called Job's Daughters International, her mother took in laundry for income.
"We may have been poor," she said in a 1963 interview, "but we always had something to eat if Dad had to go out on the desert and shoot jackrabbits." Her family moved to Burbank, California in 1939. When Reynolds was a sixteen-year-old student at Burbank High School in 1948, she won the Miss Burbank beauty contest. Soon after, she had a contract with Warner Bros and acquired the nickname "Debbie" via Jack L. Warner. One of her closest high school friends said that she dated during her teenage years in Burbank. Reynolds agreed, saying that "when I started, I didn't know how to dress. I wore a shirt. I had no money, no taste and no training." Her friend adds: Reynolds was first discovered by talent scouts from Warner Bros. and MGM who were at the 1948 Miss Burbank contest. Both companies wanted her to sign up with their studio and had to flip a coin to see which one got her. Warner won the coin toss, she was with the studio for two years; when Warner Brothers stopped producing musicals, she moved to MGM.
With MGM, Reynolds appeared in movie musicals during the 1950s and had several hit records during the period. Her song "Aba Daba Honeymoon" was the first soundtrack recording to become a top-of-the-chart gold record, reaching number three on the Billboard charts, her performance in the film impressed the studio, which gave her a co-starring role in what would become her highest-profile film, Singin' in the Rain, a satire on movie making in Hollywood during the transition from silent to sound pictures. It co-starred Gene Kelly, whom she called a "great dancer and cinematic genius," adding, "He made me a star. I was 18 and he taught me how to dance and how to work hard and be dedicated." In 1956, she appeared in Bundle of Joy with Eddie Fisher. Her starring role in The Unsinkable Molly Brown led to a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Reynolds noted that she had issues with its director, Charles Walters. "He didn't want me," she said. "He wanted Shirley MacLaine,". "He said'You are wrong for the part."
But six weeks into production, he reversed his opinio
The Olowo of Owo is the paramount Yoruba king of Owo, a city in Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria, the capital of Yoruba city-state between 1400 and 1600 AD. Ojugbelu Arere, the first Olowo of Owo was the direct descendant of Oduduwa known as the father of the Yorubas; the name Owo meaning Respect in British English was coined from the intrigue attitude of Ojugbelu, the pioneer Olowo of Owo. Owo is ruled by princes according to Ifá consultations; the king is assisted by appointed chiefs collectively known as Edibo Ologho and other chief such as the, Ojumu Odo, Elerewe Ayida, Ajana Atelukoluko, the ifa priest of Owo and Akowa loja, the head of chiefs in Iloro quarters of Owo. According to Owo traditions, the Olowo is appointed by king-makers in which the iloro chiefs under the leadership of Akowa loja play a significant role in the king installations; the iloro chief comprises the senior chiefs collectively known as Ighare and the others collectively known as the Ugbama. Both play a major role during the installation of the appointed Olowo of Owo.
Ojugbelu Arere, the first Olowo of Owo Olowo Rerengejen Olowo Elewuokun Olowo Ajaka Ajagbusi Ekun Olagbegi Atanneye I Olagbegi Atanneye II Ajike Ogunoye Olateru Olagbegi I Olateru Olagbegi II Adekola Ogunoye II Folagbade Olateru Olagbegi III. Ajibade Gbadegesin Ogunoye III Owo Royal titles of the yoruba traditional rulers
In chemical engineering, process design is the choice and sequencing of units for desired physical and/or chemical transformation of materials. Process design is central to chemical engineering, it can be considered to be the summit of that field, bringing together all of the field's components. Process design can be the design of new facilities or it can be the modification or expansion of existing facilities; the design starts at a conceptual level and ends in the form of fabrication and construction plans. Process design is distinct from equipment design, closer in spirit to the design of unit operations. Processes include many unit operations. Process design documents serve to define the design and they ensure that the design components fit together, they are useful in communicating ideas and plans to other engineers involved with the design, to external regulatory agencies, to equipment vendors and to construction contractors. In order of increasing detail, process design documents include: Block flow diagrams: Very simple diagrams composed of rectangles and lines indicating major material or energy flows.
Process flow diagrams: Typically more complex diagrams of major unit operations as well as flow lines. They include a material balance, sometimes an energy balance, showing typical or design flowrates, stream compositions, stream and equipment pressures and temperatures. Piping and instrumentation diagrams: Diagrams showing each and every pipeline with piping class and pipe size, they show valving along with instrument locations and process control schemes. Specifications: Written design requirements of all major equipment items. Process designers write operating manuals on how to start-up, operate and shut-down the process, they also develop accident plans and projections of process operation on the environment. Documents are maintained after construction of the process facility for the operating personnel to refer to; the documents are useful when modifications to the facility are planned. A primary method of developing the process documents is process flowsheeting. There are several considerations.
Design conceptualization and considerations can begin once product purities and throughput rates are all defined. Objectives that a design may strive to include: Throughput rate Process yield Product purityConstraints include: Capital cost: the amount of budget or investment to construct end to end process. Available space: the area of the land to build the plant. Safety concerns: consideration towards risk analysis on industrial accidents or hazardous chemicals. Environmental impact and projected effluents and emissions Waste production/recycling: manage waste produced as side product of the process for not to harm the surroundings. Operating and maintenance costs: represent the variable cost of the operational of the plant. Other factors that designers may include are: Reliability Redundancy Flexibility Anticipated variability in feed stock and allowable variability in product. Designers do not start from scratch for complex projects; the engineers have pilot plant data available or data from full-scale operating facilities.
Other sources of information include proprietary design criteria provided by process licensors, published scientific data, laboratory experiments, suppliers of feedstocks and utilities. Design starts with process synthesis - the choice of technology and combinations of industrial units to achieve goals. More detailed design proceeds as other engineers and stakeholders sign off on each stage: conceptual to detailed design. Simulation software is used by design engineers. Simulations can allow engineers to choose better alternatives. However, engineers still rely on heuristics and experience when designing a process. Human creativity is an element in complex designs. Sinnott and Towler. Chemical Engineering Design: Principles and Economics of Plant and Process Design. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0750685514. Moran, Sean. An Applied Guide to Process and Plant Design. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0128002425. Moran, Sean. Process Plant Layout. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 012803355X. Kister, Henry Z.. Distillation Design.
McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-034909-6. Perry, Robert H. & Green, Don W.. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-049479-7. Bird, R. B. Stewart, W. E. and Lightfoot, E. N.. Transport Phenomena. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-41077-2. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list McCabe, W. Smith, J. and Harriott, P.. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-284823-5. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Seader, J. D. & Henley, Ernest J.. Separation Process Principles. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-58626-9. Chopey, Nicholas P.. Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-136262-2. Himmelbau, David M.. Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-305798-4. Editors: Jacqueline I. Kroschwitz and Arza Seidel. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-471-48810-0. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list King, C. J.. Separation Processes. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-034612-7. Peters, M. S. & Timmerhaus K. D..
Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-100871-3. J. M. Smith, H. C. Van Ness and M. M. Abott. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Th