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Debit card

A debit card is a plastic payment card that can be used instead of cash when making purchases. It is similar to a credit card, but unlike a credit card, the money is transferred directly from the cardholder's bank account when performing any transaction; some cards might carry a stored value with which a payment is made, while most relay a message to the cardholder's bank to withdraw funds from a payer's designated bank account. In some cases, the primary account number is assigned for use on the Internet and there is no physical card. In many countries, such as most of Western Europe, the use of debit cards has become so widespread that their volume has overtaken or replaced cheques and, in some instances, cash transactions; the development of debit cards, unlike credit cards and charge cards, has been country specific resulting in a number of different systems around the world, which were incompatible. Since the mid-2000s, a number of initiatives have allowed debit cards issued in one country to be used in other countries and allowed their use for internet and phone purchases.

Debit cards also allow instant withdrawal of cash, acting as an ATM card for this purpose. Merchants may offer cashback facilities to customers, so that a customer can withdraw cash along with their purchase. There are three ways that debit card transactions are processed: EFTPOS, offline debit, the Electronic Purse Card System. One physical card can include the functions of all three types, so that it can be used in a number of different circumstances. Although the four largest bank card issuers all offer debit cards, there are many other types of debit card, each accepted only within a particular country or region, for example Switch and Solo in the United Kingdom, Interac in Canada, Carte Bleue in France, EC electronic cash in Germany, UnionPay in China, RuPay in India and EFTPOS cards in Australia and New Zealand; the need for cross-border compatibility and the advent of the euro led to many of these card networks being re-branded with the internationally recognized Maestro logo, part of the MasterCard brand.

Some debit cards are dual branded with the logo of the national card as well as Maestro. The use of a debit card system allows operators to package their product more while monitoring customer spending. Online debit cards require electronic authorization of every transaction and the debits are reflected in the user's account immediately; the transaction may be additionally secured with the personal identification number authentication system. One difficulty with using online debit cards is the necessity of an electronic authorization device at the point of sale and sometimes a separate PINpad to enter the PIN, although this is becoming commonplace for all card transactions in many countries. Overall, the online debit card is viewed as superior to the offline debit card because of its more secure authentication system and live status, which alleviates problems with processing lag on transactions that may only issue online debit cards; some on-line debit systems are using the normal authentication processes of Internet banking to provide real-time online debit transactions.

Offline debit cards have the logos of major credit cards or major debit cards and are used at the point of sale like a credit card. This type of debit card may be subject to a daily limit, and/or a maximum limit equal to the current/checking account balance from which it draws funds. Transactions conducted with offline debit cards require 2–3 days to be reflected on users’ account balances. In some countries and with some banks and merchant service organizations, a "credit" or offline debit transaction is without cost to the purchaser beyond the face value of the transaction, while a fee may be charged for a "debit" or online debit transaction. Other differences are that online debit purchasers may opt to withdraw cash in addition to the amount of the debit purchase. Smart-card-based electronic purse systems are in use throughout Europe since the mid-1990s, most notably in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. In Austria and Germany all current bank cards now include electronic purses, whereas the electronic purse has been phased out in the Netherlands.

Prepaid debit cards are reloadable and can be called reloadable debit cards. The primary market for prepaid debit cards has traditionally been unbanked people, but prepaid cards appeal to other users attracted

Eric Wagner

Eric Wagner is an American heavy metal singer, best known for his work with doom metal band Trouble, which he formed in 1979 when he was 20 years old. He left Trouble in the mid-nineties and formed Lid with guitarist Danny Cavanagh, resulting in 1997's In The Mushroom. Wagner rejoined Trouble in 2002 to record Simple Mind Condition, he appeared on Dave Grohl's heavy metal side project Probot in 2004 with the song My Tortured Soul. On May 2, 2008 Wagner announced he was leaving Trouble to pursue other musical interests and projects. Most Wagner has been recording under the band name Blackfinger, he recently formed The Skull, which features former Trouble bassist Ron Holzner. 1984 Psalm 9 1985 The Skull 1987 Run to the Light 1990 Trouble 1992 Manic Frustration 1995 Plastic Green Head 2007 Simple Mind Condition 1997 In the Mushroom 2004 Probot 2014 Blackfinger 2017 When Colors Fade Away 2014 For Those Which Are Asleep 2018 The Endless Road Turns Dark Official Eric Wagner website

K. G. MacLeod

Kenneth Grant MacLeod was a Scottish international rugby union player, as well as a golfer, soccer player and cricketer. He was capped ten times for Scotland between 1905-08. MacLeod was inducted into the Scottish Sports Hall of Fame in March 2010, he was only seventeen when first capped for Scotland against New Zealand, was at Fettes College. He went to Cambridge University and played for their rugby team, winning nine more international caps at the time, he retired at twenty one at the urging of his father, because his two elder brothers had been injured playing rugby. Allan Massie writes: Perhaps the most remarkable player to appear in the Edwardian Era was K. G. MacLeod... He was both famed for his running and his drop-kicking, scoring a remarkable try in the victory over the 1906 Springboks, it is a reflection of the way in which the forwards had become subordinate to the backs and reduced to the role of feeders that in the 1907 Calcutta Cup, MacLeod should have tried, failed with, no less than six long-range drop-goals.

How many international centres would have as many chances in a season, let alone a match? MacLeod retired before he had reached his full powers, but it is astonishing what he had achieved already. MacLeod's club was Cambridge University RFC, he was the brother of Lewis MacLeod, capped for Scotland. MacLeod played cricket for Cambridge University and other teams, he appeared in 94 first-class matches as a righthanded batsman. He scored 3,458 runs with a highest score of 131 among six first-class centuries and held 108 catches, he took 103 wickets with a best analysis of six for 29. MacLeod played association football for Manchester City F. C.. He later won the Amateur Golf Championship of Natal. Bath, Richard The Scotland Rugby Miscellany Massie, Allan A Portrait of Scottish Rugby List of Scottish cricket and rugby union players