Flivver Lo-V (New York City Subway car)

The Flivver Lo-V was a New York City Subway car type built in 1915 by the Pullman Company for the IRT and its successors, which included the New York City Board of Transportation and the New York City Transit Authority. The name Flivver originates from a slang term of the same name used during the early part of the 20th century to refer to any small car that gave a rough ride; the Flivvers ran on the original IRT mainline express, which utilized the modern day IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line north of 42nd Street on Broadway and Seventh Avenue, the modern day 42nd Street Shuttle, the modern day IRT Lexington Avenue Line south of 42nd Street on Park Avenue South. Following the 1918 IRT expansion into the modern "H" system that serves Manhattan's East and West sides separately with the 42nd Street Shuttle connecting them, the Flivvers ran on the Seventh Avenue Express. Beginning in the 1950s, the cars ran on the East Side lines, providing express service on Lexington Avenue to both the Jerome Avenue and White Plains Road branches.

The last Flivver to run in service ran on the Lexington-White Plains Road Express in 1962, was removed from service at that time. No examples of this car remain. Flivver Lo-Vs were arranged in mixed trains consisting of trailers and motor cars. While trailer cars were equipped with brakes, but no air compressors or motors, motor cars were equipped with all three; the Flivvers were part of the first generation of Lo-V subway cars, along with the first Steinways. Flivvers utilized parts from the IRT Composites, which were being modified at the time to provide service on the IRT's Manhattan and Bronx elevated lines beginning in 1916; the interior and exterior of a Flivver Lo-V was similar to the rest of the IRT fleet that predated it. Individual, square rattan seats were arranged in a longitudinal seating pattern along the side walls of the car. Three doors on each side - two at the end vestibules and one in the center - provided for entrance and exit from the car. Incandescent lighting was used, paddle ceiling fans cooled the car.

Clerestory style vents in the upper roof opened for additional airflow. The carbody was made of steel, with drop sash windows running down the sides of the car; the cars used metal signage displayed in the side windows of the car to indicate destinations and route. Kerosene lamps were displayed on the ends of trains as running lights - white for the front of the train and red for the rear. "Lo-V" is short for "Low Voltage". Earlier Composite and "Hi-V" equipment that ran on the IRT utilized a 600 volt DC circuit that ran directly through the motorman's master controller to control the car's propulsion; the 600 volts was trainlined through the whole train by the use of high voltage jumper cables. However, Lo-V equipment used trainlined battery voltage in the motor control circuit to move high voltage contacts underneath each car, which would control the car's propulsion; this tremendously improved the safety of the equipment for both train crews and shop personnel alike. Flivver Lo-V's maintained the older braking system of the High Voltage equipment.

The older setup, known as AMRE, featured different notches on the brake stand for the motorman depending on if he was operating his brakes with electric control or if he was operating pneumatically. The newer setup, to be known as AMUE, came on the Steinways and Standard Lo-Vs, but never on the Flivvers. AMUE brake stands would utilize the same notch to apply brakes regardless of whether or not the electric brake was active. However, the Flivvers maintained the older AMRE setup, used on many of the Hi-V cars, they were the only car with Low Voltage propulsion to use the AMRE setup. Because the Low Voltage Propulsion system was not compatible with earlier High Voltage equipment, the Flivvers could not run with those cars; because the Flivver AMRE braking setup was not compatible with the other Low Voltage equipment, the Flivvers could not run with those cars either. Therefore, they could only run amongst themselves. Further, they were found to perform better in certain specific combinations than in others, so they were left to run in these "optimal" configurations.

When arranged in less than optimal configurations, the cars gave a rough ride with a lot of bucking. In optimal configurations they were respectable performers. Many IRT crews commented about the speed of these cars noting that at the end of their service lives, they were still faster than the other equipment running; this was because, towards the end of their operation, trailers cars were eliminated and the Flivvers operated in trains of all motor cars. Historians hypothesize that their speed was a large reason why they were assigned to express services throughout their lifetimes. Steinway Lo-V, a low voltage propulsion control IRT subway car built from 1915 to 1925. Standard Lo-V, a low voltage propulsion control IRT subway car built from 1916 to 1925. World's Fair Lo-V, a low voltage propulsion control IRT subway car built in 1938

Vehicle infrastructure integration

Vehicle infrastructure integration is an initiative fostering research and applications development for a series of technologies directly linking road vehicles to their physical surroundings and foremost in order to improve road safety. The technology draws on several disciplines, including transport engineering, electrical engineering, automotive engineering, computer science. VII covers road transport although similar technologies are in place or under development for other modes of transport. Planes, for example, use ground-based beacons for automated guidance, allowing the autopilot to fly the plane without human intervention. In highway engineering, improving the safety of a roadway can enhance overall efficiency. VII targets improvements in both efficiency. Vehicle infrastructure integration is that branch of engineering, which deals with the study and application of a series of techniques directly linking road vehicles to their physical surroundings in order to improve road safety; the goal of VII is to provide a communications link between vehicles on the road, between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure, in order to increase the safety and convenience of the transportation system.

It is based on widespread deployment of a dedicated short-range communications link, incorporating IEEE 802.11p. VII's development relies on a business model supporting the interests of all parties concerned: industry, transportation authorities and professional organisations; the initiative has three priorities: evaluation of the business model and acceptance by the stakeholders. Current active safety technology relies on vehicle-based vision systems. For example, this technology can reduce rear-end collisions by tracking obstructions in front or behind the vehicle, automatically applying brakes when needed; this technology is somewhat limited in that it senses only the distance and speed of vehicles within the direct line of sight of cameras and the sensing range of radars. It is completely ineffective for angled and left-turn collisions, it may cause a motorist to lose control of the vehicle in the event of an impending head-on collision. The rear-end collisions covered by today's technology are less severe than angle, left-turn, or head-on collisions.

Existing technology is therefore inadequate for the overall needs of the roadway system. VII would provide a direct link between a vehicle on the road and all vehicles within a defined vicinity; the vehicles would be able to communicate with each other, exchanging data on speed, orientation even on driver awareness and intent. This could increase safety for nearby vehicles, while enhancing the overall sensitivity of the VII system, for example, by performing an automated emergency maneuver more effectively. In addition, the system is designed to communicate with the roadway infrastructure, allowing for complete, real-time traffic information for the entire network, as well as better queue management and feedback to vehicles, it would close the feedback loops on what is now an open-loop transportation system. Through VII, roadway markings and road signs could become obsolete. Existing VII applications use sensors within vehicles which can identify markings on the roadway or signing along the side of the road, automatically adjusting vehicle parameters as necessary.

VII aims to treat such signs and markings as little more than stored data within the system. This could be in the form of data acquired via beacons along a roadway or stored at a centralised database and distributed to all VII-equipped vehicles. All the above factors are in response to safety but VII could lead to noticeable gains in the operational efficiency of a transportation network; as vehicles will be linked together with a resulting decrease in reaction times, the headway between vehicles could be reduced so that there is less empty space on the road. Available capacity for traffic would therefore be increased. More capacity per lane will in turn mean fewer lanes in general satisfying the community's concerns about the impact of roadway widening. VII will enable precise traffic-signal coordination by tracking vehicle platoons and will benefit from accurate timing by drawing on real-time traffic data covering volume and turning movements. Real-time traffic data can be used in the design of new roadways or modification of existing systems as the data could be used to provide accurate origin-destination studies and turning-movement counts for uses in transportation forecasting and traffic operations.

Such technology would lead to improvements for transport engineers to address problems whilst reducing the cost of obtaining and compiling data. Tolling is another prospect for VII technology as it could enable roadways to be automatically tolled. Data could be collectively transmitted to road users for in-vehicle display, outlining the lowest cost, shortest distance, and/or fastest route to a destination on the basis of real-time conditions. To some extent, results along these lines have been achieved in trials performed around the globe, making use of GPS, mobile phone signals, vehicle registration plates. GPS is becoming standard in many new high-end vehicles and is an option on most new low- and mid-range vehicles. In addition, many users have mobile phones which transmit trackable signals (and may be GPS-