Charles Pierre Baudelaire was a French poet who produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe. His most famous work, Les Fleurs du mal, expresses the nature of beauty in modern. Baudelaires highly original style of prose-poetry influenced a generation of poets including Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud. He is credited with coining the term modernity to designate the fleeting, ephemeral experience of life in a metropolis. This obsessive idea is all a child of giant cities. Baudelaire is one of the innovators in French literature. He made Paris the subject of modern poetry and he would bring the citys details to life in the eyes and hearts of his readers. Baudelaire was born in Paris, France, on April 9,1821 and his father, François Baudelaire, a senior civil servant and amateur artist, was 34 years older than Baudelaires mother, Caroline. François died during Baudelaires childhood, in 1827, the following year, Caroline married Lieutenant Colonel Jacques Aupick, who became a French ambassador to various noble courts.
He stated in a letter to her that, There was in my childhood a period of passionate love for you, Baudelaire regularly begged his mother for money throughout his career, often promising that a lucrative publishing contract or journalistic commission was just around the corner. Baudelaire was educated in Lyon, where he boarded, Baudelaire was erratic in his studies, at times diligent, at other times prone to idleness. Later, he attended the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, studying law and he began to frequent prostitutes and may have contracted gonorrhea and syphilis during this period. He began to run up debts, mostly for clothes, upon gaining his degree in 1839, he told his brother I dont feel I have a vocation for anything. His stepfather had in mind a career in law or diplomacy and his mother recalled, Oh, what grief. If Charles had let himself be guided by his stepfather, his career would have very different. He would not have left a name in literature, it is true and his stepfather sent him on a voyage to Calcutta, India, in 1841 in the hope of ending his dissolute habits.
The trip provided strong impressions of the sea and exotic ports, on returning to the taverns of Paris, he began to compose some of the poems of Les Fleurs du Mal. At 21, he received an inheritance but squandered much of it within a few years
A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900. Reliable synchronization was difficult to achieve with the early sound-on-disc systems, innovations in sound-on-film led to the first commercial screening of short motion pictures using the technology, which took place in 1923. The primary steps in the commercialization of sound cinema were taken in the mid- to late 1920s, at first, the sound films which included synchronized dialogue, known as talking pictures, or talkies, were exclusively shorts. The earliest feature-length movies with recorded sound included only music and effects, the first feature film originally presented as a talkie was The Jazz Singer, released in October 1927. A major hit, it was made with Vitaphone, which was at the time the brand of sound-on-disc technology. Sound-on-film, would become the standard for talking pictures.
By the early 1930s, the talkies were a global phenomenon, in the United States, they helped secure Hollywoods position as one of the worlds most powerful cultural/commercial centers of influence. In Europe, the new development was treated with suspicion by many filmmakers and critics, in Japan, where the popular film tradition integrated silent movie and live vocal performance, talking pictures were slow to take root. In India, sound was the element that led to the rapid expansion of the nations film industry. The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as the concept of cinema itself. On February 27,1888, a couple of days after photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge gave a lecture not far from the laboratory of Thomas Edison, the two inventors privately met. No agreement was reached, but within a year Edison commissioned the development of the Kinetoscope, essentially a peep-show system, as a visual complement to his cylinder phonograph. The two devices were brought together as the Kinetophone in 1895, but individual, cabinet viewing of motion pictures was soon to be outmoded by successes in film projection and these appear to be the first publicly exhibited films with projection of both image and recorded sound.
Phonorama and yet another sound-film system—Théâtroscope—were presented at the Exposition, three major problems persisted, leading to motion pictures and sound recording largely taking separate paths for a generation. The primary issue was synchronization and sound were recorded and played back by separate devices, sufficient playback volume was hard to achieve. Finally, there was the challenge of recording fidelity, cinematic innovators attempted to cope with the fundamental synchronization problem in a variety of ways. In 1902, Léon Gaumont demonstrated his sound-on-disc Chronophone, involving an electrical connection he had recently patented, four years later, Gaumont introduced the Elgéphone, a compressed-air amplification system based on the Auxetophone, developed by British inventors Horace Short and Charles Parsons
Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As dictator of the German Reich, he initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and was central to the Holocaust, Hitler was born in Austria, part of Austria-Hungary, and raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I and he joined the German Workers Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, in 1919 and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923 he attempted a coup in Munich to seize power, the failed coup resulted in Hitlers imprisonment, during which he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. Hitler frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy, by 1933, the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, which led to Hitlers appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933.
Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain, Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe. His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and on 1 September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting in British, in June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941 German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe, failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time lover, on 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two killed themselves to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned. Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians, in addition,29 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European Theatre of World War II.
The number of civilians killed during the Second World War was unprecedented in warfare, Hitlers father Alois Hitler Sr. was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber. The baptismal register did not show the name of his father, in 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Aloiss mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Hiedlers brother, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler, in 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Aloiss father. Alois assumed the surname Hitler, spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, the Hitler surname is probably based on one who lives in a hut. Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Aloiss mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, and that the familys 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois. No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenbergers existence, Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire.
He was one of six born to Alois Hitler and Klara Pölzl
Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin was a German Jewish philosopher, cultural critic and essayist. He was associated with the Frankfurt School, and maintained formative friendships with such as playwright Bertolt Brecht. He was related by law to German political theorist Hannah Arendt through her first marriage to his cousin, Günther Anders. Among Benjamins best known works are the essays The Task of the Translator, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, and Theses on the Philosophy of History. His major work as a literary critic included essays on Baudelaire, Kafka, Leskov, Proust and translation theory. He made translations into German of the Tableaux Parisiens section of Baudelaires Les Fleurs du mal. In 1940, at the age of 48, Benjamin committed suicide in Portbou at the French–Spanish border while attempting to escape from invading Nazi forces, though popular acclaim eluded him during his life, the decades following his death won his work posthumous renown. Benjamin and his siblings and Dora, were born to a wealthy business family of assimilated Ashkenazi Jews in the Berlin of the German Empire.
He owned a number of investments in Berlin, including ice skating rinks, in 1902, ten-year-old Walter was enrolled to the Kaiser Friedrich School in Charlottenburg, he completed his secondary school studies ten years later. Here Benjamin had his first exposure to the ideas of Zionism and this exposure gave him occasion to formulate his own ideas about the meaning of Judaism. In Benjamins formulation his Jewishness meant a commitment to the furtherance of European culture, Benjamin expressed My life experience led me to this insight, the Jews represent an elite in the ranks of the spiritually active. For Judaism is to me in no sense an end in itself and this was a position that Benjamin largely held lifelong. Elected president of the Freie Studentenschaft, Benjamin wrote essays arguing for educational and general cultural change, in 1914, at the outbreak of the First World War, Benjamin began faithfully translating the works of the 19th-century French poet Charles Baudelaire. The next year,1915, he moved to Munich, and continued his schooling at the University of Munich, where he met Rainer Maria Rilke and Gershom Scholem, in that year, Benjamin wrote about the 18th-century Romantic German poet Friedrich Hölderlin.
In 1917 he transferred to the University of Bern, there, he met Ernst Bloch and they had a son, Stefan Rafael. In 1919 Benjamin earned his Ph. D. cum laude with the dissertation Begriff der Kunstkritik in der Deutschen Romantik, unable to support himself and family, he returned to Berlin and resided with his parents. In 1921 he published the essay Kritik der Gewalt, at this time Benjamin first became socially acquainted with Leo Strauss, and Benjamin would remain an admirer of Strauss and of his work throughout his life. In 1923, when the Institut für Sozialforschung was founded, to become home to the Frankfurt School, Benjamin published Charles Baudelaire, at that time he became acquainted with Theodor Adorno and befriended Georg Lukács, whose The Theory of the Novel much influenced him
Henryk Hektor Siemiradzki was a Polish Rome-based painter, best remembered for his monumental Academic art. He was particularly known for his depictions of scenes from the ancient Graeco-Roman world, many of his paintings depict scenes from antiquity, often the sunlit pastoral scenes or compositions presenting the lives of early Christians. He painted biblical and historical scenes and portraits and his best-known works include monumental curtains for the Lviv Theatre of Opera and for the Juliusz Słowacki Theatre in Kraków. The family had origins in Radom land and derived its name from the village of Siemiradz, one of the branches settled in the late 17th century near Navahrudak. Henryks grandfather held the post of podkomorzy in Nowogródek powiat and his parents were close friends with Adam Mickiewiczs family. He studied at Kharkiv Gymnasium where he first learned painting under the school teacher. Besperchy, former student of Karl Briullov and he entered the Physics-Mathematics School of Kharkiv University and studied natural sciences there with great interest, but continued to paint.
Upon his graduation he was awarded a gold medal, in 1870–1871 he studied under Karl von Piloty in Munich on a grant from the Academy. In 1872 he moved to Rome and with time, built a studio there on Via Gaeta, in 1873 he received the title of Academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts for his painting Christ and a Sinner, based on a verse from Tolstoy. In 1878 he received the French National Order of the Legion of Honour, in 1876–1879 Siemiradzki worked on frescoes for the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour among his other large-scale projects. In 1879 he offered one of his works, the enormous Pochodnie Nerona, painted around 1876. The artwork is on display at the Siemiradzki Room of the Sukiennice Museum in the Kraków Old Town, around 1893 Siemiradzki worked on two large paintings for the State Historical Museum and in 1894 produced his monumental curtain for the Juliusz Słowacki Theatre in Kraków. He died in Strzałków in 1902 and was buried originally in Warsaw, there is the Modern Arts Gallery named after Henryk Siemiradzki at V. N.
Karazin Kharkiv National University in Kharkiv, there is a memorial plate about Henryk Siemiradzki in Kharkiv, Ukraine. National theatres Online gallery of Semiradsky paintings Works and Bio Bio Gilman, thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary and political theorist. He served as head of government of the Russian Republic from 1917 to 1918, of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1918 to 1924, under his administration and the wider Soviet Union became a one-party socialist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, he developed political theories known as Leninism, born to a wealthy middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brothers execution in 1887. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empires Tsarist regime and he moved to Saint Petersburg in 1893 and became a senior figure in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya, after his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent party theorist through his publications.
In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, Lenins government was led by the Bolsheviks—now renamed the Communist Party—with some powers initially held by elected soviets. It redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry, opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign orchestrated by the state security services, tens of thousands were killed and others interned in concentration camps. Anti-Bolshevik armies, established by both right and left-wing groups, were defeated in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922, responding to wartime devastation and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin promoted economic growth through a mixed economic system. Seeking to promote world revolution, Lenins government created the Communist International, waged the Polish–Soviet War, in increasingly poor health, Lenin expressed opposition to the growing power of his successor, Joseph Stalin, before dying at his Gorki mansion. He became a figurehead behind Marxism-Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement.
Lenins father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs, his origins remain unclear, with suggestions being made that he was Russian, Mordvin. Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility, Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863. Well educated and from a prosperous background, she was the daughter of a German–Swedish woman. Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the governments plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, the couple had two children and Alexander, before Lenin—who would gain the childhood nickname of Volodya—was born in Simbirsk on 10 April 1870, and baptised several days later. They were followed by three children, Olga and Maria.
Two siblings died in infancy, Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria – a Lutheran – was largely indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. Every summer they holidayed at a manor in Kokushkino
A novel is any relatively long piece of written narrative fiction, normally in prose, and typically published as a book. The genre has described as possessing, a continuous. This view sees the novels origins in Classical Greece and Rome, early modern romance, the latter, an Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long prose narrative, Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel, a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, a novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word romance for extended narratives, fictionality is most commonly cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion, historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity.
Even in the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byrons Don Juan, Alexander Pushkins Yevgeniy Onegin, vikram Seths The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel. Both in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations, on the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties and gallantry spread with novels, the novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella, short story, and flash fiction. However, in the 17th century critics saw the romance as of epic length, the length of a novel can still be important because most literary awards use length as a criterion in the ranking system. Urbanization and the spread of printed books in Song Dynasty China led to the evolution of oral storytelling into consciously fictional novels by the Ming dynasty, parallel European developments did not occur for centuries, and awaited the time when the availability of paper allowed for similar opportunities.
By contrast, Ibn Tufails Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and Ibn al-Nafis Theologus Autodidactus are works of didactic philosophy, in this sense, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan would be considered an early example of a philosophical novel, while Theologus Autodidactus would be considered an early theological novel. Epic poetry exhibits some similarities with the novel, and the Western tradition of the novel back into the field of verse epics. Then at the beginning of the 18th century, French prose translations brought Homers works to a wider public, longus is the author of the famous Greek novel and Chloe. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of narrative in prose or verse popular in the circles of High Medieval. In romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a tendency to emphasize themes of courtly love
This article is a general introduction to French literature. For detailed information on French literature in specific periods, see the separate historical articles in the template to the right. Literature written in French language, by citizens of nations such as Belgium, Canada, Algeria, Morocco. As of 2006, French writers have been awarded more Nobel Prizes in Literature than novelists and essayists of any other country, France itself ranks first in the list of Nobel Prizes in literature by country. French literature has been for French people an object of pride for centuries. The French language is a dialect derived from Latin and heavily influenced principally by Celtic. Today, French schools emphasize the study of novels, the literary arts are heavily sponsored by the state and literary prizes are major news. The Académie française and the Institut de France are important linguistic and artistic institutions in France, Literature matters deeply to the people of France and plays an important role in their sense of identity.
As of 2006, French literary people have been awarded more Nobel Prizes in Literature than novelists and essayists of any other country, a writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honorable form. For most of the 20th century, French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nation. M. G, le Clézio 2014 – Patrick Modiano Grand Prix de Littérature Policière – created in 1948, for crime and detective fiction. Grand Prix du roman de lAcadémie française – created 1918, Prix Décembre – created in 1989. Prix Femina – created 1904, decided each year by an exclusively female jury, Prix Goncourt – created 1903, given to the author of the best and most imaginative prose work of the year. Prix Goncourt des Lycéens – created in 1987, Prix Littéraire Valery Larbaud – created in 1957. Prix Médicis – created 1958, awarded to an author whose fame does not yet match their talent, Prix Renaudot – created in 1926. Prix Tour-Apollo Award – 1972–1990, given to the best science fiction published in French during the preceding year.
Prix des Deux Magots – created in 1933, a short history of French literature Burgwinkle, Nicholas Hammond, and Emma Wilson, eds. The Cambridge history of French literature Cobb, Promenades, an appreciation of modern French literature Harvey, Paul. The Oxford companion to French literature Denis Hollier, ed, a New History of French Literature, Harvard University Press,1989,1150 pp. France, Peter
Cinema of Germany
The Cinema of Germany refers to the film industry based in Germany and can be traced back to the late 19th century. German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film during the period from 1918-1933, Germany witnessed major changes to its identity during the 20th and 21st century. Those changes determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of distinct eras, the history of cinema in Germany can be traced back to the years shortly after the mediums birth. On November 1,1895 Max Skladanowsky and his brother Emil demonstrated their self-invented film projector the Bioscop at the Wintergarten music hall in Berlin, a 15-minute series of eight short films, it was the first screening of films to a paying audience in Europe. In its earliest days, the cinematograph was perceived as an attraction for upper class audiences, trivial short films were being shown as fairground attractions aimed at the working class and lower-middle class. The booths in which films were shown were known in Germany somewhat disparagingly as Kintopps.
Visually striking sets and makeup were key to the style of the expressionist films that were produced shortly after World War I, cinemas themselves began to be established landmarks in the years immediately before World War I. Before this, German filmmakers would tour with their works, travelling from fairground to fairground, the earliest ongoing cinemas were set up in cafes and pubs by owners who saw a way of attracting more customers. The storefront cinema was called a Kientopp, and this is where films were viewed for the most part before World War I, the first standalone, dedicated cinema in Germany was opened in Mannheim in 1906, and by 1910, there were over 1000 cinemas operating in Germany. Henny Porten and Asta Nielsen were the first major stars in Germany. Prior to 1914, many films were imported. In the era of the silent film there were no boundaries and Danish. The outbreak of World War I and the subsequent boycott of, for example, by 1916, there already existed some 2000 fixed venues for movie performances and initially film screenings were supplemented or even replaced by variety turns.
Under the aegis of the military, so-called Vaterland films were produced, audiences however did not care to swallow the patriotic medicine without the accompanying sugar of the light-entertainment films which, Ufa promoted. The German film industry became the largest in Europe. Many countries banned the import of German films and audiences themselves were resisting anything that was “German”, in addition, the economic situation was unstable and the devaluation of the currency made it difficult for the smaller production companies to function. Film industry financing was a business and expensive productions occasionally led to bankruptcy. Apart from UFA, about 230 film companies were active in Berlin alone and this industry was attracting producers and directors from all over Europe
Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish playwright, novelist and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he one of Londons most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. He is remembered for his epigrams, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, his plays, as well as the circumstances of his imprisonment, Wildes parents were successful Anglo-Irish, Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life, at university, Wilde read Greats, he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the philosophy of aestheticism. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles, known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress and glittering conversation, Wilde became one of the best-known personalities of his day. The opportunity to construct aesthetic details precisely, and combine them with social themes. He wrote Salome in French in Paris but it was refused a licence for England due to the prohibition of Biblical subjects on the English stage.
Unperturbed, Wilde produced four society comedies in the early 1890s, at the height of his fame and success, while The Importance of Being Earnest, was still being performed in London, Wilde had the Marquess of Queensberry prosecuted for criminal libel. The Marquess was the father of Wildes lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, the charge carried a penalty of up to two years in prison. The trial unearthed evidence that caused Wilde to drop his charges and led to his own arrest, after two more trials he was convicted and imprisoned for two years hard labour. Upon his release he left immediately for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain, there he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol, a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life. He died destitute in Paris at the age of 46, Oscar Wilde was born at 21 Westland Row, the second of three children born to Sir William Wilde and Jane Wilde, two years behind William. Wildes mother was of Italian descent, and under the pseudonym Speranza and she read the Young Irelanders poetry to Oscar and Willie, inculcating a love of these poets in her sons.
Lady Wildes interest in the neo-classical revival showed in the paintings and busts of ancient Greece, William Wilde was Irelands leading oto-ophthalmologic surgeon and was knighted in 1864 for his services as medical adviser and assistant commissioner to the censuses of Ireland. He wrote books about Irish archaeology and peasant folklore, a renowned philanthropist, his dispensary for the care of the citys poor at the rear of Trinity College, was the forerunner of the Dublin Eye and Ear Hospital, now located at Adelaide Road. On his fathers side Wilde was descended from a Dutchman, Colonel de Wilde, on his mothers side Wildes ancestors included a bricklayer from County Durham who emigrated to Ireland sometime in the 1770s. Wilde was baptised as an infant in St, marks Church, the local Church of Ireland church
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. His work has been not only in psychiatry but in anthropology, literature, philosophy. As a notable research scientist based at the famous Burghölzli hospital, under Eugen Bleuler, he came to the attention of the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, the two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated on an initially joint vision of human psychology. Freud saw in the man the potential heir he had been seeking to carry on his new science of psychoanalysis. Jungs researches and personal vision, made it impossible for him to bend to his older colleagues dogma and this break was to have historic as well as painful personal repercussions that have lasted to this day. Jung was an artist and builder as well as a prolific writer, many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication. Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation—the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the out of each individuals conscious and unconscious elements.
Jung considered it to be the task of human development. He created some of the best known psychological concepts, including synchronicity, archetypal phenomena, the unconscious, the psychological complex. Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton of Thurgau, on 26 July 1875 as the second and first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung and their first child, born in 1873 was a boy named Paul who survived only a few days. Emilie was the youngest child of a distinguished Basel churchman and academic, Samuel Preiswerk, and his second wife. Preiswerk was antistes, the given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, as well as a Hebraist and editor. When Jung was six months old, his father was appointed to a prosperous parish in Laufen. Emilie Jung was an eccentric and depressed woman, she spent considerable time in her bedroom where she said that spirits visited her at night, although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at night his mother became strange and mysterious.
He reported that one night he saw a luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room with a head detached from the neck. Jung had a relationship with his father. Jungs mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for a physical ailment. His father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jungs unmarried sister in Basel, Emilie Jungs continuing bouts of absence and often depressed mood influenced her sons attitude towards women — one of innate unreliability