click links in text for more info


A decal or transfer is a plastic, paper, or ceramic substrate that has printed on it a pattern or image that can be moved to another surface upon contact with the aid of heat or water. The word is short for decalcomania, the English version of the French word décalcomanie; the technique was invented by Simon François Ravenet, an engraver from France who moved to England and perfected the process he called "décalquer". A decal consists of the following layers from top to bottom: A paper or film face-stock makes up the top layer of the label stock; the printing is done on the upper side of the facestock. An adhesive layer is applied to the bottom of the face stock. A silicone or release coating layer is applied to the upper side of the backing material. A paper or film liner provides the bottom layer of the label stock. An RFID circuit can be included in the film face stock. Different variations of decals include: water-dip. A water-slide decal is screen-printed on a layer of water-soluble adhesive on a water-resistant paper, that must first be dipped in water prior to its application.

Upon contact with water, the glue is loosened and the decal can be removed from its backing. A peel-and-stick decal is not a decal as described above, but a vinyl sticker with adhesive backing, that can be transferred by peeling off its base; the sign industry calls these peel-and-stick vinyl stickers vinyl-cut-decals. Mass-production of vinyl decals starts with large rolls of vinyl sheet. Vinyl is fed through a cutting plotter or large-format printer/cutter which prints the desired image and cuts out the desired shapes. Designs are created using specialized computer software and sent to the machines electronically. After the patterns are cut, excess vinyl on the sheet is removed in a process called weeding. A paper pre-mask can be applied to the top of the vinyl design allowing easy application of multiple letters and shapes. Decals are used on hot rod automobiles and plastic models, they are used on guitars as a way of personalizing them. Government agencies use decals on vehicles for identification.

These decals are referred to as fleet markings and are required by law on all fire and law enforcement vehicles in the US. Most fleet markings are created from reflective vinyl with an adhesive backing, applied in a peel-and-stick manner. Inkjet printing Laser printing Offset printing Embossing Photocopier Thermal printing Bumper sticker Ceramic decal Country tag Dry transfer Lithography Sticker Wall decal The dictionary definition of decal at Wiktionary Decal at the Encyclopædia Britannica

Kant's antinomies

Immanuel Kant's antinomies, from the Critique of Pure Reason, are contradictions which he believed follow from our attempts to conceive the nature of transcendent reality. Kant thought that certain of his antinomies could be resolved as "Postulates of Practical Reason", he used them to describe the rational-but-contradictory results of applying the universe of pure thought to the categories or criteria, i.e. applying reason proper to the universe of sensible perception or experience. Empirical reason cannot here play the role of establishing rational truths because it goes beyond possible experience and is applied to the sphere of that which transcends it. Kant's antinomies are four: two "mathematical" and two "dynamical", they are connected with the limitation of the universe in respect of space and time, the theory that the whole consists of indivisible atoms, the problem of free will in relation to universal causality, the existence of a necessary being. The first two antinomies are dubbed "mathematical" antinomies because in each case we are concerned with the relation between what are alleged to be sensible objects and space and time.

The second two are dubbed "dynamical" antinomies because the proponents of the thesis are not committing themselves to claims about spatio-temporal objects. Note: Kant himself did not use the plural term, "antinomies," but only the singular term, "Antinomy," as the logical status of a species of metaphysical argument. There is Antinomy, Kant argued in detail regarding four cases of Antinomy in his Critique of Pure Reason. Thesis: The world has a beginning in time, is limited as regards space. Anti-thesis: The world has no beginning, no limits in space. Thesis: Every composite substance in the world is made up of simple parts, nothing anywhere exists save the simple or what is composed of the simple. Anti-thesis: No composite thing in the world is made up of simple parts, there nowhere exists in the world anything simple. Thesis: Causality in accordance with laws of nature is not the only causality from which the appearances of the world can one and all be derived. To explain these appearances it is necessary to assume that there is another causality, that of Spontaneity.

Anti-thesis: There is no Spontaneity. Thesis: There belongs to the world, either as its part or as its cause, a being, necessary. Anti-thesis: An necessary being nowhere exists in the world, nor does it exist outside the world as its cause

Andrew Fisher's Cottage

Andrew Fisher's Cottage is a heritage-listed house at 215 Brisbane Road, Gympie Region, Australia. It was built c. 1870. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. Andrew Fisher's Cottage was erected c. 1870 and is a simple timber structure, representative of many other miner's house in the district. Located in Maori Lane at Red Hill, Gympie, it was relocated to is current site in 1972; the house was owned by the family of Andrew Fisher's wife, Margaret Irvine, Andrew and Margaret Fisher are thought to have resided in the house for a short period after their marriage in 1901. Fisher met Margaret whilst residing at her family home in Gympie. Andrew Fisher was the first Queenslander to become Prime Minister of Australia. Having worked in mines in his birthplace of Ayrshire, Scotland since the age of ten, he arrived in Queensland in 1885, he was involved in miner's unions in Scotland where he was blacklisted for his association with the 1881 miners strikes. He continued his association with unions and the Labour movement in Queensland, becoming secretary and president of the Gympie Branch of the Amalgamated Miner's Association.

His foray into politics began with his election to the Queensland Legislative Assembly in 1893, followed by his election to the Australian House of Representatives in the first parliament of the Federation of Australia. He was appointed as Prime Minister after Alfred Deakin's resignation in 1908, he was re-elected in 1910 and it was during this term that he passed many influential bills and established the Commonwealth Bank. By the time Fisher arrived in Gympie in the late 1880s, it was a well established town. Gold had been discovered in the area by James Nash in 1867, providing the impetus for a rush of prospectors to the area. By 1869, Gympie had a population of many thousands and had been established so that by the time the official surveyors arrived in 1868, a substantial amount of the town had been laid out. Andrew Fisher's Cottage is located within District Historical Society Mining Museum, it sits adjacent to other buildings relocated to the site, including school buildings and those associated with mining and farming.

The cottage is a typical four room single skin timber dwelling with exposed studs externally. It has a verandah with new balustrading to the south-west and south-east elevations and the roof has been re-clad with new corrugated iron; the cottage has been re-painted internally and externally, the internal finish appearing to imitate the wood grain. Entrance to the cottage is from the rear, either into the house itself or via a ramp onto the verandah. Internally, all walls on either side of the central hallway have been replaced with aluminium framed glass sliding doors which allow observation of the four rooms; each of these rooms contain large collections of early furnishings. Andrew Fisher's Cottage was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. Andrew Fisher was a Gympie miner whose involvement in the mining unions led to a political career culminating in him becoming the first Queenslander to serve as Prime Minister of Australia.

Andrew Fisher's Cottage was owned by the Irvines. The Fishers reputedly stayed in the house for a short period after their marriage; the cottage was moved to the site of the Gympie and District Historical Society Mining Museum in 1972 and has special association with that group. The Historical Society have carried out extensive renovations on the cottage and value it as a significant part of their historical village; the place has a strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons. Andrew Fisher was a Gympie miner whose involvement in the mining unions led to a political career culminating in him becoming the first Queenslander to serve as Prime Minister of Australia. Andrew Fisher's Cottage was owned by the Irvines; the Fishers reputedly stayed in the house for a short period after their marriage. The cottage was moved to the site of the Gympie and District Historical Society Mining Museum in 1972 and has special association with that group.

The Historical Society have carried out extensive renovations on the cottage and value it as a significant part of their historical village. This Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. Media related to Andrew Fishers Cottage at Wikimedia Commons

Gamma Sigma Alpha

Gamma Sigma Alpha is a National Academic Greek Honor society recognizing academic excellence among members of Fraternities and sororities. Gamma Sigma Alpha states that its mission is "to recognize and advance academic excellence as a core value of fraternities and sororities". Unlike the Order of Omega, who reward Greek Life academic successes, Gamma Sigma Alpha does not limit the number of members who can be initiated. Gamma Sigma Alpha was founded at the University of Southern California on November 9, 1989, by Beth K. Saul and a group of scholastic achievers representing various fraternities and sororities dedicated to the advancement of higher education and academic accomplishment; the current Executive Director is Nicole A. Singleton As of Spring 2015, Gamma Sigma Alpha has over 215 chapters across the United States and Canada. Undergraduate students, in their junior or senior year, can apply for membership if they are a member of a Greek fraternity or sorority on campus and have a cumulative grade point average of 3.5 or above.

The badge of Gamma Sigma Alpha, which can be seen within its seal, consists of a white lit candle with a golden base on a field of Gules with a bend of argent

All-Russian Peasant Union

The All-Russian Peasant Union was a mass revolutionary organization uniting the peasantry and the rural intelligentsia, which arose at the height of the 1905 revolution. In the spring of 1905, the Moscow Governor attempted to call on some peasant societies in the Moscow province to compile patriotic addresses with an expression of readiness to continue the Russian-Japanese war; this initiative led to the opposite result – many societies of the Moscow region peasants began to write letters of opposite content. Under the influence of some members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party in May 1905, a peasant congress was organized in Moscow in order to agree and coordinate efforts in this direction. During this period, several similar professional congresses took place in Russia; the Peasant Union of the Moscow Province was formed at the Moscow Congress. During the summer of 1905, similar alliances arose in other provinces of the Russian Empire. From July 31 to August 1, 1905 the Constituent congress of the All-Russian Peasant Union was held in Moscow.

It was illegal, the delegates gathered in private apartments. Among them were representatives of peasant unions of 22 provinces central and purely Russian. At the congress there were more than 100 people, including about 25 rural intellectuals; the congress proclaimed itself the first Constituent Congress of the All-Russian Peasant Union. They determined the structure of the All-Russian Peasant Union: it included periodic conventions and committees; the congress elected the Main Committee, which included 8 people, as well as the "Central Assistance Bureau" composed of Stepan Bleklov, Alexander Levitsky, Alexey Staal, Vladimir Tan-Bogoraz, Arkhip Teslenko. The congress participants recognized the necessity of convening a Constituent Assembly elected by universal direct and secret ballot, the requirement of voting rights for women was unanimously adopted. Further, it was decided to require compulsory and free education, schools should be secular. Local government should be developed and built on the principle of universal suffrage.

The congress advocated the abolition of private land ownership. The program of the congress was close to the program of the Socialist Revolutionary Party; the proposal of the representative of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, Andrey Shestakov, to include in the resolution an item on a democratic republic was rejected. The leadership of the Union and most of the delegates were supporters of peaceful means and opposed the armed struggle. According to the materials of the constituent congress, the main committee of the All-Russian Peasant Union published a brochure: "The Constituent Congress of the All-Russian Peasant Union. Protocol". In the same year of 1905 in St. Petersburg, it was implemented in the form of a brochure and another edition of the same protocol. Although this edition was attended by some interesting details that were not in the first brochure, but the Committee of the Peasant Union took responsibility only for the first, official publication. From November 6 to 10, 1905, in the new political conditions, that is, the first regular congress of the Peasant Union was held in Moscow.

Sessions were held in the building of the agricultural school. Attended by 187 delegates from 27 provinces, including delegates from Belarus, who were absent at the first congress. Among the delegates there was a large number of rural intellectuals; the general tone that prevailed at the congress was still much more radical than at the constituent congress. In particular, it was decided: Do not submit rural and parish verdicts for approval by the Zemstvo bosses, but bring them into effect according to the decrees of the assemblies. Do not contact the Zemsky heads in any matters. Do not give officials and police a carriage, travel money, do not send sots and ten according to the requirements of the authorities. Change all local peasant authorities and choose new ones, while choosing universal direct and secret ballot, giving everyone the right to vote in the parish without distinction of gender, religion or class. Do not pay taxes. Refuse to testify at interrogations; when the people achieve the power to insist on the payment of % for all state loans concluded before November 10, 1905, but to consider all loans that are concluded by the government after November 10 before the Constituent Assembly is illegal and non-refundable.

According to incomplete data, by October-December 1905 in the European part of Russia there were 470 volost and rural organizations of the All-Russian Peasant Union, uniting up to 200 thousand people. Organizations originated in Siberia and the Far East. At the end of 1905, several regional, 10 provincial and 30 district congresses of the Peasant Union were held; some Congresses have put forward a program of armed seizure of landed

Gold Star Families for Peace

Gold Star Families for Peace is a United States-based organization founded in January 2005 by individuals who lost family members in the Iraq War, are thus entitled to display a Gold Star. It is considered an offshoot of Military Families Speak Out. Gold Star Families for Peace now includes more than 65 families of troops killed in Iraq. Joining with organizations including Veterans for Peace, United for Peace and Justice, Code Pink, Military Families Speak Out, the Crawford Peace House and others, GSFP is protesting US military action in Iraq, they have used speaking engagements, congressional testimony and protests throughout the United States. GSFP regarded the George W. Bush administration's reasons for those operations as falsehoods and grounds for impeachment of George Bush. On August 7, 2005, the group arrived in Crawford, Texas in a bus provided by Veterans for Peace, painted red and blue with the words "Veterans For Peace Impeachment Tour" on it and demanded to talk with President Bush.

Prior to arriving at Crawford, the group had been in Dallas attending a Veterans for Peace convention. In recognition of the action and continual opposition to the US-led war in Iraq, in 2006 Gold Star Families for Peace and Cindy Sheehan were awarded the'Domestic Human Rights Award' by Global Exchange, an international human rights organization based in San Francisco. Cindy and Patrick Sheehan - parents of Army Spc. Casey Sheehan, KIA in Sadr City, Baghdad on April 4, 2004 Jane and Jim Bright - mother and stepfather of Army Sgt. Evan Ashcraft, KIA in Mosul, Iraq on July 24, 2003 Bill Mitchell - father of Army Sgt. Michael Mitchell, KIA in Sadr City Baghdad on April 4, 2004 Celeste Zappala - mother of Army Sgt. Sherwood Baker, KIA in Baghdad on April 26, 2004 Lila Lipscomb - mother of Army Sgt. Michael Pederson, KIA on April 2, 2003 in Karbala, Iraq. Sue Niederer - mother of Lt. Seth J. Dvorin, KIA on 02/03/04 Dede Miller - aunt of Army Spc. Casey Sheehan As of 2005 Gold Star Families for Peace included 65 family members of soldiers killed in Iraq.

The group's mission statement reads as follows: GSFP Purpose statement: To bring an end to the occupation of Iraq. To be a support group for Gold Star Families. Membership: Anyone who has had a relative killed as a result of war, but not limited to the invasion/occupation of Iraq. Downing Street memo 2003 invasion of Iraq United for Peace and Justice Movement to impeach George W. Bush Yellowcake forgeries Gold Star Mothers Club Gold Star Wives Arlington West: The Film List of anti-war organizations List of peace activists Boston Globe editorial "Mr. Bush, let's talk" Bereaved mom becomes one focus of war debate Google news search on GSFP Mother Takes Protest to Bush's Ranch, NYTimes Cindy Sheehan on Hardball, Windows Media Cindy Sheehan at the Downing Street Memo hearings, Windows Media Cindy Sheehan interviewed on'The Tony Trupiano Show' MP3 Cindy Sheehan interviewed in Crawford, TX Windows Media Cindy Sheehan speaks with Rep. John Conyers MP3 Military Families Call for Truth Regarding Downing St. Memo Buzzflash editorial by Cindy Sheehan Soldier's mother protests near Bush ranch, by Deb Riechmann, Associated Press, August 7, 2005 Day 3 of the Peace Occupation of Crawford, by Cindy Sheehan