U.S. Route 421
U. S. Route 421 is a spur route of U. S. 21. It runs for 941 miles from Fort Fisher, North Carolina south of Wilmington to Michigan City, Indiana at U. S. 20. U. S. Route 421 begins at Fort Fisher, North Carolina, heads to the northwest to Michigan City, Indiana. Along the way, it passes through Bristol and Virginia, Lexington and Indianapolis, Indiana. US 421 heads through North Carolina's southeastern beaches to Wilmington, it heads in a northwest direction through Clinton, Lillington and Siler City to the Piedmont Triad region. Major highway junctures between north of Wilmington and Greensboro are NC 11, I-95, U. S. Route 401, US 1, US 64 and I-85. In Greensboro, it follows the Greensboro Urban Loop paired with Interstate 85 south of Greensboro and I-73 northwest of Greensboro, it connects to I-40 towards Forsyth County as it becomes its own freeway along the former Interstate 40 alignment known as Business 40. Major intersections are US 158 and US 52 between Greensboro and Winston-Salem. After Winston-Salem, it intersects I-40 once again but continues westerly passing through Lewisville, Yadkinville and Boone.
Major highway junctions between Winston-Salem and Boone are US 601, I-77, NC 16, Blue Ridge Parkway, US 221 and US 321. US 421 continues westerly into Tennessee towards Tennessee. US 421 is a limited access freeway through Siler City northward. US 421 is a divided highway from north of NC 49 all of the way to Wilkesboro. US Highway 421 enters Tennessee from North Carolina in Trade, it is the easternmost part of the state. The road "as the crow would fly" is a short distance in Volunteer State but traverses through two mountain ranges. After Trade, it ventures into Mountain City through a 40 mph zone while bypassing the downtown area. After Mountain City, begins the two mountain ranges and in between them is the area of Shady Valley. After the second mountain range, it flattens out after the South Fork Holston River heading towards Bristol. US 421 enters Virginia on the Old Dominion side of Bristol. Major highway junctions between the NC and VA state lines are SR-67 in Mountain City, SR-91 the new Mountain City bypass, SR-394, US 11E.
US 421 enters from Tennessee in Bristol and goes west to Weber City and Pennington Gap in Southwest Virginia. The route goes through the Cumberland and Powell Mountains, goes by Natural Tunnel State Park near Duffield. US 421 enters the Bluegrass State running 272.4 miles from the Pennington Gap area in Virginia into Harlan County. For the distance between the Virginia state line and closer to Hal Rogers Parkway, it is a major north-south two lane highway. However, its passing zones are limited to a stretch after the Virginia line, through Harlan and along US 119. US 421 crosses Pine Mountain and enters Leslie County, turning west at Hyden and paralleling the Hal Rogers Parkway. Between Manchester and McKee, US 421 functions as more of a local road with many curves; the roadway improves as it descends from the Cumberland Plateau into the Bluegrass Region at Big Hill in Madison County near Berea. It joins US 25 at the Blue Grass Army Depot south of Richmond and parallels I-75 towards Lexington.
Through Lexington, it is Main Street and Leestown Road. The segment between Lexington and Frankfort was once designated KY 50. US 62 runs with US 421 in this section. In Frankfort, US 421 runs with US 60 on the west side of town runs within the city's northern bypass joining US 127. US 421 traverses the hilly area northwest of Frankfort through Henry and Trimble counties, exiting the state at Milton, crossing the Ohio River into Madison, Indiana via the Milton–Madison Bridge. US 421 winds through the southern part of Indiana as it runs from Madison, in the southeastern part of the state, to Indianapolis. North of Greensburg, U. S. 421 intersects and merges through the Shelbyville area en route to Indianapolis. U. S. 421 followed Southeastern Ave. into downtown Indianapolis, where it merged with US 40 to West St. turned north, following West St. Northwestern Ave. and Michigan Rd. up to the northwest side of the city. US 421 went past an Indianapolis landmark. North of Indianapolis, U. S. 421 continues to the north-northwest, providing a direct highway link between Indianapolis and Michigan City.
U. S. 421 ends at its junction with US 20 on the south side of Michigan City. The highway's end was a few miles north at the junction with US 12 near the shores of Lake Michigan. US 421 will be a freeway in Indiana from Greensburg to Versailles. US 421 freeway will go near, or pass through Napoleon, Osgood. US 421 followed the same route between Clinton and Wilmington. However, there are several old alignments from Clinton to the Tennessee state line. US 421 bypasses Clinton, old alignment uses local streets. Between Dunn and Sanford, uses an old alignment connected. Between Goldston and Greensboro, uses several old alignments but not connected. Between Greensboro and Wilkesboro, uses multiple old alignments of different alignments. In *addition, they are no longer connected consistently. US 421 bypasses Wilkesboro, with a special US Business route. Between Deep Gap and Boone, uses an old aligmment. Between Vilas and the Tennessee state line, uses an old alignment. North Carolina Parking area in Federal Point US 117 in Wilmington US 76 in Wilmington.
The highways travel concurrently to Eagle Island. US 17 / US 74 / US 76 on Eagle Island. US 17/US 421 travels concurrently to west of Wrightsboro. US 74/US 421 travels concurrently to southwest of
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Sand Creek Township, Decatur County, Indiana
Sand Creek Township is one of nine townships in Decatur County, Indiana. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,120 and it contained 1,331 housing units. Sand Creek Township was organized in 1825. Westport Covered Bridge was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 43.21 square miles, of which 43.17 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Westport Gaynorsville Harper Harris City Letts Letts Corner Mapleton Corner Neff Corner Pinhook Washington Township Marion Township Columbia Township, Jennings County Sand Creek Township, Jennings County Jackson Township Clay Township Indiana State Road 3 The township contains seven cemeteries: Eddleman, Horseshoe Bend, Old Burk and Westport. United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files U. S. Board on Geographic Names Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor; these points are on the surface of the Earth, they are used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, regression analysis, engineering, programming languages, the law, they use equipment, such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GNSS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS, surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history; the planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is used in transport, communications and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.
It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines. The International Federation of Surveyors defines the function of surveying as: A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to conduct one, or more, of the following activities. Surveying has occurred since humans built the first large structures. In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the annual floods of the Nile River; the perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying. The Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia; the prehistoric monument at Stonehenge was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry. The mathematician Liu Hui described ways of measuring distant objects in his work Haidao Suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, published in 263 AD; the Romans recognized land surveying as a profession.
They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a tax register of conquered lands. Roman surveyors were known as Gromatici. In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village or parish; this was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible. In England, William the Conqueror commissioned the Domesday Book in 1086, it recorded the names of all the land owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land, specific information of the area's content and inhabitants. It did not include maps showing exact locations. Abel Foullon described a plane table in 1551, but it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunter's chain was introduced in 1620 by English mathematician Edmund Gunter, it enabled plots of land to be surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a Theodolite that measured horizontal angles in his book A geometric practice named Pantometria. Joshua Habermel created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in 1576. Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in 1725. In the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in 1787, it was an instrument for measuring angles in vertical planes. He created his great theodolite using an accurate dividing engine of his own design. Ramsden's theodolite represented a great step forward in the instrument's accuracy. William Gascoigne invented an instrument that used a telescope with an installed crosshair as a target device, in 1640. James Watt developed an optical meter for the measuring of distance in 1771. Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius introduced the modern systematic use of triangulation. In 1615 he surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Breda 72 miles.
He underestimated this distance by 3.5%. The survey was a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all. Snell showed, he showed how to resection, or calculate, the position of a point inside a triangle using the angles cast between the vertices at the unknown point. These could be measured more than bearings of the vertices, which depended on a compass, his work established the idea of surveying a primary network of control points, locating subsidiary points inside the primary network later. Between 1733 and 1740, Jacques Cassini and his son César undertook the first triangulation of France, they included a re-surveying of the meridian arc, leading to the publication in 1745 of the first map of France constructed on rigorous principles. By this time triangulation methods were well established for local map-making, it was only towards the end of the 18th century that detailed triangulation network surveys mapped whole countries. In 1784, a team from Gene
Second Barbary War
The Second Barbary War or the U. S.–Algerian war was fought between the United States and the North African Barbary Coast states of Tripoli and Ottoman Algeria. The war ended when the United States Senate ratified Commodore Stephen Decatur’s Algerian treaty on December 5, 1815. However, Dey Omar Agha of Algeria repudiated the US treaty, refused to accept the terms of peace, ratified by the Congress of Vienna, threatened the lives of all Christian inhabitants of Algiers. William Shaler was the US commissioner in Algiers who had negotiated alongside Decatur, but he had to flee aboard British vessels and watch rockets and cannon shot fly over his house "like hail" during the Bombardment of Algiers, he negotiated a new treaty in 1816, not ratified by the Senate until February 11, 1822 because of an oversight. After the end of the war, the United States and European nations stopped paying tribute to the pirate states; the western nations built more sophisticated and expensive ships which the Barbary pirates could not match in numbers or technology.
The First Barbary War had led to an uneasy truce between the US and the Barbary states, but American attention turned to Britain and the War of 1812. The Barbary pirates took the opportunity to return to their practice of attacking American and European merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea and holding the crews for ransom. At the same time, the major European powers were still involved in the Napoleonic Wars, which did not end until 1815. At the conclusion of the War of 1812, the United States returned to the problem of Barbary piracy. On 3 March 1815, the United States Congress authorized deployment of naval power against Algiers, the squadron under the command of Commodore Stephen Decatur set sail on 20 May, it consisted of USS Guerriere, Macedonia, Ontario, Spark, Flambeau and Spitfire. Shortly after departing Gibraltar en route to Algiers, Decatur's squadron encountered the Algerian flagship Meshuda and captured it in the Battle off Cape Gata, they captured the Algerian brig Estedio in the Battle off Cape Palos.
By the final week of June, the squadron had reached Algiers and had initiated negotiations with the Dey. The United States made persistent demands for compensation, mingled with threats of destruction, the Dey capitulated, he signed a treaty aboard the Guerriere in the Bay of Algiers on 3 July 1815, in which Decatur agreed to return the captured Meshuda and Estedio. The Algerians returned all American captives, estimated to be about 10, in exchange for about 500 subjects of the Dey. Algeria paid $10,000 for seized shipping; the treaty guaranteed no further tributes by the United States and granted the United States full shipping rights in the Mediterranean Sea. In early 1816, Britain undertook a diplomatic mission, backed by a small squadron of ships of the line, to Tunis and Algiers to convince the Deys to stop their piracy and free enslaved European Christians; the Beys of Tunis and Tripoli agreed without any resistance, but the Dey of Algiers was more recalcitrant, the negotiations were stormy.
The leader of the diplomatic mission, Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, believed that he had negotiated a treaty to stop the slavery of Christians and returned to England. However, just after the treaty was signed, Algerian troops massacred 200 Corsican and Sardinian fishermen, classified as under British protection; this caused outrage in Britain and Europe, Exmouth's negotiations were seen as a failure. As a result, Exmouth was ordered to sea again to punish the Algerians, he gathered a squadron of five ships of the line, reinforced by a number of frigates reinforced by a flotilla of six Dutch ships. On 27 August 1816, following a round of failed negotiations, the fleet delivered a punishing nine-hour bombardment of Algiers; the attack immobilized many of the Dey's corsairs and shore batteries, forcing him to accept a peace offer of the same terms as he had rejected the day before. Exmouth warned; the Dey accepted the terms. A treaty was signed on 24 September 1816; the British Consul and 1,083 other Christian slaves were freed, the U.
S. ransom money repaid. After the First Barbary War, the European nations had been engaged in warfare with one another. However, in the years following the Second Barbary War, there was no general European war; this allowed the Europeans to build up their resources and challenge Barbary power in the Mediterranean without distraction. Over the following century and Tunis were colonized by France in 1830 and 1881, respectively. In 1835, Tripoli returned to the control of the Ottoman Empire. In 1911, taking advantage of the power vacuum left by the fading Ottoman Empire, Italy assumed control of Tripoli. Europeans remained in control of colonial governments in eastern North Africa until the mid-20th century. By the iron-clad warships of the late 19th century and dreadnoughts of the early 20th century ensured European dominance of the Mediterranean sea. Bombardment of Algiers Military history of the United States Barbary treaties US President James Madison 2011 military intervention in Libya, termed "Third Barbary War" by media First Barbary War Toll, Ian W..
Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U. S. Navy. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393330328. Adams, Henry. History of the United States of America Dur
A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization. The significant core functions of a corporate treasurer include cash and liquidity management, risk management, corporate finance; the treasury of a country is the department responsible for the country's economy and revenue. The treasurer is the head of the Treasury, although, in some countries the treasurer reports to a Secretary of the Treasury or Chancellor of the Exchequer. In Australia, the Treasurer is a senior Minister and the second most important member of the Government after the Prime Minister. From 1867 to 1993, Ontario's Minister of Finance was called the Treasurer of Ontario; the word referred to the person in charge of the treasure of a noble. In the UK during the 17th Century, a position of Lord High Treasurer was used on several occasions as the third great officer of the Crown. Now the title First Lord of the Treasury is the official title of the British Prime Minister. In the Inns of Court, the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales, the bencher or Master of the bench who heads the Inn for that year holds the title'Master Treasurer'.
This title is used by other legal associations sharing a British heritage, such as the Law Society of Upper Canada. Many volunteer organizations not-for-profit organizations such as charities and theaters, appoint treasurers who are responsible for conservation of the treasury, whether this be through pricing of a product, organizing sponsorship, or arranging fundraising events; the treasurer would be part of the group which would oversee how the money is spent, either directly dictating expenditure or authorizing it as required. It is their responsibility to ensure that the organization has enough money to carry out their stated aims and objectives, that they do not overspend, or under spend, they report to the board meetings and/or to the general membership the financial status of the organization to ensure checks and balances. Accurate records and supporting documentation must be kept to a reasonable level of detail that provides a clear audit trail for all transactions. Bursary Certified Treasury Professional Chief financial officer Comptroller Comptroller and Auditor General Treasury Management National Association of Parliamentarians®, Education Committee.
Spotlight on You the Treasurer. Independence, MO: National Association of Parliamentarians®. ISBN 1-884048-26-9. Treasury Management International, The Functions of a Corporate Treasury, Dr Heinrich Degenhart, Verband Deutscher Treasurer e. V. O*NET-SOC 11-3031.01 ~ Treasurers and Controllers U. S. Department of Labor SOC 11-3031 ~ Financial Managers Association of Public Treasurers of the United States and Canada California Municipal Treasurers Association Oklahoma Municipal Treasurers' Association Government Treasurers' Organization of Texas Virginia Treasurers' Association
Milford, Decatur County, Indiana
Milford is an unincorporated community in Decatur County, United States. On August 4, 2007, Milford was dissolved into an unincorporated community; the population was 121 at the 2000 census. Prior to its dissolution as a town, Milford had the dubious distinction of having the smallest population of any incorporated community in the State of Indiana. Milford was platted in 1835, it was named for the presence of a mill on a ford. Milford is located at 39°21′1″N 85°37′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.1 square mile, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 121 people, 48 households, 37 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,349.1 people per square mile. There were 54 housing units at an average density of 602.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 100.00% White. There were 48 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.4% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.9% were non-families.
20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.89. In the town the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,781, the median income for a family was $31,406. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $19,167 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,506. There were 12.2% of families and 15.9% of the population living below the poverty line, including 3.4% of under eighteens and 11.5% of those over 64