In botany, a stoma, called a stomate, is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves and other organs, that is used to control gas exchange. The pore is bordered by a pair of specialized cells known as guard cells that are responsible for regulating the size of the stomatal opening. The term is used collectively to refer to the entire stomatal complex, consisting of the paired guard cells and the pore itself. Air enters the plant through these openings by gaseous diffusion, and contains carbon dioxide and oxygen, oxygen produced as a by-product of photosynthesis diffuses out to the atmosphere through these same openings. Also, water vapor is released into the atmosphere through these pores in a process called transpiration, stomata are present in the sporophyte generation of all land plant groups except liverworts. Dicotyledons usually have more stomata on the lower epidermis than the upper epidermis, monocotyledons, on the other hand, usually have the same number of stomata on the two epidermes.
In plants with floating leaves, stomata may be only on the upper epidermis. Most tree species have leaves only on the lower surface, size varies across species, with end-to-end lengths ranging from 10 to 80 µm and width ranging from a few to 50 µm. Carbon dioxide, a key reactant in photosynthesis, is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of about 400 ppm, most plants require the stomata to be open during daytime. The air spaces in the leaf are saturated with water vapour, which exits the leaf through the stomata, plants cannot gain carbon dioxide without simultaneously losing water vapour. Ordinarily, carbon dioxide is fixed to ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate by the enzyme RuBisCO in mesophyll cells exposed directly to the air spaces inside the leaf. For both of these reasons, RuBisCo needs high carbon dioxide concentrations, which means wide stomatal apertures and, as a consequence, narrower stomatal apertures can be used in conjunction with an intermediary molecule with a high carbon dioxide affinity, PEPcase.
Retrieving the products of carbon fixation from PEPCase is in an energy-intensive process, a group of mostly desert plants called CAM plants open their stomata at night, use PEPcarboxylase to fix carbon dioxide and store the products in large vacuoles. The following day, they close their stomata and release the carbon dioxide fixed the previous night into the presence of RuBisCO and this saturates RuBisCO with carbon dioxide, allowing minimal photorespiration. This approach, however, is limited by the capacity to store fixed carbon in the vacuoles. It is not entirely certain how these responses work, the basic mechanism involves regulation of osmotic pressure. When conditions are conducive to stomatal opening, a proton pump drives protons from the guard cells and this means that the cells electrical potential becomes increasingly negative. The negative potential opens potassium voltage-gated channels and so an uptake of ions occurs
Abscission is the shedding of various parts of an organism, such as a plant dropping a leaf, flower, or seed. In zoology, abscission is the shedding of a body part, such as the shedding of a claw, husk. In mycology, it is the liberation of a fungal spore, in cell biology, abscission refers to the separation of two daughter cells at the completion of cytokinesis. A plant will abscise a part either to discard a member that is no longer necessary, such as a leaf during autumn, or a flower following fertilisation, most deciduous plants drop their leaves by abscission before winter, whereas evergreen plants continuously abscise their leaves. Another form of abscission is fruit drop, when a plant abscises fruit while still immature, if a leaf is damaged, a plant may abscise it to conserve water or photosynthetic efficiency, depending on the costs to the plant as a whole. The abscission layer is a greenish-grayish color, abscission can occur in premature leaves as a means of plant defense. Premature leaf abscission has been shown to occur in response to infestation by gall aphids, by abscising leaves that have been made host to aphid galls, plants have been shown to massively diminish the pest population, as 98% of aphids in abscised galls died.
The abscission is selective, and the chance of dropping leaves increases as the number of galls increase. A leaf with three or more galls was four times more likely to abscise than a leaf with one, abscission occurs in a series of three events, 1) remobilization, 2) protective layer formation, and 3) detachment. Steps 2 and 3 may occur in either order depending on the species, remobilization involves degrading chlorophyll to extract the majority of its nutrients. Nitrogen is found in chlorophyll and is often a limiting nutrient for plants because plants need large quantities of N to form acids, nucleic acids, proteins. Once nitrogen and other nutrients have been extracted from chlorophyll, the nutrients will travel to other tissues of the plant, remobilization is what causes leaves in the fall to change colors. Carotenoids in the leaves are slower to degrade than chlorophyll, so autumn leaves appear yellow, cells under the abscission zone divide and form a layer of cork cells. Situated on both sides of the zone are layers of parenchyma cells, which produce and inject suberin and lignin under the abscission zone into the new layer of cork cells.
Suberin and lignin create a durable and waterproof layer for the plant once the organ is detached and this step can occur in a variety of ways depending on the species but always occurs at the abscission zone. Detachment can occur when layers of parenchyma cells secrete cell wall enzymes to self-digest the middle lamella and this causes the cells of the abscission zone to break apart and the leaf or other plant part to fall off. Another way detachment occurs is through imbibition of water, the plant cells at the abscission zone will take in a large amount of water and eventually burst, making the organ fall off. Once detached, the layer of cork will be exposed
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests. Some individual elms reached great size and age, however, in recent decades, most mature elms of European or North American origin have died from Dutch elm disease, caused by a microfungus dispersed by bark beetles. In response, disease-resistant cultivars have been developed, capable of restoring the elm to forestry, eight species are endemic to North America, and a smaller number to Europe, the greatest diversity is found in Asia. The classification adopted in the List of elm species, cultivars, a large number of synonyms have accumulated over the last three centuries, their currently accepted names can be found in the list List of elm Synonyms and Accepted Names. Botanists who study elms and argue over elm identification and classification are called pteleologists, as part of the sub-order urticalean rosids they are distant cousins of cannabis and nettles.
The name Ulmus is the Latin name for these trees, while the English elm, the genus is hermaphroditic, having apetalous perfect flowers which are wind-pollinated. Elm leaves are alternate, with simple, single- or, most commonly, doubly serrate margins, usually asymmetric at the base, the fruit is a round wind-dispersed samara flushed with chlorophyll, facilitating photosynthesis before the leaves emerge. All species are tolerant of a range of soils and pH levels but, with few exceptions. The elm tree can grow to height, often with a split trunk creating a vase-shape profile. Dutch elm disease devastated elms throughout Europe and much of North America in the half of the 20th century. It derives its name Dutch from the first description of the disease and its cause in the 1920s by the Dutch botanists Bea Schwarz, DED is caused by a micro-fungus transmitted by two species of Scolytus elm-bark beetle which act as vectors. The disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the tree caused by the beetles, invade the xylem or vascular system.
The tree responds by producing tyloses, effectively blocking the flow from roots to leaves, woodland trees in North America are not quite as susceptible to the disease because they usually lack the root-grafting of the urban elms and are somewhat more isolated from each other. In France, inoculation with the fungus of over three hundred clones of the European species failed to find a single variety possessed of any significant resistance. The second, far more virulent strain of the disease Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was identified in Europe in the late 1960s, Elm phloem necrosis is a disease of elm trees that is spread by leafhoppers or by root grafts. This very aggressive disease, with no cure, occurs in the Eastern United States, southern Ontario in Canada. It is caused by phytoplasmas which infect the phloem of the tree and death of the phloem effectively girdles the tree and stops the flow of water and nutrients
Forsythia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Oleaceae. There are about 11 species, mostly native to eastern Asia, the common name is forsythia, the genus is named after William Forsyth. Forsythia are deciduous shrubs growing to a height of 1–3 m and, rarely. The flowers are produced in the spring before the leaves, bright yellow with a deeply four-lobed flower. These become pendent in rainy weather thus shielding the reproductive parts and it is widely stated that forsythia flowers are able to produce lactose. Lactose is very established in other natural sources except milk. However, the presence of lactose could not be confirmed, the actual fruit is a dry capsule, containing several winged seeds. The genus is named after William Forsyth, a Scottish botanist who was head gardener. Garden hybrid between F. suspensa and F. viridissima, Forsythia likiangensis Ching & Feng ex P. Y. Bai. Sources, A genetic study does not fully match the accepted species listed above. Forsythias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, two species of forsythia are at the heart of the selected forms, for both species are variable, and garden hybrids, Forsythia suspensa and F. viridissima.
Forsythia suspensa, the first to be noticed by a Westerner, was seen in a Japanese garden by the botanist-surgeon Carl Peter Thunberg, thunbergs professional connections lay with the Dutch East India Company, and F. suspensa reached Holland first, by 1833. In England, when it was being offered by Veitch Nurseries in Exeter at mid-century, Forsythia viridissma, had overtaken it in European gardens. The Scottish plant-hunter Robert Fortune discovered it— in a garden of the coastal city of Chusan — before he ever saw it growing wild in the mountains in Chusans province. Forsythia × intermedia, as its name suggests, is a hybrid of F. suspensa and F. viridissima, repeated crosses of the same two parents have made reiterations of F. × intermedia quite variable. A bud sport of a particularly showy form is marketed as F. × intermedia Lynwood Variety. This cultivar has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, as have F. × intermedia Week End Courtalyn, the hybrids Forsythia × intermedia and Forsythia × ×variabilis have been produced in cultivation.
Forsythia intermedia is a hybrid between F. suspensa and F. viridissima, many cultivars have been selected from this cross including dwarf and compact forms
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot, Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in autumn foliage. Although leaves can be seen in different shapes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground. Most leaves have distinctive upper surface and lower surface that differ in colour, broad, flat leaves with complex venation are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants. In others, such as the clubmosses, with different evolutionary origins, some leaves, such as bulb scales are not above ground, and in many aquatic species the leaves are submerged in water. Succulent plants often have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not totally homologous with them.
Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from both in their structure and origin. Many structures of plants, such as the phyllids of mosses and liverworts and even of some foliose lichens. Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants and these are further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as cellulose, the basic structural material in plant cell walls. The plant must therefore bring these three together in the leaf for photosynthesis to take place. Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a tissue called the phloem. The phloem and xylem are parallel to each other but the transport of materials is usually in opposite directions. Within the leaf these vascular systems branch to form veins which supply as much as the leaf as possible and they are arranged on the plant so as to expose their surfaces to light as efficiently as possible without shading each other, but there are many exceptions and complications.
For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows, the flat, or laminar, shape maximises thermal contact with the surrounding air, promoting cooling. Functionally, in addition to photosynthesis the leaf is the site of transpiration and guttation. Many gymnosperms have thin needle-like or scale-like leaves that can be advantageous in cold climates with frequent snow and these are interpreted as reduced from megaphyllous leaves of their Devonian ancestors. For xerophytes the major constraint is not light flux or intensity, some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata are examples of xerophytes. and Bulbine mesembryanthemoides
Plant hormones are chemicals that regulate plant growth. In the United Kingdom, these are termed plant growth substances, Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in extremely low concentrations. Hormones regulate cellular processes in targeted cells locally and, moved to other locations, hormones determine the formation of flowers, leaves, the shedding of leaves, and the development and ripening of fruit. Plants, unlike animals, lack glands that produce and secrete hormones, each cell is capable of producing hormones. Plant hormones shape the plant, affecting seed growth, time of flowering, the sex of flowers, senescence of leaves, and fruits. They affect which tissues grow upward and which grow downward, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, hormones are vital to plant growth, lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells. So they are known as growth factors or growth hormones. The term Phytohormone was coined by Thimann in 1948, the word hormone is derived from Greek, meaning set in motion.
Plant hormones affect gene expression and transcription levels, cellular division and they are naturally produced within plants, though very similar chemicals are produced by fungi and bacteria that can affect plant growth. A large number of related compounds are synthesized by humans. They are used to regulate the growth of cultivated plants, and in plants and plant cells. Early in the study of plant hormones, phytohormone was the commonly used term, Plant hormones are not nutrients, but chemicals that in small amounts promote and influence the growth and differentiation of cells and tissues. The biosynthesis of plant hormones within plant tissues is often diffuse, plants utilize simple chemicals as hormones, which move more easily through their tissues. They are often produced and used on a basis within the plant body. Plant cells produce hormones that affect different regions of the cell producing the hormone. Hormones are transported within the plant by utilizing four types of movements, for localized movement, cytoplasmic streaming within cells and slow diffusion of ions and molecules between cells are utilized.
Not all plant cells respond to hormones, but those cells that do are programmed to respond at specific points in their growth cycle, the greatest effects occur at specific stages during the cells life, with diminished effects occurring before or after this period. Plants need hormones at very specific times during plant growth and at specific locations and they need to disengage the effects that hormones have when they are no longer needed
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks, the common name oak appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with approximately 90 occurring in the United States, the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains approximately 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species, the acorns contain tannic acid, as do the leaves, which helps to guard from fungi and insects. Many deciduous species are marcescent, not dropping dead leaves until spring, in spring, a single oak tree produces both male flowers and small female flowers. The fruit is a nut called an acorn, borne in a structure known as a cupule, each acorn contains one seed and takes 6–18 months to mature. The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not actually a distinct group, the oak tree is a flowering plant.
Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections, The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short, acorns mature in 6 months and taste sweet or slightly bitter, the leaves mostly lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are usually rounded. The type species is Quercus robur, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long, acorns mature in about 6 months and taste bitter, the section Mesobalanus is closely related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia, styles long, acorn mature in 18 months and taste very bitter. The inside of the shell is hairless. Its leaves typically have sharp tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Protobalanus, the live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste very bitter, the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. Leaves typically have sharp tips, with bristles at the lobe tip.
Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America, styles long, acorns mature in 18 months and taste very bitter
Marcescence is the retention of dead plant organs that normally are shed. It is most obvious in deciduous trees that retain leaves through the winter, several trees normally have marcescent leaves such as oak and hornbeam, or marcescent stipules as in some but not all species of willows. Marcescent leaves of pin oak complete development of their abscission layer in the spring, the base of the petiole remains alive over the winter. Many other trees may have marcescent leaves in seasons where an early freeze kills the leaves before the abscission layer develops or completes development, diseases or pests can kill leaves before they can develop an abscission layer. Marcescent leaves may be retained indefinitely and do not break off until mechanical forces cause the dry, many palms form a skirt-like or shuttlecock-like crown of marcescent leaves under new growth that may persist for years before being shed. In some species only juveniles retain dead leaves and marcescence in palms is considered a primitive trait, the term marcescent is used in mycology to describe a mushroom which can dry out, but revive and continue to disperse spores.
Genus Marasmius is well known for feature, which was considered taxonomically important by Elias Magnus Fries in his 1838 classification of the fungi. One possible advantage of marcescent leaves is that they may deter feeding of large herbivores, such as deer and moose, dry leaves make the twigs less nutritious and less palatable. Marcescent leaves may protect some species from water stress or temperature stress, the litter-trapping marcescent leaf crown of Dypsis palms accumulate detritus to enhance their nutrient supply. By the same token, palms with marcescent leaf bases are more susceptible to epiphytic parasites like figs that may completely engulf. Semi-deciduous Evergreen Youtube. com, Marcescence — video with narration
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in plants that are floral. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs, Flowers may facilitate outcrossing or allow selfing. Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization, Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds, the essential parts of a flower can be considered in two parts, the vegetative part, consisting of petals and associated structures in the perianth, and the reproductive or sexual parts. A stereotypical flower consists of four kinds of structures attached to the tip of a short stalk, each of these kinds of parts is arranged in a whorl on the receptacle. The four main whorls are as follows, Collectively the calyx, the next whorl toward the apex, composed of units called petals, which are typically thin and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination.
Androecium, the whorl, consisting of units called stamens. Stamens consist of two parts, a called a filament, topped by an anther where pollen is produced by meiosis. Gynoecium, the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels, the carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally. Ovules are megasporangia and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes and these give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is described using an alternative terminology wherein the structure one sees in the innermost whorl is called a pistil. A pistil may consist of a carpel or a number of carpels fused together. The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen, the supportive stalk, the style, becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma. The relationship to the gynoecium on the receptacle is described as hypogynous, although the arrangement described above is considered typical, plant species show a wide variation in floral structure.
These modifications have significance in the evolution of flowering plants and are used extensively by botanists to establish relationships among plant species, the four main parts of a flower are generally defined by their positions on the receptacle and not by their function. Many flowers lack some parts or parts may be modified into other functions and/or look like what is typically another part, in some families, like Ranunculaceae, the petals are greatly reduced and in many species the sepals are colorful and petal-like. Other flowers have modified stamens that are petal-like, the flowers of Peonies and Roses are mostly petaloid stamens
Warren County, New Jersey
Warren County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. It is part of the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ metropolitan area and is considered the eastern border of the Lehigh Valley. The most populous place was Phillipsburg, with 14,950 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hardwick Township, covered 37.92 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. Warren County was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 20,1824, at its creation, the county consisted of the townships of Greenwich, Knowlton, Mansfield and Pahaquarry. The county was named for Joseph Warren, an American hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill. According to the 2010 Census, the county had an area of 362.86 square miles. Warren County has rolling hills, with the Kittatinny Ridge in the west, Allamuchy Mountain and Jenny Jump Mountain are part of the New York – New Jersey Highlands, known as the Reading Prong. Around 450 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands collided with proto North America, the chain of islands went over the North American plate, thus the Highlands were created from the island rock and so was the Great Appalachian Valley.
The Highlands is Allamuchy Mountains and the Jenny Jump Mountains, around 400 million years ago a small continent that was long and thin collided with proto North America. This created the Kittatinny Mountains, as the land was compressed from the collision, the quartzite that was lying in a shallow sea over top of the Martinsburg shale and faulted due to pressure and heat. The quartzite lifted, thus the Kittatinny Mountain was born, the final collision was when the African plate collided with the North American plate. This was the episode of the building of the Appalachian Mountains. Then the African plate tore away from North America, the Wisconsin Glacier covered the northern part of the county from 21,000 to 13,000 BC. This glacier covered the top of Kittatinny Mountain and carved the terrain in the part of the county. The terminal moraine runs from north of Belvidere to south of Great Meadows to north of Hackettstown, Blairstown Township, Hope Township, half of Independence Township, part of White Township, and all of Allamuchy Township was covered by the Glacier.
When the glacier melted, a lake was formed at Great Meadows, slowly the lake drained leaving a large flat area filled with organic material. The county is drained by three rivers, all three rivers are shallow and narrow. They are fresh water rivers that are excellent for fishing, the Paulins Kill drains the western portion of the county
Autumn, known as fall in North American English, is one of the four temperate seasons. One of its features is the shedding of leaves from deciduous trees. Some cultures regard the autumnal equinox as mid-autumn, while others with a longer temperature lag treat it as the start of autumn. Meteorologists use a definition based on months, with autumn being September and November in the northern hemisphere, in North America, autumn is usually considered to start with the September equinox and end with the winter solstice. As daytime and nighttime temperatures decrease, trees shed their leaves, in traditional East Asian solar term, autumn starts on or around 8 August and ends on or about 7 November. In Ireland, the autumn months according to the meteorological service. In Australia and New Zealand, autumn officially begins on 1 March, the word autumn comes from the ancient Etruscan root autu- and has within it connotations of the passing of the year. It was borrowed by the neighbouring Romans, and became the Latin word autumnus, after the Roman era, the word continued to be used as the Old French word autompne or autumpne in Middle English, and was normalized to the original Latin.
In the Medieval period, there are examples of its use as early as the 12th century. Before the 16th century, harvest was the usually used to refer to the season. The alternative word fall for the season traces its origins to old Germanic languages, the exact derivation is unclear, with the Old English fiæll or feallan and the Old Norse fall all being possible candidates. However, these all have the meaning to fall from a height and are clearly derived either from a common root or from each other. The term came to denote the season in 16th century England, during the 17th century, English emigration to the British colonies in North America was at its peak, and the new settlers took the English language with them. While the term gradually became obsolete in Britain, it became the more common term in North America. The name backend, a common name for the season in Northern England, has today been largely replaced by the name autumn. Association with the transition from warm to cold weather, and its status as the season of the primary harvest, has dominated its themes.
In Western cultures, personifications of autumn are usually pretty, well-fed females adorned with fruits, many cultures feature autumnal harvest festivals, often the most important on their calendars. There are the many North American Indian festivals tied to harvest of ripe foods gathered in the wild, the Chinese Mid-Autumn or Moon festival, and many others
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue depending on the pH. They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the pathway, they are odorless but flavorful. Anthocyanins occur in all tissues of plants, including leaves, roots, flowers. Anthoxanthins are clear, white to yellow counterparts of anthocyanins occurring in plants, anthocyanins are derived from anthocyanidins by adding sugars. Anthocyanins have an antioxidant role in plants against reactive oxygen species caused by abiotic stresses, such as overexposure to ultraviolet light, tomato plants protect against cold stress with anthocyanins countering reactive oxygen species, leading to a lower rate of cell death in leaves. Anthocyanins are considered secondary metabolites as an additive with E number E163, they are approved for use as a food additive in the EU, Australia. Although anthocyanins have antioxidant properties in vitro, this antioxidant effect is not conserved after the plant is consumed, as interpreted by the Linus Pauling Institute and European Food Safety Authority, dietary anthocyanins and other flavonoids have little or no direct antioxidant food value following digestion.
The absorbance pattern responsible for the red color of anthocyanins may be complementary to that of green chlorophyll in photosynthetically active tissues such as young Quercus coccifera leaves and it may protect the leaves from attacks by plant eaters that may be attracted by green color. Anthocyanins are found in the vacuole, mostly in flowers and fruits but in leaves, stems. In these parts, they are predominantly in outer cell layers such as the epidermis. Most frequently occurring in nature are the glycosides of cyanidin, malvidin, peonidin, roughly 2% of all hydrocarbons fixed in photosynthesis are converted into flavonoids and their derivatives such as the anthocyanins. Not all land plants contain anthocyanin, in the Caryophyllales, they are replaced by betalains and betalains have never been found in the same plant. Sometimes bred purposely for high anthocyanin quantities, ornamental plants such as sweet peppers may have unusual culinary, anthocyanins occur in the flowers of many plants, such as the famously blue poppies of some Meconopsis species and cultivars.
Red-fleshed peaches and apples contain anthocyanins, anthocyanins are less abundant in banana, pea, fennel and potato, and may be totally absent in certain cultivars of green gooseberries. The highest recorded amount appears to be specifically in the coat of black soybean containing around 2 g per 100 g, in purple corn kernels and husks. Due to critical differences in origin and extraction methods determining anthocyanin content. The variety known as Indigo Rose became commercially available to the agricultural industry, investing tomatoes with high anthocyanin content doubles their shelf-life and inhibits growth of a post-harvest mold pathogen, Botrytis cinerea. Tomatoes have been modified with transcription factors from snapdragons to produce high levels of anthocyanins in the fruits