The Declaration of Arbroath is a declaration of Scottish independence, made in 1320. It is in the form of a letter in Latin submitted to Pope John XXII, dated 6 April 1320, intended to confirm Scotland's status as an independent, sovereign state and defending Scotland's right to use military action when unjustly attacked. Believed to have been written in the Arbroath Abbey by Bernard of Kilwinning Chancellor of Scotland and Abbot of Arbroath, sealed by fifty-one magnates and nobles, the letter is the sole survivor of three created at the time; the others were a letter from the King of Scots, Robert I, a letter from four Scottish bishops which all made similar points. The Declaration was part of a broader diplomatic campaign, which sought to assert Scotland's position as an independent kingdom, rather than its being a feudal land controlled by England's Norman kings, as well as lift the excommunication of Robert the Bruce; the pope had recognised Edward I of England's claim to overlordship of Scotland in 1305 and Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope for murdering John Comyn before the altar in Greyfriars Church in Dumfries in 1306.
The Declaration made a number of points: that Scotland had always been independent, indeed for longer than England. In fact it stated that the nobility would choose someone else to be king if Bruce proved to be unfit in maintaining Scotland's independence; some have interpreted this last point as an early expression of'popular sovereignty' – that government is contractual and that kings can be chosen by the community rather than by God alone. Modern Scottish nationalists point to the “Declaration" as evidence of the long-term persistence of the Scots as a distinct national community, giving a early date for the emergence of nationalism. However, "the overwhelming majority of academics challenge this vision. Scholars point out; the meaning ascribed to words similar to nation during the ancient and medieval periods was quite different than it is today."It has been argued that the Declaration was not a statement of popular sovereignty but a statement of royal propaganda supporting Bruce's faction.
A justification had to be given for the rejection of King John Balliol in whose name William Wallace and Andrew de Moray had rebelled in 1297. The reason given in the Declaration is that Bruce was able to defend Scotland from English aggression whereas, by implication, King John could not. To this man, in as much as he saved our people, for upholding our freedom, we are bound by right as much as by his merits, choose to follow him in all that he does. Whatever the true motive, the idea of a contract between King and people was advanced to the Pope as a justification for Bruce's coronation whilst John de Balliol still lived in Papal custody. For the full text in Latin and a translation in English, See Declaration of Arbroath on WikiSource. There are 39 names—eight earls and thirty one barons—at the start of the document, all of whom may have had their seals appended over the space of some weeks and months, with nobles sending in their seals to be used. On the extant copy of the Declaration there are only 19 seals, of those 19 people only 12 are named within the document.
It is thought that at least 11 more seals than the original 39 might have been appended. The Declaration was taken to the papal court at Avignon by Bishop Kininmund, Sir Adam Gordon and Sir Odard de Maubuisson; the Pope heeded the arguments contained in the Declaration, influenced by the offer of support from the Scots for his long-desired crusade if they no longer had to fear English invasion. He exhorted Edward II in a letter to make peace with the Scots, but the following year was again persuaded by the English to take their side and issued six bulls to that effect. Not until eight years on 1 March 1328 the new English king, Edward III signed a peace treaty between Scotland and England, the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton. In this treaty, in effect for five years until 1333, Edward renounced all English claims to Scotland. Eight months in October 1328, the interdict on Scotland, the excommunication of its king, were removed by the Pope; the original copy of the Declaration, sent to Avignon is lost.
A copy of the Declaration survives among Scotland's state papers, measuring 540mm wide by 675mm long, it is held by the National Archives of Scotland in Edinburgh. The most known English language translation was made by Sir James Fergusson Keeper of the Records of Scotland, from text that he reconstructed using this extant copy and early copies of the original draft. G. W. S. Barrow has shown that one passage in particular quoted from the Fergusson translation, was written using different parts of The Conspiracy of Catiline by the Roman author, Sallust as the direct source:... for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom – for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself. Listed below are the signatories of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320; the de
The murder of Sagar Sarowar and Meherun Runi is about the unsolved double murder case of two well-known, married Bangladeshi journalists who were stabbed to death for a yet to be determined motive in their Dhaka apartment on 11 February 2012 in Bangladesh. The case is still open and DNA testing showed that it was possible two men were involved in the murder; the couple's murder received high-level political attention and widespread media coverage in Bangladesh, attracted German interest as Sarowar had lived and worked as a journalist for Deutsche Welle. The case was closely watched by journalists and international press freedom organisations; the couple's murder unified organisations representing Bangladeshi journalists that had once been separate. A representative of the family said, "In the past 25 years, this has been the most talked/written about, prioritized case in Bangladesh." A demonstration was called in 2017 for the fifth anniversary of the murder in order to call for the release of the investigation report.
Golam Mustofa Sarowar was better known as Sagar Sarowar. His family is from old Dhaka, he was a broadcast news editor for Maasranga Television since December 2011. He had worked for Deutsche Welle's Bangla service for three years as part of the German broadcaster's South Asia department in Bonn, Germany. Before Deutsche Welle he worked in print as a columnist and a reporter for Ittefaq and Sangbad, he was known as an energy reporter and his work appeared in the trade magazine Platts Oilgram News. He was a founder and leader of the Forum for Energy Reporters Bangladesh and an editor-in-chief for the online magazine Energy Bangla. Sarowar was a director on the 9 member board of FERB, which created a network of energy reporters across the subcontinent. In addition, Sarowar was known as a blogger, he wrote for the OhMyNews citizen journalism website for a brief time. Meherun Nahar Runi was a senior television reporter for ATN Bangla, where she had been working at least since 2001. Before that she worked in broadcast media in print media for Sangbad and Jugantor.
She frequently reported on energy issues in Bangladesh. She was known as a crime reporter; the couple had one son, 5 years old at the time of their murder. They are buried in old Dhaka in the Azimpur graveyard, for Muslims, it is a well-known graveyard for Dhaka citizens. The married Bangladeshi couple and Runi, lived with their 5-year-old child on the fourth floor of a five-story building in the West Raja Bazar neighbourhood of Dhaka. Neighbors say that Sarowar and Runi had more than one person in the apartment as guests before they were killed. Sarowar didn't leave his office at Maasranga until about 1:30 a.m. on the morning of 11 February 2012. From information gathered from a security guard, police believe the couple was killed some time after Sarowar arrived home and before the dawn Fajr prayer, which occurs before sunrise. According to sources, this would place the murder event sometime between 5 in the morning; each victim died of multiple stabbing wounds, sources said Sarowar's limbs were tied and he had the most stab wounds.
Their five-year-old son woke up at around 7 a.m. and discovered his parents dead in a pool of blood and called Runi's mother sometime around 7:30 a.m. by a cell phone. The site became an active crime scene around 11 a.m. The crime scene showed evidence that it had been searched and the couple's possessions were strewn around the apartment. A kitchen window grill was cut and had an opening of 1.8 feet, which Imam Hossain, deputy commissioner with the Tejgaon police, said would be too small for an adult to pass through. Investigators from two different main law enforcement agencies arrived at the crime scene around 11 a.m. on 11 February. The investigation fell under the jurisdiction of Bangladesh Police from Tejgaon Thana, a subdistrict of the Dhaka District, but was being investigated by the intelligence branch of the Rapid Action Battalion; the RAB was founded in 2004 as a paramilitary arm of the police. Since the couple was well known, the crime scene attracted the attention of those in the upper echelon of Dhaka's law enforcement, as well as politicians.
Among the law enforcement officials at the couple's apartment were Hassan Mahmood Khandker, the inspector general of the Bangladesh Police, Benajir Ahmed, commissioner of the Dhaka metropolitan police. The Dhaka Courier reported. Days after the investigation began, journalists from the Crime Reporters Association of Bangladesh reported that the two organisations were working independently from one another. A number of politicians and other high-placed individuals visited the crime scene. Home Minister Sahara Khatun ordered the Bangladesh Police to arrest the murderers of Sagar and Runi within 48 hours; the police told the family that the traffic through the residence had damaged evidence. The traffic through the crime scene could have contaminated the DNA samples that were discovered in the labs. Another Home Minister – Muhiuddin Khan Alamgir, appointed in September 2012—said after a year had passed, "Journalists and common people destroyed all the important evidences from the spot before police could reach there."One of the two security guards was detained but was released shortly thereafter, he disappeared until his arrest one year after the case began.
The autopsies in the case were conducted at Dhaka Medical College. The autopsy revealed that three knives were used during the murder. No viscera test was conducted during the autopsy, criticised; the bodies were exhumed for further testi
Lisa Reagan Love is a singer, pianist and former Miss Oklahoma from Oklahoma City and Nichols Hills, Oklahoma. Love attended Oklahoma City University, where obtained her bachelor's degree in voice and piano, went on to earn a master's degree in opera and vocal performance from the University of Maryland's Opera Studio. Love is a former Miss Oklahoma 1975 who has shared the stage with nationally renowned performers such as Plácido Domingo, Luciano Pavarotti, Renee Fleming, she was a resident member of the Washington National Opera from 1989 to 2008. Her most recent album “If Thoughts Could Tell” is a remake of some of her favorite songs from the 1970’s. Before that album she composed and co-produced Realm of Dreams, recorded at Ocean Way Nashville Recording Studio with the production team of Fred Cannon and Paul Buono. Previous albums include: Satori and Noel, her original composition, “A l’infini,” appeared on the season one finale of the Bravo Network reality television series Project Runway in 2005.
In 2013, she performed at the Salzburg Music Festival in Austria. Love has been voice professor at Oklahoma City University in the Wanda L. Bass School of Music and Shenandoah Conservatory of Music, she was married to Oklahoma congressman Mickey Edwards. She is presently married to Greg Love, Chairman for the Oklahoma Department of Transportation Commission and Co-CEO of Love's Travel Stops, one of America's largest privately-owned companies. Lisa Reagan is a distant relative of former President Ronald Reagan. Lisareagan.com bio Lisa Reagan Love bio at Creative and Dreams Music Network
Joe Reardon is the former mayor of Kansas City and Wyandotte County. He is a member of the Democratic Party. Reardon is the son of Jack Reardon, who served as mayor of Kansas City, Kansas. Reardon is a lifelong resident of Kansas City, he has a wife and two sons and Connor. Reardon graduated from Rockhurst University in 1990 with a BS degree in political science, he joined Tau Kappa Epsilon at Rockhurst. Reardon went on to earn a Juris Doctor degree from University of Kansas School of Law in 1994. After law school, Reardon joined the law firm McAnany, Van Cleave & Phillips from 1994 to 1999 as an Associate Attorney. In 1999 he began working for Thomson Reuters Westlaw, where he stayed until he was elected mayor of Kansas City, Kansas in 2005. Reardon began the public service portion of his career when he was elected Wyandotte County Commissioner in 2003, representing the second district in the downtown area. Reardon was elected mayor of Kansas City, Kansas after his predecessor, Carol Marinovich, chose not to run for a third term.
Reardon helped build the home of Sporting Kansas City. Reardon played a role in attracting Google Fiber to the city. Reardon was credited with helping to attract a casino and a Cerner development. In 2012, Reardon was named Kansas Mayor of the Year. After his term as mayor ended, Reardon returned to the law firm Van Cleave & Phillips. Reardon became President/CEO of the Greater KC Chamber of Commerce in 2016. Reardon serves on the boards of the Kansas Secretary of Commerce’s Start-Up Village Resource Committee, the University of Kansas Medical Center Advancement Board, the KCI Airport Study Panel. Reardon founded Healthy Communities Wyandotte, he joined Rockhurst University in August 2013 as an adjunct professor and executive in residence for the Helzberg School of Management. Reardon's Twitter account
Jean-Claude Juncker is a Luxembourg politician, who served as President of the European Commission from 2014 to 2019 and as the 23rd Prime Minister of Luxembourg from 1995 to 2013. He was the Minister for Finances from 1989 to 2009. By the time Juncker left office, he was the longest-serving head of any national government in the EU and one of the longest-serving democratically elected leaders in the world, with his tenure encompassing the height of the European financial and sovereign debt crisis. From 2005 to 2013, he served as the first permanent President of the Eurogroup. In 2014, the European People's Party had Juncker as its lead candidate, or Spitzenkandidat, for the presidency of the Commission in the 2014 elections; this marked the first time. Juncker is the first president to have campaigned as a candidate for the position prior to the election, a process introduced with the Treaty of Lisbon; the EPP won 220 out of 751 seats in the Parliament. On 27 June 2014, the European Council nominated Juncker for the position, the European Parliament elected him on 15 July 2014 with 422 votes out of the 729 cast.
He succeeded José Manuel Barroso as President on 1 November 2014. Juncker has stated that his priorities would be the creation of a digital single market, the development of an EU Energy Union, the negotiation of the Transatlantic Trade Agreement, the continued reform of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union—with the social dimension in mind, a "targeted fiscal capacity" for the Eurozone, the 2015-16 British EU membership renegotiations. Juncker was spent the majority of his childhood in Belvaux, his father, was a steel worker and Christian trade unionist, forcibly conscripted into the German Wehrmacht during World War II, following the brutal Nazi occupation of Luxembourg. Juncker has remarked that the horrors of war he heard from his father's experiences had a profound influence in shaping his views on the need for European reconciliation and integration, his mother was born Marguerite Hecker. He studied at the Roman Catholic "école apostolique" at Clairefontaine on the edge of Arlon in Belgium, before returning to Luxembourg to study for his Baccalaureate at the Lycée Michel Rodange.
He joined the Christian Social People's Party in 1974. He studied law at the University of Strasbourg, graduating with a master's degree in 1979. Following Juncker's graduation from the University of Strasbourg, he was appointed as a Parliamentary Secretary, he won election to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time in 1984 and was appointed to the Cabinet of Prime Minister Jacques Santer as Minister of Labour. In the second half of 1985, Luxembourg held the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Communities, permitting Juncker to develop his European leadership qualities as chair of the Social Affairs and Budget Councils, it was here. Shortly before the 1989 election Juncker was injured in a road accident, spending two weeks in a coma, he has stated. He nonetheless recovered in time to be returned to the Chamber of Deputies once more, after which he was promoted to become Minister for Finance, a post traditionally seen as a rite of passage to the premiership of the country, his eventual promotion to Prime Minister seemed at this time inevitable, with political commentators concluding that Santer was grooming Juncker as his successor.
Juncker at this time accepted the position of Luxembourg's representative on the 188-member Board of Governors of the World Bank. Juncker's second election to Parliament, in 1989, saw him gain prominence within the European Union. Juncker was responsible for clauses on Economic and Monetary Union, the process that would give rise to the Euro, in particular is credited with devising the "opt-out" principle for the UK to assuage its concerns. Juncker was himself a signatory to the Treaty in 1992, having, by that time taken over as parliamentary leader of the Christian Social People's Party. Juncker was re-elected to the Chamber in 1994. With Santer ready to be nominated as the next President of the European Commission, it was only six months that Grand Duke Jean approved the appointment of Juncker as Prime Minister on 20 January 1995, as part of a coalition with the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party. Juncker relinquished his post at the World Bank at this time, but maintained his position as Minister for Finance.
Juncker's first term as Prime Minister was focused on an economic platform of international bilateral ties to improve Luxembourg's profile abroad, which included a number of official visits abroad. During one such visit, to Dublin in December 1996, Juncker mediated a dispute over his own EU Economic and Monetary Union policy between French President Jacques Chirac and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl; the press dubbed Juncker the "Hero of Dublin" for achieving an unlikely consensus between the two.1997 brought the rotating Presidency of the European Council to Luxembourg, during which time Juncker championed the cause of social integration in Europe, along with constituting the so-called "Luxembourg Process" for integrated European policy against unemployment. He instigated the "Euro 11", an informal group of European finance
The Dublin Harbour Police is a small, specialised police force in Dublin Port, Ireland operating under the jurisdiction of the Dublin Port Company. The force has the power of arrest under Section 59 of the Harbours Act 1996, to arrest persons in connection with offences under the Act, although they are required to hand them over to the Garda Síochána. Prior to the passage of the Act, the Harbour Police were under the employ of the Dublin Port and Docks Board and were sworn as constables under the Harbour, Docks & Piers Clauses Act 1847. In 2008, because Dublin Port Company was unwilling or unable to pay the wages of officers, the vast majority officers were made redundant Access control will be undertaken by contracted private security companies, however at least three officers are obliged to remain at the port to enforce bye-laws. Dun Laoghaire Harbour Police