SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Decolonization

Decolonization or decolonisation is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination on overseas territories. The concept applies to the dismantlement, during the second half of the 20th century, of the colonial empires established prior to World War I throughout the world. Scholars focus on the movements in the colonies demanding independence, such as Creole nationalism; the fundamental right to self-determination is identified by the United Nations as core to decolonization, allowing not only independence, but other ways of decolonization. The United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization has stated that in the process of decolonization there is no alternative to the colonizer but to allow a process of self-determination. Self-determination continues to be claimed within independent states, to demand decolonization, as in the case of Indigenous Peoples. Decolonization may involve either nonviolent revolution or national liberation wars by pro-independence groups.

It may be intranational or involve the intervention of foreign powers acting individually or through international bodies such as the United Nations. Although examples of decolonization can be found as early as the writings of Thucydides, there have been several active periods of decolonization in modern times; these include the breakup of the Spanish Empire in the 19th century. Decolonization has been used to refer to the intellectual decolonization from the colonizers' ideas that made the colonized feel inferior. Issues of decolonization are raised contemporarily. In Latin America and South Africa such issues are discussed under the term decoloniality. Decolonization is a political process. In extreme circumstances, there is a war of independence. More there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail, minor disturbances ensue resulting in suppression by the police and military forces, escalating into more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is granted. In rare cases, the actions of the pro-independence movements are characterized by nonviolence, with the Indian independence movement led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi being one of the most notable examples, the violence comes as active suppression from the occupying forces or as political opposition from forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by the prospect of independence.

For example, there was a war of independence in French Indochina, while in some countries in French West Africa decolonization resulted from a combination of insurrection and negotiation. The process is only complete when the de facto government of the newly independent country is recognized as the de jure sovereign state by the community of nations. Independence is difficult to achieve without the encouragement and practical support from one or more external parties; the motives for giving such aid are varied: nations of the same ethnic and/or religious stock may sympathize with the people of the country, or a strong nation may attempt to destabilize a colony as a tactical move to weaken a rival or enemy colonizing power or to create space for its own sphere of influence. As world opinion became more pro-independence following World War I, there was an institutionalized collective effort to advance the cause of decolonization through the League of Nations. Under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, a number of mandates were created.

The expressed intention was to prepare these countries for self-government, but the mandates are interpreted as a mere redistribution of control over the former colonies of the defeated powers the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire. This reassignment work continued through the United Nations, with a similar system of trust territories created to adjust control over both former colonies and mandated territories. In referendums, some dependent territories have chosen to retain their dependent status, such as Gibraltar and French Guiana. There are examples, such as the Falklands War, in which a geopolitical power goes to war to defend the right of a dependent territory to continue to be such. Colonial powers have sometimes promoted decolonization in order to shed the financial and other burdens that tend to grow in those colonies where the colonial governments have become more benign. Decolonization is achieved through a single historical act, but rather progresses through one or more stages of decolonization, each of which can be offered or fought for: these can include the introduction of elected representatives, degrees of autonomy or self-rule.

Thus, the final phase of decolonization may, in fact, concern little more than handing over responsibility for foreign relations and security, soliciting de jure recognition for the new sovereignty. But following the recognition of statehood, a degree of continuity can be maintained through bilateral treaties between now equal governments involving practicalities such as military training, mutual protection pacts, or a garrison and/or military bases. Beginning with the emergence

Robert Colville

Robert E. Colville was a Democratic politician and attorney from Pennsylvania. After graduating from North Catholic High School in 1953, Colville joined the Marines, he attended Duquesne University, where he obtained his BA in 1963. Colville returned to North Catholic, where he was a teacher, the school's head football coach. While Chief in 1974 he started the department on testing for promotions. From 1971 through 1975, Colville served as Chief of Police under Mayor Pete Flaherty, he was the Allegheny County District Attorney from 1976, when he defeated incumbent John Hickton, until 1998. Colville contemplated a run for the Pennsylvania Supreme Court in 1981. In 1997, he was elected to the Allegheny County Court of Common Pleas, in 2006, he was appointed to the Pennsylvania Superior Court. Pittsburgh Police Allegheny County Sheriff Allegheny County Police Department

Natalie Kusz

Natalie Kusz is an American memoirist. She graduated from University of Alaska Fairbanks with a B. A. and an M. F. A, she taught at Bethel College, Harvard University. She teaches at Eastern Washington University, her work appeared in O, Harper's, Threepenny Review, McCall's, Real Simple, The New York Times. 1989 Whiting Award 1999-2000 Radcliffe College's Bunting Institute fellowship 1995 National Endowment for the Arts fellowship Road Song. Farrar and Giroux. 1990. ISBN 978-0-374-52827-0. Donna Jarrell, Ira Sukrungruang, eds.. "On Being Invisible". Scoot Over, Skinny: The Fat Nonfiction Anthology. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. P. 20. ISBN 978-0-15-603022-9. Natalie Kusz. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Ian Frazier, Robert Atwan, eds.. The Best American essays. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 978-0-395-85695-6. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Amy Hempel, Jim Shepard, eds.. "Retired Greyhound II". Unleashed: Poems by Writers' Dogs. Random House, Inc. ISBN 978-0-609-80379-0. CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Frederick Smock, ed..

"Persistent Heat". The American voice anthology of poetry. University Press of Kentucky. P. 62. ISBN 978-0-8131-0956-5. Natalie Kusz. Bill Henderson, ed.. The Pushcart prize, XV: best of the small presses. Pushcart Press. ISBN 978-0-916366-65-0; the author of this memoir has suffered so much in her 27 years that writing about it involved a risk. "Road Song" could have been a saccharine tract about the triumph of the human spirit or such a painful tale that reading it would hurt. Instead it's a reflective affirmation of family love. Profile at The Whiting Foundation