Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
Pune called Poona, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its Industrial Estate Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region. According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index; the city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.
It is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. Pune is an important centre for civil services training; the earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news". By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune; the plates indicate. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.
Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order; the Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal, his mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city.
From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, Pune, from the Mughals. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu, he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River; the construction was completed in 1730. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city; the aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vishnu, Rama and Ganesh temples.
The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed; the Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805; the Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817; the Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city.
The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A rai
Pandit Mani Prasad is an Indian classical vocalist from the Kirana gharana. He is known for his popular renditions of devotional music. Mani Prasad was born into a family of musicians, his father, Sukhdev Prasad, had received music training from Abdul Karim Khan and Abdul Wahid Khan, the founders of the Kirana gharana. Mani Prasad accompanied his father on all his tours and performances across the country from an early age, he moved from Wardha in Maharashtra to New Delhi in his youth along with his father. He was trained by his father but was guided by his grandfather Pandit Shakti Lal and by his uncles Pandit Shankar Lal and Pandit Gopal Prasad. Pandit Mani Prasad started his career early, he is ranked as a Top Grade'A class' artist by the All India Radio and is a well recognised television artist with the Doordarshan. He has not only created some new ragas but composed many bandishes in existing ragas with the mudra Dhyan Rang Piya; the new ragas include Dhyan Kalyan, Dhyani Todi, Vihanginee and Bhoopeshwari.
Among his students are Maharaja Ranjitsinh Pratapsinh Gaekwad of Baroda, Savita Devi Maharaj, Rita Ganguly, Ramesh Jule, Ravi Jule, Pt. Vishwanath, Uma Garg, Surinder Kaur, Chandan Dass. In recent years, he has been serving as the Guru at the Dr. Gangubai Hangal Gurukul in Hubli, Karnataka where he was invited by the Government of Karnataka. Pt. Mani Prasad, A Concert Series by Swarashree Enterprises, CBS Pt. Mani Prasad, MIDAS Pt. Mani Prasad, Swaranjali Dhyan Rang Piya, MIDAS Love Bandish Bliss, Times Music Rajasthan Sangeet Natak Akademi Award Swarmani Award Raseshwar Award given by Sur Singar Samsad of Mumbai Baba Allaudin Khan Award Srimati Gangubai Hangal Award Ustad Faiyyaz Khan - Ustad Niaz Khan Memorial Award Swar Sadhana Ratna Sangeet Martand Samman Sangeet Kala Ratna Felicitation by Raagranjini Pandit Mani Prasad now lives between New Delhi and Hubli, has three children, Deepak Prasad, Lata Tandon and Lalit Prasad, who are involved in Indian classical music
Meena Khadikar is an Indian Marathi and Hindi language playback singer and composer. She is the second eldest daughter of Pt. Deenanath Mangeshkar and sister of the famous singers Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Usha Mangeshkar and Hridaynath Mangeshkar. Meena has done playback singing for several Marathi and Hindi films, such as Farmaysh in 1953, she is popular for composing various children's songs. In 1973, her composition of the Marathi song "Asawa Sunder Chocolatecha Bangla" was released and was sung by her son Yogesh; the song became popular with kids and was recorded in Gujarati and Bengali languages. The Gujarati version was sung by Shivangi Kolhapure and Sameer Rathod, brother of singer Sunali Rathod, and the Bengali version was recorded by siblings Sagarika. She is the composer of another popular song "Saang Saang Bholanaath", she has performed with her siblings and sung the compositions of her brother. Her husband died around 2011. Marathi Songs "Ye Javali Ghe Priyasakhaya Bhagavanta" – Mansala Pankh Astat Composer Meena Mangeshkar Singer Lata Mangeshkar "Bavarle Mi Bavarle"- Ek Hota Raja Best of the SongHindi Songs "Phagun Aaya" – Pilpili Saheb "Hai Mausam Yeh Mastaana Muskuraana Dil Churaana" – Aabroo Mangeshkar Family Meena Khadikar on IMDb http://www.planetradiocity.com/musicopedia/music_newupdatearticle.php?conid=1922
Governor-General of India
The Governor-General of India was the head of British India and after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William; the officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India". In 1858, as a consequence of the Indian Mutiny the previous year, the territories and assets of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British Crown; the Governor-General headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India, including the Punjab, Bombay, the United Provinces, others. However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British Government. From 1858, to reflect the Governor-General's new additional role as the Monarch's representative in re the fealty relationships vis the princely states, the additional title of Viceroy was granted, such that the new office was entitled Viceroy and Governor-General of India.
This was shortened to Viceroy of India. The title of Viceroy was abandoned when British India split into the two independent dominions of India and Pakistan, but the office of Governor-General continued to exist in each country separately—until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956, respectively; until 1858, the Governor-General was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British Government. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but thereafter did so on the advice of the newly-sovereign Indian Government. Governors-General served at the pleasure of the Sovereign, though the practice was to have them serve five-year terms. Governors-General could have their commission rescinded; the first Governor-General of British India was Lord William Bentinck, the first Governor-General of independent India was Louis, Lord Mountbatten. Many parts of the Indian subcontinent were governed by the East India Company, which nominally acted as the agent of the Mughal Emperor.
In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act of 1773. A Governor-General and Supreme Council of Bengal were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal; the first Governor-General and Council were named in the Act. The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India; the power to elect the Governor-General was retained by the Court of Directors, but the choice became subject to the Sovereign's approval. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the East India Company's territories in India were put under the direct control of the Sovereign; the Government of India Act 1858 vested the power to appoint the Governor-General in the Sovereign. The Governor-General, in turn, had the power to appoint all lieutenant governors in India, subject to the Sovereign's approval. India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors-General continued to be appointed over each nation until republican constitutions were written.
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma remained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors-General. India became a secular republic in 1950; the Governor-General had power only over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The Regulating Act, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence; the other Presidencies of the East India Company were not allowed to declare war on or make peace with an Indian prince without receiving the prior approval of the Governor-General and Council of Fort William. The powers of the Governor-General, in respect of foreign affairs, were increased by the India Act 1784; the Act provided that the other Governors under the East India Company could not declare war, make peace or conclude a treaty with an Indian prince unless expressly directed to do so by the Governor-General or by the Company's Court of Directors. While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India.
That status came only with the Charter Act 1833, which granted him "superintendence and control of the whole civil and military Government" of all of British India. The Act granted legislative powers to the Governor-General and Council. After 1858, the Governor-General functioned as the chief administrator of India and as the Sovereign's representative. India was divided into numerous provinces, each under the head of a governor, Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administ
Hridaynath Mangeshkar is a music director from India. He is the only son of noted musician Deenanath Mangeshkar and younger brother of Indian music legends Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle, he is popularly known as Balasaheb in the film industry. Hridaynath Mangeshkar is the only son of Deenanath Mangeshkar while his mother belonged to the Gomantak Maratha Samaj, he is a brother to four sisters, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Meena Khadikar and Usha Mangeshkar, youngest among them. He is married to daughter of Marathi comedian Damuanna Malvankar, they have a daughter Radha. In 2009, Radha launched her debut album Naav Maaza Shaami, she accompanies him in various stage shows. Hridaynath debuted his music career in 1955 with the Marathi film Akash Ganga. Since he has composed for various Marathi films such as Sansar, Chaani, Ha Khel Savalyancha, Jait Re Jait and Nivdung and a few Bollywood films, he has been selective with his work. He has composed songs in Hindi, his songs have complex meters and require singers of great range and depth for enjoyable renditions.
His composition of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar's poem Saagara Pran Talamalala is a case in point. His 1982 album Dnyaneshwar Mauli, featuring compositions from Jñāneśvar, one of the most famous poets in Marathi literature, set the standard for modern devotional music in Marathi, he composed music for Doordarshan musical drama Phoolwanti. He has composed folk songs. Staying true to the spirit, his Koli Geets reflect the traditional rhythms of the fishermen of Konkan, his music to the critically acclaimed movie Jait Re Jait is another example of his prowess in this genre. One of his most popular works is the composition for the Marathi film Nivdung. At one point, Hridaynath was a student of Ustad Amir Khan, he has been the recipient of several awards throughout his career, such as the prestigious National Award at the hands of the President of India, the Lata Mangeshkar Award of Maharashtra state, seven Maharashtra State Awards for Best Vocalist and Music Director/Composer. He was awarded the title pandit by the people of Maharashtra at the hands of Bhimsen Joshi and Jasraj.
The Shankaracharya has conferred upon him the title Bhaav Gandharva. He was awarded Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2009; some of his most memorable Hindi film scores are Harishchandra Taramati, Chakra, Lekin... Maya Memsaab, Lal Salaam, Yash Chopra's Mashaal and Chaani, to name a few, he is the first Indian composer to compose and release two entire albums featuring the poems and songs of the poet-saint Meera, titled Chala Vahi Des and Meera Bhajans. He has also composed and released an album titled Meera Soor Kabeera, featuring the works of Meera and Surdas, he produced an album featuring the ghazals of Ghalib, sung by Lata Mangeshkar. He has composed many songs for Asha Bhosle, his collaborations with noted Marathi poets such as Shanta Shelke and Suresh Bhat have produced many Marathi classic songs of unmatched popularity. He joined the political party Shiv Sena in 2009. 1990 – National Film Award for Best Music Direction for Lekin... Official citation: For using traditional tunes and instruments creatively, with lilting melody and haunting perfection.2009 – Padma Shri Mangeshkar Family Hridaynath Mangeshkar on IMDb
Dhule is a major city located in the Dhule District in northwestern part of Maharashtra state, India known as West Khandesh. Situated on the banks of Panzara River, Dhule is the regional headquarters of MIDC, RTO, MTDC; the city, with industrial areas, hospitals and residential areas, has communications and transport infrastructures. Dhule is emerging as one of the upcoming hubs of textile, edible oil, power-loom across the state and has gained a strategic advantage for being on the junction of three National Highways viz. NH-3, NH-6, NH-211 and on most anticipated Manmad - Indore Rail Project. Ministry of Surface Transport has granted conversion of surrounding 4 state highways to National Highway, after which Dhule would be the one amongst few cities in India being located on convergence of 7 National Highways. Conversion of NH-3 from four lanes to six lanes between Dhule and Nashik with modern facilities is under process. Dhule city is a part of Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project, as Node - 17, India's most ambitious infrastructure program, aiming to develop new industrial cities and converging next generation technologies across infrastructure sectors.
As a part of creating employment across smaller cities, Ministry of Electronics and IT has given in-principal approval for setting BPO at Dhule. Dhule is located at 20.9°N 74.78°E / 20.9. It has an average elevation of 250 metres. Dhule lies in the Khandesh region; the Dhule district is bordered in the west by the Gujarat State and in the north by Madhya Pradesh along with Nandurbar district, in the south and east by Nashik district and Jalgaon district respectively. It is situated in a valley of the Tapi River along the banks of the Panzara River; the climate of the district is on the whole dry except during the south-west monsoon season. The year may be divided into four seasons; the cold season from December to February is followed by the hot season from March to May. The south-west monsoon season which follows thereafter, lasts till September. October and November constitute the post-monsoon season; the average annual rainfall in the district is 674.0 mm. The rainfall is heavier in the hilly regions of the Western Ghats mountain range and the Satpura ranges.
From about the latter half of February, temperatures increase till May, the hottest part of the year with the mean daily maximum temperature at 40.7 degrees Celsius. From November, both day and night temperatures drop till January, the coldest month with the mean daily minimum at 16.2 degree Celsius. Except during the south-west monsoon season when the humidity is above 70 per cent, the air is rather dry over the district during the rest of the year; as of 2011 India census, Dhule had a population of 776,093. At the 2011 census, males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Dhule has an average literacy rate of 85%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80% and, female literacy is 69%. 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Until the beginning of the 19th century, Dhule was an insignificant village, subordinate to Laling, the capital of the Laling or Fatehabad Subdivision. Under the rule of the Nizam, Laling was incorporated with the District of Daulatabad.
The town passed successively through the hands of the Arab kings, the Mughals, the Nizam, into the power of the Peshwas about 1795. In 1803, it was deserted by its inhabitants on account of the ravages of Holkar and the terrible famine of that year. In the following year, Balaji Balwant, a dependant of the Vinchurkar, to whom the parganas of Laling and Songir had been granted by the Peshwa, repeopled the town, received from the Vinchurkar, in return for his services, a grant of inam land and other privileges, he was subsequently entrusted with the entire management of the territory of Songir and Laling, fixed his headquarters at Dhule, where he continued to exercise authority till the occupation of the country by the British in 1818. Dhule was chosen as the headquarters of the newly formed District of Khandesh by Captain John Briggs. In January 1819, he obtained sanction for building public offices for the transaction of revenue and judicial business. Artificers were brought from distant places, the buildings were erected at a total cost of £2700.
Every encouragement was offered to others to settle in the new town. Building sites were granted rent free in perpetuity, advances were made both to the old inhabitants and strangers to enable them to erect substantial houses. At this time, Captain Briggs described Dhule as a small town, surrounded by garden cultivation, shut in between an irrigation channel and the river; the town was located on the southern bank of the Panzara River with an area of about one square mile. In 1819, the population numbered only 2509 persons. In 1863, there were 10,000 inhabitants. From the date of its occupation by the British, the progress of Dhule had been steady. Towards the end of the 19th century the town had become significant trading centre due to the trade in cotton and linseed. Coarse cotton, woolen cloths and turbans were manufactured for local use around this time. In 1872, Dhule was visited by a severe flood. Dhule was a cantonment town, in year 1881 had two hospitals and post offices. In 1873-74 there were four Government schools, with 551 pupils.
The town has been divided into New and Old Dhule. In the latter, the houses were irregularly built, the majority being of a humble description. Educational facilities include: SE