In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It was released on 26 October 2004 for PlayStation 2, on 7 June 2005 for Microsoft Windows and Xbox. A high definition remastered version received a physical release for both Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 on 30 June 2015 and 1 December 2015, respectively, it is the seventh title in the Grand Theft Auto series, the first main entry since 2002's Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. It was released on the same day as the handheld game Grand Theft Auto Advance for Game Boy Advance. On 8 June 2018, the game was added to the Xbox One Backward Compatible library. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is played from a third-person perspective in an open world environment, allowing the player to interact with the game world at their leisure; the game is set within the fictional U. S. state of San Andreas, based on California and Nevada. The state of San Andreas consists of three metropolitan cities: Los Santos, based on Los Angeles.
The single-player story follows Carl "CJ" Johnson, an ex-gangbanger who returns home to Los Santos from Liberty City after his mother's murder. Carl finds his old friends and family in disarray, over the course of the game he attempts to re-establish his old gang, clashes with corrupt cops, unravels the truth behind his mother's murder; the plot is based on multiple real-life events in Los Angeles, including the rivalry between the Bloods and Hispanic street gangs, the 1980s crack epidemic, the LAPD Rampart scandal, the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Considered one of the sixth generation of video gaming's most significant titles, by many reviewers to be one of the greatest video games made, San Andreas received rave reviews by many critics who praised the music and gameplay, it became the best-selling video game of 2004, has sold over 27.5 million copies worldwide as of 2011. The game, like its predecessors, is cited as a landmark in video games for its far-reaching influence within the industry.
However, the violence and sexual content of San Andreas has been the source of much public concern and controversy. In particular, a player-made software patch, dubbed the "Hot Coffee mod", unlocked a hidden sexual scene; the next main entry in the series, Grand Theft Auto IV, was released in April 2008. San Andreas has been ported to various other platforms and services, such as OS X, Xbox Live, PlayStation Network and mobile devices. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is an action-adventure game with role-playing and stealth elements. Structured to the previous two games in the series, the core gameplay consists of elements in a third-person shooter and a driving game, affording the player a large, open world environment in which to move around. On foot, the player's character is capable of walking, sprinting, swimming and jumping as well as using weapons and various forms of hand-to-hand combat; the player can drive a variety of vehicles, including automobiles, semis, fixed-wing aircraft, trains, tanks and bikes.
The player may import vehicles in addition to stealing them. The open, non-linear environment allows the player to explore and choose how they wish to play the game. Although storyline missions are necessary to progress through the game and unlock certain cities and content, they are not required as the player can complete them at their own leisure; when not taking on a storyline mission, the player can freely-roam and look around the cities of San Andreas, eat in restaurants, or cause havoc by attacking people and causing destruction. Creating havoc can attract unwanted and fatal attention from the authorities; the more chaos caused, the stronger the response: police will handle "minor" infractions, whereas SWAT teams, the FBI, the military respond to higher wanted levels. The player can partake in a variety of optional side missions that can boost their character's attributes or provide another source of income; the traditional side missions of the past games are included, such as dropping off taxi cab passengers, putting out fires, driving injured people to the hospital and fighting crime as a vigilante.
New additions include burglary missions, pimping missions and train driving missions requiring the player to make deliveries on time, driving/flying/boating/biking schools, which help the player learn skills and techniques to use in their corresponding vehicles. Not all locations are open to the player at the start of the game; some locales, such as mod garages, restaurants and shops, become available only after completing certain missions. For the first portion of the game, only Los Santos and its immediate suburbs are available for exploration. If the player were to travel in locked locations early in the game, they would end up attracting the attention of SWAT teams and police-controlled Hydras if in an aircraft. Unlike Grand Theft Auto III and Vice City, which needed loading screens when the player moved between different districts of the city, San Andreas has no load times when the player is in transit; the only loading screens in the game are for interiors. Other differences between San Andreas and its predecessors include the switch from single-player to multiplayer Rampage missions, the replacement of the'hidden packages' with spray paint tags, hidden
Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at
Deep Cover is a 1992 American crime-thriller film starring Laurence Fishburne and Jeff Goldblum and directed by veteran actor Bill Duke. It is notable for its theme song of the same name, composed by Dr. Dre and the then-newcomer Snoop Dogg. Fishburne plays a police officer who goes undercover in a sting operation in Los Angeles to bring down a West Coast drug cartel; the film received positive reviews. In Cleveland, 1972, Russell Stevens Jr. is the son of a drug addicted, alcoholic man, who tells his son never to be like him. Stevens witnesses his father getting shot and killed while robbing a liquor store, he swears. In 1991, Stevens is a police officer, he is recruited by DEA Special Agent Gerald Carver to go undercover in Los Angeles, claiming that his criminal-like character traits will be more of a benefit undercover than they would serve him as a uniformed policeman. Stevens poses as drug dealer "John Hull" in order to infiltrate and work his way up the network of the West Coast's largest drug importer, Anton Gallegos and his uncle Hector Guzmán, a South American politician.
Stevens relocates to a cheap hotel in L. A. and begins dealing cocaine. One day, Stevens is arrested by the devoutly religious LAPD Narcotics Detective Taft and his corrupt partner Hernández, as he buys a kilogram in a set-up by Gallegos' low-level street supplier Eddie Dudley. At his arraignment, Stevens discovers that he bought baby laxative instead of cocaine and his case is dismissed. Stevens' self-appointed attorney David Jason, a drug trafficker in Gallegos' network, rewards Stevens' silence with more cocaine and introduces Stevens to Felix Barbossa, the underboss to Gallegos. Felix kills Eddie when he finds out he's working with the LAPD and enlists Stevens as Eddie's replacement. Stevens develops a romance with Betty McCutcheon, the manager of an art dealership, a front to launder Jason's drug money; when one of Stevens' dealers is murdered by a rival dealer, Stevens kills him and is awarded a partnership in Jason's new business: distribution of a synthetic chemical variant of cocaine.
Felix is a confidential informant working with Detective Hernández. Felix gives up Stevens and Betty, wants Jason killed during the arrest because of his business venture. Carver knows about this, but refuses to interfere forcing Stevens to violate orders and stop it himself by exposing Felix, which results in a vengeful Jason killing him, while Betty reneges the drug business because of it with Stevens' protection. Gallegos comes to meet with Jason and Stevens and informs them that they have inherited Felix's debts to him; that day, Stevens meets with Carver to tell him about his meeting with Gallegos. Instead Carver pulls orders him to surrender his weapon and get in his car. Angrily, Stevens disarms Carver and forces him to admit that the State Department has decided to leave Gallegos alone because Guzmán may some day be useful as a political asset to them and Carver has decided to play along in exchange for career advancement. Stevens' disillusionment reaches its conclusion and he abandons his undercover status vowing to take down Gallegos and Guzmán alone.
Stevens and Jason learn that Gallegos is going to kill them anyway, so they kill him first and steal a van storing over a $100 million of Gallegos' cash. Jason and Stevens invite Guzmán to a shipyard and offer to return 80% of Gallegos' money if he agrees to invest the remaining 20% in their synthetic cocaine operation. Detective Taft, tailing Stevens, interrupts the deal but is unable to arrest Guzmán because of his diplomatic immunity. Guzmán leaves. Taft orders is shot and killed by Jason. Stevens reveals himself as a police officer and attempts to arrest Jason, but is forced to kill him in self-defense. Afterwards, Carver coerces Stevens into testifying in favor of him and the DEA in return for not charging Betty for money laundering. Stevens produces a videotape of the incriminating conversation with Guzmán at the shipyard during his testimony to the House Judiciary Subcommittee, ruining the State Department's intentions along with Guzmán and Carver's careers, he contemplates what to do with the $11 million of Gallegos' money he secretly kept.
Deep Cover was released on April 17, 1992 in 901 theaters grossing $3.4 million on its opening weekend. It went on to make $16.6 million in North America. The majority of critics responded favorably towards Deep Cover. Film critic Roger Ebert gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four and praised the voice-over narration as "poetic and colorful. That's part of the process elevating the story from the mundane to the mythic". Janet Maslin, in her review for The New York Times, praised the "quietly commanding Larry Fishburne and the wry Jeff Goldblum, who make an interestingly offbeat team". In his review for The Chicago Reader, Jonathan Rosenbaum wrote, "What emerges is a powerhouse thriller full of surprises, original touches, rare political lucidity". Rolling Stone magazine's Peter Travers wrote, "Duke makes the perks of the drug lifestyle palpably seductive, but this time there's something new in the snortscrew-slay formula: a working conscience". However, in his review for The Washington Post, Desson Howe wrote, "With Boyz n the Hood, Fishburne broke through to the big time.
Here, his acting career takes a step backwards". Entertainment Weekly gave the film a "B-" rating and Owen Gleiberman wrote, "The movie peels away every layer of hope, revealing a red-hot core of nihilistic despair. Fishburne, with his hair-trigger line readings and deadly reptilian gaze, conveys the controlled desperation of someone watching his own faith unravel, and Goldblum reveals a new dimension of comic rottishness"
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Clifford Joseph Harris Jr. known professionally as T. I. and Tip, is actor. Harris signed his first major-label record deal in 1999 with Arista subsidiary LaFace. In 2001, Harris formed the Southern hip hop group P$C, alongside his longtime friends and fellow Atlanta-based rappers Big Kuntry King, Mac Boney, C-Rod. Upon being released from Arista, Harris signed to Atlantic and subsequently became the co-chief executive officer of his own label imprint, Grand Hustle Records, which he launched in 2003. Harris is known as one of the artists who popularized the hip hop subgenre trap music, along with Young Jeezy and Gucci Mane. Harris has released ten studio albums, with seven of them reaching the top five of the US Billboard 200 chart. Throughout his career, Harris has released several successful singles, including Billboard Hot 100 number one hits "Whatever You Like" and "Live Your Life", the replaced the former atop the chart and helped Harris join a select group of artists to replace themselves at number one and occupy the top two positions.
Harris began to gain major recognition in 2003, following his first high-profile feature, on fellow Atlanta-based rapper Bone Crusher's single, "Never Scared". Harris earned more prominence with the release of Trap Muzik, which includes the Top 40 songs, "Rubber Band Man" and "Let's Get Away"; the next year, Harris appeared on Destiny's Child's international hit, "Soldier", alongside Lil Wayne, released his third album Urban Legend. His subsequent albums, King and T. I. vs. T. I. P. generated high record sales and were supported by popular singles, such as "What You Know" and "Big Shit Poppin'", respectively. Harris' sixth album, Paper Trail, became his most successful project, with the album being certified gold for first-week sales of over 500,000 copies in the United States, additionally making it his third consecutive number one album. In 2013, Harris was featured on Robin Thicke's single "Blurred Lines", alongside Pharrell Williams, which peaked at number one on several major music charts.
In November 2013, Harris announced that he had signed with Columbia Records, after his 10-year contract with Atlantic came to an end. He released his Columbia Records debut, Paperwork, in October 2014. In February 2016, Harris announced he signed a distribution deal with Roc Nation, to release his tenth album. Harris has won three Grammy Awards. Harris has served two terms in county jail, twice for probation violations and a federal prison bid for a U. S. federal weapons charge. While serving 11 months in prison, he released No Mercy. Harris has had a successful acting career, starring in the films ATL, Get Hard, Identity Thief, the Ant-Man films, he is a published author, having written two novels Power & Beauty and Trouble & Triumph, both of which were released to moderate success. Harris has starred in the American reality television series T. I.'s Road to Redemption, T. I. & Tiny: The Family Hustle, The Grand Hustle. In 2009, Billboard ranked him as the 27th Artist of the 2000s decade. Clifford Joseph Harris Jr. was born on September 25, 1980, in Atlanta, the son of Clifford "Buddy" Harris Sr. and Violeta Morgan.
He was raised by his grandparents in Atlanta's Center Hill neighborhood just off Bankhead Highway. His father resided in New York City, he would go there to visit. Buddy Harris died from the disease. Through his grandmother, he is of Cherokee descent. T. I. Began rapping at age eight, he attended Douglass High School, but dropped out. His stage name came from his childhood nickname "Tip", after his paternal great-grandfather, he was once known as Rubber Band Man, a reference to the custom of wearing rubber bands around the wrist to denote wealth in terms of drugs or money. In 1996, T. I. befriended local rapper Big Kuntry King, together they sold mixtapes out of the trunk of their car. Kawan "KP" Prather, a record executive, discovered T. I. and signed him to his record label Ghet-O-Vision Entertainment. Upon signing with Arista Records subsidiary LaFace Records in 1999, he shortened his name from Tip to T. I. out of respect for Arista label-mate Q-Tip. T. I. relays the situation as: we was trying to release my first album.
The people who had to market, and, you know, just spread the word on it communicated that it was somewhat difficult or confusing to have two Tips in one building. So out of respect and just the legendary reputation and career that preceded that situation, I conceded. My problem, or conflict, at the time, was now this is what I've been called all my life, what do I change my name to? So, I guess, that began to hold my project up.'What are we gonna call him?' You know what I'm saying? So at that point we had to come to some sort of a resolution, and KP, who signed me to LaFace, he just said,'OK, look man, how about T. I.?' Cause on this one record I had, it was like,'T-I-P.' I was like, ` Wait wait a minute. No; that was — you left out a letter still!' You know what I'm saying? He was like, "Well, listen man. You got something better?','No, I don't have — I don't have anything better."Well, that's what we going with, man.' So it's kinda. T. I. released his debut album, I'm Serious, in October 2001 through Arista Records.
The album spawned the eponymous single. T. I.'s debut single, "I'm Serious," was released on June 26, 2001. The single failed to chart; the album features guest appearances from his Southern hip hop group P$C, Jazze Pha, Too Short, Bone Crusher, Lil Jon, Pastor Tro
Janet Damita Jo Jackson is an American singer, songwriter and dancer. A prominent figure in popular culture, she is known for sonically innovative conscious and sexually provocative records, elaborate stage shows; the youngest child of the Jackson family, she began her career with the variety television series The Jacksons in 1976 and went on to appear in other television shows throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, including Good Times and Fame. After signing a recording contract with A&M Records in 1982, she became a pop icon following the release of her third and fourth studio albums Control and Rhythm Nation 1814, her collaborations with record producers Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis incorporated elements of rhythm and blues, disco and industrial beats, which led to crossover success in popular music. In 1991 Jackson signed the first of two record-breaking multimillion-dollar contracts with Virgin Records, establishing her as one of the highest-paid artists in the industry, her fifth album Janet saw her develop a public image as a sex symbol as she began to explore sexuality in her music.
That same year, she appeared in her first starring film role in Poetic Justice. Jackson released her sixth studio album The Velvet Rope, distinguished for its innovative production and dark lyrical content. By the end of the 1990s, she was named by Billboard magazine as the second most successful recording artist of the decade after Mariah Carey, her seventh album All for You coincided with a celebration of her impact on the recording industry as the inaugural MTV Icon. After parting ways with Virgin Records, she released her tenth album Discipline, her first and only album with Island Records. In 2015, she partnered with BMG Rights Management to launch her own record label, Rhythm Nation, released her eleventh album Unbreakable the same year. Jackson is one of the world's best-selling music artists, selling over 180 million albums, she has amassed an extensive catalog, with singles such as "Nasty", "Rhythm Nation", "That's the Way Love Goes", "Together Again" and "All for You". In 2008, Billboard placed her number seven on its list of the Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists, in 2010 ranked her fifth among the "Top 50 R&B/Hip-Hop Artists of the Past 25 Years".
In December 2016, the magazine named her the second most successful dance club artist of all-time after Madonna. She has been cited as an inspiration among numerous performers. Jackson was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2019. Janet Jackson was born on May 16, 1966 in Gary, the youngest of ten children, to Katherine Esther and Joseph Walter Jackson; the Jacksons were lower-middle class and devout Jehovah's Witnesses, although Jackson would refrain from organized religion. At a young age, her brothers began performing as the Jackson 5 in the Chicago-Gary area. In March 1969, the group signed a record deal with Motown, soon had their first number-one hit; the family moved to the Encino neighborhood of Los Angeles. Jackson had desired to become a horse racing jockey or entertainment lawyer, with plans to support herself through acting. Despite this, she was anticipated to pursue a career in entertainment, considered the idea after recording herself in the studio. At age seven, Jackson performed at the MGM Casino on the Las Vegas Strip.
A biography revealed her father, Joseph Jackson, was withdrawn, told her to address him by his first name as a child. She began acting in the variety show The Jacksons in 1976. In 1977, she was selected to have a starring role as Penny Gordon Woods in the sitcom Good Times, she starred in A New Kind of Family and got a recurring role on Diff'rent Strokes, portraying Charlene Duprey from seasons three to six. Jackson played the role of Cleo Hewitt during the fourth season of Fame, but expressed indifference towards the series due to the emotional stress of her secret marriage to R&B singer, James DeBarge. Jackson elaborated on her time on the show in an interview with Anderson Cooper, revealing that the cast would play pranks on her, but she spoke fondly of them; when Jackson was sixteen, her father and manager Joseph Jackson, arranged a contract for her with A&M Records. Her debut album, Janet Jackson, was released in 1982, it was produced by Angela Winbush, René Moore, Bobby Watson of Rufus and Leon Sylvers III, overseen by her father Joseph.
It peaked at No. 63 on the Billboard 200, No. 6 on the publication's R&B albums chart, receiving little promotion. The album appeared on the Billboard Top Black Albums of 1983, while Jackson herself was the highest-ranking female vocalist on the Billboard Year-End Black Album Artists. Jackson's second album, Dream Street, was released two years later. Dream Street reached No. 147 on the Billboard 200, No. 19 on the R&B albums chart. The lead single. Both albums consisted of bubblegum pop music. After her second album, Jackson terminated business affairs with her family, commenting "I just wanted to get out of the house, get out from under my father, one of the most difficult things that I had to do." Attempting a third album, Jackson teamed with producers Jimmy Terry Lewis. They set out to achieve crossover pop appeal, while creating a strong foundation within the urban market. Within six weeks and the duo crafted her third studio album, released in February 1986; the album shot to No. 1 on the Billboard 200, was certified f