SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Deep Space 1

Deep Space 1 was a NASA technology demonstration spacecraft which flew by an asteroid and a comet. It was part of the New Millennium Program, dedicated to testing advanced technologies. Launched on 24 October 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft carried out a flyby of asteroid 9969 Braille, its primary science target; the mission was extended twice to include an encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly and further engineering testing. Problems during its initial stages and with its star tracker led to repeated changes in mission configuration. While the flyby of the asteroid was only a partial success, the encounter with the comet retrieved valuable information. Three of twelve technologies on board had to work within a few minutes of separation from the carrier rocket for the mission to continue; the Deep Space series was continued by the Deep Space 2 probes, which were launched in January 1999 piggybacked on the Mars Polar Lander and were intended to strike the surface of Mars. Deep Space 1 was the first NASA spacecraft to use ion propulsion rather than the traditional chemical-powered rockets.

The purpose of Deep Space 1 was technology validation for future missions. The asteroids in the inner Solar System move in relation to other bodies at a noticeable, predictable speed, thus a spacecraft can determine its relative position by tracking such asteroids across the star background, which appears fixed over such timescales. Two or more asteroids let. Existing spacecraft are tracked by their interactions with the transmitters of the NASA Deep Space Network, in effect an inverse GPS. However, DSN tracking requires many skilled operators, the DSN is overburdened by its use as a communications network; the use of Autonav reduces mission cost and DSN demands. The Autonav system can be used in reverse, tracking the position of bodies relative to the spacecraft; this is used to acquire targets for the scientific instruments. The spacecraft is programmed with the target's coarse location. After initial acquisition, Autonav keeps the subject in frame commandeering the spacecraft's attitude control.

The next spacecraft to use Autonav was Deep Impact. Primary power for the mission was produced by a new solar array technology, the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology, which uses linear Fresnel lenses made of silicone to concentrate sunlight onto solar cells. ABLE Engineering developed the concentrator technology and built the solar array for DS1, with Entech Inc, who supplied the Fresnel optics, the NASA Glenn Research Center; the activity was sponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. The concentrating lens technology was combined with dual-junction solar cells, which had better performance than the GaAs solar cells that were the state of the art at the time of the mission launch; the SCARLET arrays generated 2.5 kilowatts at 1 AU, with less size and weight than conventional arrays. Although ion engines had been developed at NASA since the late 1950s, with the exception of the SERT missions in the 1960s, the technology had not been demonstrated in flight on United States spacecraft, though hundreds of Hall-effect engines had been used on Soviet and Russian spacecraft.

This lack of a performance history in space meant that despite the potential savings in propellant mass, the technology was considered too experimental to be used for high-cost missions. Furthermore, unforeseen side effects of ion propulsion might in some way interfere with typical scientific experiments, such as fields and particle measurements. Therefore, it was a primary mission of the Deep Space 1 demonstration to show long-duration use of an ion thruster on a scientific mission; the NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness electrostatic ion thruster, developed at NASA Glenn, achieves a specific impulse of 1000–3000 seconds. This is an order of magnitude higher than traditional space propulsion methods, resulting in a mass savings of half; this leads to much cheaper launch vehicles. Although the engine produces just 92 millinewtons thrust at maximal power, the craft achieved high speeds because ion engines thrust continuously for long periods; the next spacecraft to use NSTAR engines was Dawn, with three redundant units.

Remote Agent, remote intelligent self-repair software developed at NASA's Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was the first artificial-intelligence control system to control a spacecraft without human supervision. Remote Agent demonstrated the ability to plan onboard activities and diagnose and respond to simulated faults in spacecraft components through its built-in REPL environment. Autonomous control will enable future spacecraft to operate at greater distances from Earth and to carry out more sophisticated science-gathering activities in deep space. Components of the Remote Agent software have been used to support other NASA missions. Major components of Remote Agent were a robust planner, a plan-execution system and a model-based diagnostic system. EUROPA was used as a ground-based planner for the Mars Exploration Rovers

Stanbic Bank 20 Series

The Domestic Twenty20 known as and Stanbic Bank Twenty20 the Metropolitan Bank Twenty20 is the domestic Twenty20 cricket competition in Zimbabwe. It was maintained by Zimbabwe Cricket, it features all the domestic players from Zimbabwe and some international stars. The tournament has risen in profile with some high-quality cricket, the attraction of major international stars such as Brian Lara, Ryan Sidebottom, Chris Gayle, Shaun Tait, Ian Harvey, Dirk Nannes; the tournament rose in profile after the reorganization of cricket in Zimbabwe. It was so successful in the 2009 -- 10 season. In 2009–10, a domestic-cricket record 7500 spectators came into the Harare Sports Club to see the final between Mountaineers and Mashonaland Eagles, it was most sponsored by Stanbic Bank Limited. Northerns Easterns Southerns Westerns Centrals Desert Vipers Winner: Southerns Runner-up: Easterns Official Website: Metropolitan Bank Twenty20 2006/07 on BRMTaylor.com Dates: 30 March 2007 – 1 April 2007The inaugural edition of the Metropolitan Bank Twenty20 series was held in early 2007, however sadly the scorecards were never made available, so for the players that participated in this tournament, their statistics would not have been recorded.

Many of the countries top cricketers were not able to take part in the tournament as they were competing in the ICC World Cup in the West Indies, however many of the second tier players such as Timycen Maruma – who had played in Zimbabwe's only official Twenty20 to date, against the Eagles in South Africa – and Blessing Mahwire did take part. The tournament took place in the eastern border city of Mutare. Winner: Easterns Runner-up: Westerns Dates: 19 March 2008 – 21 March 2008 Official Website: Metropolitan Bank Twenty20 2007/08 at ESPNCricinfo Main Article: 2007–08 Metropolitan Bank Twenty20The 2008 season was held between 19–21 March 2008; the tournament kicked off the provincial domestic season, featured all of the countries top cricketers. Easterns were the dominant team of the tournament, there was some concern that Zimbabwe Cricket had placed the countries top players, such as Hamilton Masakadza, Prosper Utseya, Stuart Matsikenyeri and Timycen Maruma, in this team to show there is depth outside of the urban centres.

However, Northerns province, who featured Brendan Taylor, Elton Chigumbura, Ray Price, Tatenda Taibu and Graeme Cremer, were arguably a stronger side, they didn't make it to the finals, suggesting that the claims were unfounded. The tournament featured several names from the past, such as fast bowler Ian Nicolson, batsman Malcolm Waller and bowler Brian Vitori. However, there were several noticeable missing faces, such as Khawaluni Ntuil, the Westerns fast bowler, Freedom Takarusenga, the Westerns all-rounder, Kyle Jarvis, the under 19's fast bowler, unlucky to miss out on a place in the Northerns squad; the three-day tournament was held in Harare, with matches being shared between Harare Sports Club and the Country Club. The first 2 days saw four matches being played, two in the morning with one at each venue, two in the afternoon with one at each venue again; the final day had a regular morning routine, but instead of the typical two afternoon matches, it was just the final match at Harare Sports Club.

Easterns maintained their increasing stranglehold in domestic cricket with a 7-run win over Westerns at Harare Sports Club, Harare. Eastern's total of 142/9 was entirely down to Hamilton Masakadza's 57-ball 82 not out, the partnership with his younger brother Shingirai Masakadza, was the only partnership of note. Westerns were on course when Keith Dabengwa and Greg Strydom were adding 62 for the third wicket but Prosper Utseya put the brakes on the innings and the last five wickets fell for 27 runs. Easterns now had won all the major tournaments: The Logan Cup, The Faithwear Cup, the Metropolitan Bank Twenty20. Unsurprisingly, Hamilton Masakadza was named the Man of the Tournament. After the tournament, Steven Price wrote on Cricinfo from Harare that the poor standards of cricket had blighted Zimbabwe's Twenty20 domestic competition. For more information on squads and star players for this tournament, see: BRMTaylor Champions: Westerns Runners-up: Northerns Dates: 13 May 2009 – 16 May 2009 Official Website: Metropolitan Bank Twenty20 2009 on ESPNCricinfoAfter two disappointing Logan Cup and Faithwear campaigns, Westerns came to life in the Metropolitan Bank Twenty20 tournament for 2008–09.

This season all of the matches were played in Bulawayo, split between Queens Sports Club and Bulawayo Athletic Club. The home ground advantage worked in Westerns favour – they won the title in a gripping four run win over Northerns in the final. Mark Vermeulen was the player of the tournament, playing in all seven matches he was comfortably the leading run scorer, his 108 for Westerns against Centrals was the highest of the series. Elton Chigumbura, the Northerns captain, was the only other century maker, his average boosting 103 not out came against Centrals; the big name bowlers didn't make an impact in this tournament. The biggest name of all – Ray Price – did not play a single match; the domestic fast bowlers were the most successful, with Trevor Garwe leading the way with 13 wickets at 9.15. Njabulo Ncube and Michael Chinouya took 10 wickets each. For economy rate, leg spinner Graeme Cremer was in a league of his own, his 6 wickets came at 21.16. Nobody else conceded under 5 an over, Prosper Utseya was the second most economical

Elijah Baldwin Huntington

Elijah Baldwin Huntington was an American minister and author. Huntington, the eldest son of Deacon Nehemiah and Nancy Huntington, was born in Conn.. August 14, 1816, he entered Yale College as part of the class of 1850, but by ill-health and want of means he was obliged to leave college at the beginning of the Sophomore year, but in 1851 the degree of Master of Arts was conferred on him, his name has subsequently been enrolled with his class. He taught school in Connecticut for several years, going over in the mean time the regular college studies and pursuing a theological course, in 1845 he was licensed to preach by the New London Association of Congregational ministers. After laboring for the American Bible Society, he was engaged in organizing a church in Putnam village in Windham County, Conn. which had begun to form about a station of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad, and, included in the present town of Putnam. Here he was ordained in November, 1848, his voice failing, he was dismissed from this charge after two years' service, in the spring of 1851 became the principal of a school in West Meriden, Conn.

In the fall of 1852 he was invited to Waterbury, Conn. as principal of the high school, superintendent of the other schools of the city. He removed again in December, 1854, to Stamford, Conn. where he had charge of a public school until 1857, when he opened a private school for boys, which he continued until 1864. He devoted himself to literary labor, residing in Stamford until April, 1875, when he became acting pastor of the Congregational Church in South Coventry, Conn, he retired from this service in April 1877, continued a resident of the town until his death. He was prostrated by an attack of paralysis in November 1877, after lingering for more than a month, died December 27, in the 62d year of his age, he was married, March 6, 1843, to Julia Maria, daughter of Deacon Thomas Welch, of Windham, Conn. who survived him without children. Huntington published in 1863 A Genealogical Memoir of the Huntington Family; this article incorporates public domain material from the Yale Obituary Record.

Elijah Baldwin Huntington at Find a Grave Books by Huntington