Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire and Wrexham county borough to the west. Cheshire's county town is the City of Chester. Other major towns include Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Northwich, Runcorn and Winsford The county covers 905 square miles and has a population of around 1 million, it is rural, with a number of small towns and villages supporting the agricultural and other industries which produce Cheshire cheese, salt and silk. Cheshire's name was derived from an early name for Chester, was first recorded as Legeceasterscir in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, meaning "the shire of the city of legions". Although the name first appears in 980, it is thought that the county was created by Edward the Elder around 920. In the Domesday Book, Chester was recorded as having the name Cestrescir, derived from the name for Chester at the time. A series of changes that occurred as English itself changed, together with some simplifications and elision, resulted in the name Cheshire, as it occurs today.
Because of the close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west, which became modern Wales, there is a history of interaction between Cheshire and North Wales. The Domesday Book records Cheshire as having two complete Hundreds that became the principal part of Flintshire. Additionally, another large portion of the Duddestan Hundred became known as Maelor Saesneg when it was transferred to North Wales. For this and other reasons, the Welsh language name for Cheshire is sometimes used. After the Norman conquest of 1066 by William I, dissent and resistance continued for many years after the invasion. In 1069 local resistance in Cheshire was put down using draconian measures as part of the Harrying of the North; the ferocity of the campaign against the English populace was enough to end all future resistance. Examples were made of major landowners such as Earl Edwin of Mercia, their properties confiscated and redistributed amongst Norman barons. William I made Cheshire a county palatine and gave Gerbod the Fleming the new title of Earl of Chester.
When Gerbod returned to Normandy in about 1070, the king used his absence to declare the earldom forfeit and gave the title to Hugh d'Avranches. Because of Cheshire's strategic location on Welsh Marches, the Earl had complete autonomous powers to rule on behalf of the king in the county palatine; the earldom was sufficiently independent from the kingdom of England that the 13th-century Magna Carta did not apply to the shire of Chester, so the earl wrote up his own Chester Charter at the petition of his barons. Cheshire in the Domesday Book is recorded as a much larger county, it included two hundreds and Exestan, that became part of North Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, it included as part of Duddestan Hundred the area of land known as English Maelor in Wales; the area between the Mersey and Ribble formed part of the returns for Cheshire. Although this has been interpreted to mean that at that time south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, more exhaustive research indicates that the boundary between Cheshire and what was to become Lancashire remained the River Mersey.
With minor variations in spelling across sources, the complete list of hundreds of Cheshire at this time are: Atiscross, Chester, Exestan, Middlewich, Roelau, Tunendune and Wilaveston. Feudal baronies or baronies by tenure were granted by the Earl as forms of feudal land tenure within the palatinate in a similar way to which the king granted English feudal baronies within England proper. An example is the barony of Halton. One of Hugh d'Avranche's barons has been identified as Robert Nicholls, Baron of Halton and Montebourg. In 1182 the land north of the Mersey became administered as part of the new county of Lancashire, thus resolving any uncertainty about the county in which the land "Inter Ripam et Mersam" was. Over the years, the ten hundreds consolidated and changed names to leave just seven—Broxton, Eddisbury, Nantwich and Wirral. In 1397 the county had lands in the march of Wales added to its territory, was promoted to the rank of principality; this was because of the support the men of the county had given to King Richard II, in particular by his standing armed force of about 500 men called the "Cheshire Guard".
As a result, the King's title was changed to "King of England and France, Lord of Ireland, Prince of Chester". No other English county has been honoured in this way, although it lost the distinction on Richard's fall in 1399. Through the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, some areas in the north became part of the metropolitan counties of Greater Manchester and Merseyside. Stockport, Hyde and Stalybridge in the north-east became part of Greater Manchester. Much of the Wirral Peninsula in the north-west, including the county boroughs of Birkenhead and Wallasey, joined Merseyside as the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral. At the same time the Tintwistle Rural District was transferred to Derbyshire; the area of south Lancashire not included within either the Merseyside or Greater Manchester counties, including Widnes and the county b
Tata Steel Limited Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited is an Indian multinational steel-making company headquartered in Mumbai, India, a subsidiary of the Tata Group. It is one of the top steel producing companies globally with annual crude steel deliveries of 27.5 million tonnes, the second largest steel company in India with an annual capacity of 13 million tonnes after SAIL. Tata Steel has manufacturing operations in 26 countries, including Australia, India, the Netherlands, Singapore and the United Kingdom, employs around 80,500 people, its largest plant is located in Jharkhand. In 2007 Tata Steel acquired, it was ranked 486th in the 2014 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations. It was the seventh most valuable Indian brand of 2013 as per Brand Finance. Tata Iron and Steel Company was founded by Jamsetji Tata and established by Dorabji Tata on 26 August 1907, began producing steel in 1912 as a branch of Jamsetji's Tata Group. By 1939, it operated the largest steel plant in the British Empire.
The company launched a major modernization and expansion program in 1951. In 1958, the program was upgraded to 2 million metric tonnes per annum project. By 1970, the company employed around 40,000 people at Jamshedpur, a further 20,000 in the neighbouring coal mines. In 1971 and 1979, there were unsuccessful attempts to nationalise the company. In 1990, the company began to expand, established its subsidiary, Tata Inc. in New York. The company changed its name from TISCO to Tata Steel Ltd. in 2005. Tata Steel on Thursday, 12 February 2015 announced buying three strip product services centres in Sweden and Norway from SSAB to strengthen its offering in Nordic region; the company, did not disclose the value of the transactions. In September 2017, ThyssenKrupp of Germany and Tata Steel announced plans to combine their European steel-making businesses; the deal will structure the European assets as an equal joint venture. The announcement estimated that the company would be Europe’s second-largest steelmaker, listed future headquarters in Amsterdam.
NatSteel in 2004: In August 2004, Tata Steel agreed to acquire the steel making operations of the Singapore-based NatSteel for $486.4 million in cash. NatSteel had ended 2003 with a profit before tax of $47 million; the steel businesses of NatSteel would be run by the company through a wholly owned subsidiary called Natsteel Asia Pte Ltd. The acquisition was completed in February 2005. At the time of acquisition, NatSteel had a capacity of about 2 million tonnes per annum of finished steel. Millennium Steel in 2005: Tata Steel acquired a majority stake in the Thailand-based steelmaker Millennium Steel for a total cost of $130 million, it paid US$73 million to Siam Cement for a 40% stake and offered to pay 1.13 baht per share for another 25% of the shares of other shareholders. For the year 2004, Millennium Steel had revenues of US$406 million and a profit after tax of US$29 million. At the time of acquisition, Millennium Steel was the largest steel company in Thailand with a capacity of 1.7 million metric tonnes per annum, producing long products for construction and engineering steel for auto industries.
Millennium Steel is headquartered in Bangkok. On 31 March 2013, it held approx. 68% shares in the acquired company. Corus in 2007: On 20 October 2006, Tata Steel signed a deal with Anglo-Dutch company, Corus to buy 100% stake at £4.3 billion at 455 pence per share. On 19 November 2006, the Brazilian steel company Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional launched a counter offer for Corus at 475 pence per share, valuing it at £4.5 billion. On 11 December 2006, Tata preemptively upped its offer to 500 pence per share, within hours trumped by CSN's offer of 515 pence per share, valuing the deal at £4.9 billion. The Corus board promptly recommended both the revised offers to its shareholders. On 31 January 2007, Tata Steel won their bid for Corus after offering 608 pence per share, valuing Corus at £6.7 billion. In 2005, Corus employed around 47,300 people worldwide, including 24,000 in the UK. At the time of acquisition, Corus was four times larger than Tata Steel, in terms of annual steel production. Corus was the world's 9th largest producer of Steel.
The acquisition made Tata Steel world's 5th largest producer of Steel. 2 Rolling mill companies in Vietnam in 2007: Tata Steel through its wholly owned Singapore subsidiary, NatSteel Asia Pte Ltd, acquired controlling stake in two rolling mill companies located in Vietnam: Structure Steel Engineering Pte Ltd and Vinausteel Ltd. The enterprise value for the acquisition was $41 million. With this acquisition, Tata Steel got hold of two rolling mills, a 250k tonnes per year bar/wire rod mill operated by SSE Steel Ltd and a 180k tonnes per year reinforcing bar mill operated by Vinausteel Ltd. Tata Steel is headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra and has its marketing headquarters at the Tata Centre in Kolkata, West Bengal, it has a presence in around 50 countries with manufacturing operations in 26 countries including: India, Vietnam, Thailand, UAE, Ivory Coast, South Africa, United Kingdom, The Netherlands and Canada. Tata Steel serves customers in the automotive, consumer goods, packaging and excavating, energy and power, shipbuilding and defence and security sectors.
Tata Steel has set a target of achieving an annual production capacity of 100 million tons by 2015.
Hawarden railway station
Hawarden railway station serves the village of Hawarden in Flintshire, Wales. It is situated on the Borderlands Line 10½ miles north of Wrexham Central and all passenger services are operated by Transport for Wales; the station is unstaffed. The station is located on the "Hawarden Loop" section of the Wrexham and Connah's Quay Railway and was opened with the line in 1890, it is close to the summit of a steep bank from Shotton, with a ruling gradient of 1 in 53. The station had a goods yard, which closed on 4 May 1964. From 1890 until 2 November 1979, situated at the southern end of the Wrexham-bound platform, a 20-lever signal box was in use; as noted, the station is unmanned and has no ticket machine, so tickets must be purchased on the train or prior to travel. The former station building is still extant though modified and the station retains its lattice footbridge. Train running information is offered via timetable posters. Step-free access is only possible to the southbound platform. Services operate every hour each way between Wrexham Bidston.
On weekday evenings & bank holidays, the frequency drops to two-hourly and on Sundays there are six departures each way. Passengers can change at Bidston for Liverpool, Shotton for North Wales and Manchester Piccadilly and at Wrexham General for Shrewsbury, Birmingham New Street and South Wales. Mitchell, Vic. Wrexham to New Brighton. West Sussex: Middleton Press. ISBN 9781908174475. OCLC 859543196. Train times and station information for Hawarden railway station from National Rail
Deeside is book published in 1911 describing the geography, history of Deeside, in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It is a wide-ranging book that describes the geography of the Dee Valley from the source of the River Dee in the Cairngorms to its mouth at Aberdeen, its history. Chapter 1 - Introductory Chapter 2 - The Sources - The Aberdeenshire Highlands Chapter 3 - Braemar - The Jacobites Chapter 4 - Invercauld To Balmoral Chapter 5 - Balmoral - The Royal Residence Chapter 6 - Crathie Church - Abergeldie Castle Chapter 7 - Lochnagar - Glenmuick Chapter 8 - Ballater Chapter 9 - Aboyne And Glentanar Chapter 10 - Aboyne To Banchory Chapter 11 - Banchory - Crathes Castle Chapter 12 - Lower Deeside - Drum Castle
Arriva North West
Arriva North West is a bus operator running services in North West England. It is a subsidiary of Arriva UK Bus. Arriva North West was formed following the split of Ribble Motor Services in preparation for privatisation in 1986, with the operations in Merseyside, West Lancashire and Wigan trading as North Western; the name was taken from the former North Western operations, which ran between 1923 and 1976. In 1988 the North Western operations were sold to Drawlane, sold to British Bus, who took over the operations of the Bee Line Buzz Company, who ran services in Greater Manchester. In 1996, British Bus was bought by the Cowie Group. In November 1997 Cowie was rebranded as Arriva with North Western becoming Arriva North West in 1998. In February 2000, Arriva North West purchased MTL Trust Holdings, which created a larger presence in the Merseyside area and more than doubled the size of the company. In 2002, Arriva North West merged with Arriva Buses Wales to form Arriva North Wales. Three former Arriva Midlands depots in Crewe and Winsford were transferred into the North West & Wales operation, although Crewe closed in December 2005.
In July 2005 Arriva purchased Blue Bus & Coach Services, which doubled their presence in Greater Manchester. In January 2009, the Wales operation was split from Arriva North West as Arriva Buses Wales with the Arriva North West name resurrected for the North West England operations. Although the company is known as Arriva North West, some operations were registered under alternative Arriva names. Former Bee Line operations were registered as Arriva Manchester, some Liverpool operations and confusingly, the former Blue Bus operations were registered as Arriva Liverpool; as of Autumn 2011 a large proportion of services in Merseyside remain registered under the separate Arriva Merseyside licence, all other services are registered under the Arriva North West licence. The company has depots in: Birkenhead - Laird Street Bolton - Folds Road Bootle - Hawthorne Road Liverpool - Green Lane Liverpool - Shaw Road Macclesfield - Lyme Green - Gaw End Lane Runcorn - Beechwood Avenue St Helens - Jackson Street Southport - Canning Road Winsford - Road Four, Winsford Industrial Estate Wythenshawe - Greeba Road, Roundthorn Industrial EstatePast depots, now closed or sold, have included: Crewe - Delamere Street Gillmoss - East Lancashire Road Huyton - Wilson Road Manchester - St Andrew's Square (near Manchester Piccadilly station Skelmersdale - Neverstitch Road Warrington - Athlone Road As at April 2019, the fleet consists of 798 active vehicles.
A wide variety of makes and types are represented, although DAF and VDL chassis predominate, accounting for around 58% of the fleet, over half of the fleet carries bodywork by Wrightbus. The fleet is about 54% single-deck and low-floor. Arriva stated its intention to make its main routes serving Liverpool low-floor by 2008 and for the whole of Merseyside by 2011. On the double-deck side of the fleet, 51 Volvo B5LH hybrids with Wright Gemini 3 bodywork entered service at Green Lane and Speke depots in early 2017, after initial use on rail replacement services. Other recent deliveries include 128 Alexander Dennis Enviro400s which entered service at Bootle, Green Lane, Speke, St Helens and Southport depots in between mid 2014 and mid 2015. With 152 examples overall, the Enviro400 is the most common double deck type in the fleet. Other deliveries include 44 Volvo B5LH hybrids with Wright Eclipse Gemini 2 bodywork, which were the first hybrid double deckers in the fleet, entered service at Bolton and Birkenhead depots in spring 2013, with eleven delivered to Bolton and 33 delivered to Birkenhead for "CrossRiver" branded services, although the batch new to Bolton has since moved to Birkenhead.
A total of 47 brand new VDL DB300s with Wright Gemini 2 bodywork were delivered to Speke and Winsford depots towards the end of 2011 and early 2012, with the bulk of the order, 44 buses, going to Speke depot. Prior to this, 35 Alexander Dennis Enviro400s entered service in 2009 displacing Volvo Olympians. 23 of the Enviro400s were allocated to Birkenhead for services through the Mersey Tunnels, these being the first vehicles in the fleet to carry the "Interurban" livery, apart from a solitary demonstrator. The other twelve were for services between Aigburth Vale. 30 Volvo B7TLs with Alexander ALX400 bodywork had entered service on routes between Liverpool and Garston in 2006, marking the end of a 7½ year hiatus of new double-deckers. Between 2011 and 2013, the double deck fleet was updated with the arrival of 25 DAF DB250s with Plaxton bodywork and seventeen Volvo B7TLs with Wrightbus bodywork from Arriva London, replacing Alexander-bodied DAF DB250s, which were ex-London buses. In 2017, a batch of eleven Wrightbus-bodied Volvo B5LH hybrids transferred to Arriva North West from Arriva Southern Counties, with eleven VDL DB300s transferring to Maidstone in exchange.
The standard single deck vehicle in the fleet is the VDL SB200 with Commander and Pulsar 2 bodywork. The second most prominent single deck type is the VDL SB120 with Plaxton Centro and Wright Cadet bodywork. Another type in the fleet is the Wright-bodied Volvo B10BLE, with two still in service in late 2017; the Dennis Dart, which once made up a significant part of the fleet, is no longer in use with Arriva North West, w
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The England–Wales border, sometimes referred to as the Wales–England border or the Anglo-Welsh border, is the border between England and Wales, two constituent countries of the United Kingdom. It runs for 160 miles from the Dee estuary, in the north, to the Severn estuary in the south, it has followed broadly the same line since the 8th century, in part that of Offa's Dyke. The administrative boundary of Wales was confirmed in the Local Government Act 1972. Whether Monmouthshire was part of Wales, or an English county treated for most purposes as though it were Welsh, was settled by the 1972 Act, which included it in Wales; the modern boundary between Wales and England runs from the salt marshes of the Dee estuary adjoining the Wirral Peninsula, across reclaimed land to the River Dee at Saltney just west of Chester. It loops south to include within England an area southwest of Chester, before rejoining the Dee, loops east of the river to include within Wales a large area known as Maelor an exclave of Flintshire, between Bangor-on-Dee and Whitchurch.
Returning to the River Dee as far as Chirk, the boundary loops to the west, following Offa's Dyke itself for about 2 miles, including within England the town of Oswestry, before reaching the River Vyrnwy at Llanymynech. It follows the Vyrnwy to its confluence with the River Severn, continues southwards, rising over Long Mountain east of Welshpool. East of Montgomery, the boundary again follows the line of Offa's Dyke for about 2 miles, before looping eastwards to include within Wales a large area near Churchstoke, it runs westwards to the River Teme, follows the river southeastwards through Knighton before turning south towards the River Lugg at Presteigne, within Wales. The boundary continues southwards across hills to the River Wye, follows the river upstream for a short distance to Hay-on-Wye, on the Welsh side of the border, it continues southwards and rises through and across the Black Mountains, following the Hatterall Ridge past Llanthony on the Welsh side and Longtown on the English side, to reach the River Monnow near Pandy.
It generally follows the river, past Pontrilas and Skenfrith, towards Monmouth, looping eastwards to include the town itself and a surrounding area within Wales. At Redbrook, the boundary again reaches the Wye, follows the river southwards, past Tintern and Chepstow on the Welsh side, to its confluence with the Severn at the Severn Bridge; the boundary continues down the Severn estuary towards the Bristol Channel, with the small island of Flat Holm being administered as part of Wales and the neighbouring island of Steep Holm as part of England. The boundary passes between Flintshire, Wrexham County Borough and Monmouthshire in Wales and Cheshire West and Chester, Shropshire and Gloucestershire in England. There are several places where the border runs along the centre of a lane or street, resulting in properties on one side of the street being in Wales and those on the other side being in England. Notable examples include the main street of Llanymynech. Before and during the Roman occupation of Britain, all the native inhabitants of the island spoke Brythonic languages, a sub-family of the Insular Celtic languages, were regarded as Britons.
The clear geographical divide between the mountainous western areas of southern Britain and the lower-lying areas to the east was reflected in the pattern of Roman occupation. The main Roman military bases for the control of what became Wales were beyond the mountains, at Deva and Isca Augusta, all located close to the national border; when the Roman garrison left around 410, the various parts of Britain were left to govern and defend themselves. The western area Wales, had become Christian, soon comprised a number of separate kingdoms, the largest being Gwynedd in the northwest and Powys in the east. Powys coincided with the territory of the Celtic Cornovii tribe whose civitas or administrative centre during the Roman period was at Viroconium. Gwynedd, at the height of its power, extended as far east as the Dee estuary. From the 5th century onwards, pagan tribes from the east, including the Angles and Saxons, conquered eastern and southern Britain, which became England. In the south, the Welsh kingdom of Gwent broadly covered the same area as the pre-Roman Silures, traditionally the area between the rivers Usk and the Severn estuary.
It was centred at different times on Venta, from which it derived its name, Isca Augusta. Gwent allied with, at various times was joined with, the smaller Welsh kingdom of Ergyng, centred in present-day southern Herefordshire west of the Wye; the name Glywysing may indicate. The Battle of Mons Badonicus, circa 500, could have been fought near Bath between the British, the victors, Anglo-Saxons attempting to reach the Severn estuary, but its date and location are uncertain and it may well have taken place in Somerset or Dorset. However, it is more certain that the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex emerged in the 6th and 7th centuries in the upper Thames valley and Hampshi