click links in text for more info


Deewaar is a 1975 Indian Hindi-language action drama film written by Salim-Javed, directed by Yash Chopra, starring Shashi Kapoor, Amitabh Bachchan, Nirupa Roy, Neetu Singh and Parveen Babi. Reflecting the tumultuous socio-political climate of 1970s India, Deewaar tells the story of a pair of impoverished brothers who, after their family is betrayed by the misplaced idealism of their father, struggle to survive in the slums of Bombay, find themselves on opposing sides of the law; the Deewaar of the title is the wall that has sprung up between the two brothers, drawn apart by fate and circumstances in a time of socio-political turmoil. Bachchan's character Vijay was loosely inspired by the real-life Bombay underworld gangster Haji Mastan. Deewaar is considered a ground-breaking cinematic masterpiece; the film had a significant impact on Indian cinema, as well as wider Indian society, with the film's anti-establishment themes and Bachchan's criminal anti-hero vigilante character resonating with audiences, cementing Bachchan's popular image as the "angry young man" of Bollywood cinema.

It established Parveen Babi as the "new Bollywood woman". The film cemented the success of the writing duo Salim-Javed, who went on to write many more blockbuster films. Deewaar's influence extends to world cinema, influencing films from Hong Kong and British cinema. Deewaar received the Filmfare Best Movie Award of 1975, in addition to six other Filmfare Awards, it was a "super hit" at the box office, ranking as the fourth highest-grossing Bollywood film of 1975. Indiatimes ranks Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films. Deewaar had an impact on Indian cinema as well as international cinema, it had several South Indian cinema remakes, including the Telugu remake Magaadu, the Tamil remake Thee, the Malayalam film Nathi Muthal Nathi Vare. The Shaw Brothers Studio produced a Hong Kong cinema remake, The Brothers, a film that played a key role in the creation of Hong Kong's heroic bloodshed films, a genre that had a significant influence on 1980s Hong Kong action cinema and 1990s Hollywood action films.

Deewaar had a Bollywood remake, Aatish: Feel the Fire, inspired Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire. The film opens with a depiction of the strong leadership of trade unionist Anand Verma, who works hard to enhance the lives of struggling labourers, he lives in a modest home with his wife, Sumitra Devi, their two young sons and Ravi. Anand, however, is blackmailed by a corrupt businessman who threatens to kill his family if Anand does not cease his protest activities. Forced into compliance, Anand is thus attacked by the same labourers who jeer him for his betrayal, unaware that he was blackmailed, his family is persecuted by the angry workers. Out of shame, Anand leaves town. Several of the angry workers kidnap Vijay and tattoo his arm with the Hindi words "मेरा बाप चोर है". Not knowing what else to do, Sumitra brings her children to Bombay and struggles as a day labourer to care for her now homeless sons. Vijay, the older brother, grows up with an acute awareness of his father's failure and is victimised for his father's supposed misdeeds.

In the process of fighting for his rights, who starts out as a boot polisher, was a dockyard worker in his youth, now becomes a smuggler for the underworld. Vijay beats up several thugs working for their ruthless leader Samant, which influences one of Samant's rivals to bring Vijay to his inner circle, leaving Vijay to become a new leading figure of the underworld, he sacrifices his own education so his brother Ravi can study. Ravi is an excellent student, he is dating the daughter of a senior police officer. On the Commissioner's suggestion, Ravi applies for employment with the police and is sent for training. Several months he is accepted by the police and has a rank of Sub-Inspector; when Ravi returns home, he finds that Vijay has become a businessman overnight, has accumulated wealth, palatial home. One of his first assignments is to apprehend and arrest some of Bombay's hardcore criminals and smugglers which includes his brother, Vijay – much to his shock, as he had never associated his own brother with criminal activities.

Ravi must now decide between quitting the police force. Ravi, at first reluctant of arresting his brother is moved when he non-fatally shoots a boy who stole two rotis in an attempt to catch him; when Ravi goes to the boy's family giving them some food the mother berates Ravi while the boy's father sends her back to the room. The father justifies Ravi's action by saying that stealing of a'lakh' or of food is same due to which Ravi agrees to taking the case; when Ravi finds out that Vijay has acquired wealth by crime, he decides to move out along with his mother. Shouldering past the loss of his mother and sibling, Vijay enters a sexual relationship with Anita, a woman whom he meets at a bar; when Anita falls pregnant, Vijay decides to abandon his life in the underworld, marry her, confess his sins. He hopes to seek forgiveness from his mother and brother. However, when Anita is brutally murdered by Samant, Vijay murders Samant in revenge, leading him to be branded a criminal forever, their mother, who had sided with Ravi despite the fact that Vijay was her favourite, is tormented by Vijay's decisions and rejects him.

When the two brothers meet for a final clash, pleading Vijay to stop running, shoots Vijay in his arm and Vijay dies (after crashing his car into a wall

2010 Budweiser Shootout

The 2010 Budweiser Shootout was the first exhibition stock car race of the 2010 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. It was held on February 6, 2010 at the Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, before a crowd of 85,000; the 76-lap race was won by Kevin Harvick of the Richard Childress Racing team. It was Harvick's first victory of the season. Daytona International Speedway is one of six superspeedways to hold NASCAR races, its standard track is a 2.5-mile superspeedway. Daytona's turns are banked at 31 degrees, the front stretch is banked at 18 degrees; the Budweiser Shootout was created by Busch Beer brand manager Monty Roberts as the Busch Clash in 1979. The race, designed to promote Busch Beer, invites the fastest NASCAR drivers from the previous season to compete; the race is considered a "warm-up" for the Daytona 500. It was renamed the Bud Shootout in 1998; the name changed to the Budweiser Shootout in 2001, it was rebranded the Sprint Unlimited in 2013. Twenty-eight drivers were eligible to compete in the race, including the twelve drivers that qualified for the 2009 Chase for the Sprint Cup and previous winners at Daytona.

Past Sprint Cup Series champions and the reigning Rookie of the Year were allowed to take part. Kevin Harvick was the defending champion; the race was scheduled to be 75 laps long, with two segments of 25 and 50 laps separated by a ten-minute pit stop. During the pit stop, teams could change tires, add fuel, make normal chassis adjustments but could not change springs, shock absorbers or rear ends. Work could be done on the pit road. Caution and green-flag laps were counted in the race. Two practice sessions were held on Thursday evening; the first session lasted 45 minutes. Kevin Harvick remained at his home in North Carolina to recover from symptoms of flu, Jeff Burton and Clint Bowyer drove his car for the practice sessions. Burton had the fastest time in the first practice session. Kyle Busch was third, ahead of Mark Martin. Jimmie Johnson, Ryan Newman, Kasey Kahne, Joey Logano and Bowyer rounded out the top ten fastest drivers in the session and were six-tenths of a second within Burton's time.

Denny Hamlin got into the rear of Martin in the first turn towards the end of the session, beginning a chain-reaction accident involving cars driven by Bowyer, Greg Biffle and Brian Vickers. McMurray, Bowyer and Hamlin were required to use their backup cars. Kahne was fastest in the second practice session, with a time of 46.955 seconds. Ken Schrader was second, ahead of Matt Johnson. Tony Stewart was fifth fastest, with a time of 47.054 seconds. Vickers, Juan Pablo Montoya, Carl Edwards and Logano rounded out the session's top ten fastest drivers. John Andretti slowed. Kurt Busch was required to go into a back up car. Stewart drove to his garage in the middle of the session and had his radiator changed because debris went through it, Johnson stopped his car after a completing one lap after the earlier accident; the twenty-four drivers determined their starting positions by lot, a feature, unique to the event. Edwards drew the pole position, with Harvick in second. Vickers and Biffle rounded out the top five positions.

Martin drew Burton drew seventh, ahead of Kenseth and McMurray in eighth and ninth. Andretti, Dale Earnhardt Jr. Bobby Labonte and Schrader drew the next five positions. Waltrip, who drew fifteenth, was followed by Johnson, Kyle Busch, Derrike Cope and Montoya for the first twenty spots. Logano, Kurt Busch, Jeff Gordon and Hamlin drew the last positions in the race. Once the lot was completed, Edwards said, "It's the first race of the season, it will be nice to be up front. It's been a while. I know I didn't earn this one, it's all luck, but it still feels good." The 2010 Budweiser Shootout was the first exhibition race of the season, was televised live in the United States by Fox, which began at 8:10 EST. Weather conditions at the start of the race were clear with the air temperature at 56 °F. Reverend L. Ronald Durham of the Greater Friendship Missionary Baptist Church, Daytona began pre-race ceremonies with an invocation. Country music band Zac Brown Band performed the national anthem and their lead singer Zac Brown commanded the drivers to start their engines.

During the pace laps, Martin and Kurt Busch moved to the rear of the field because they had switched to their backup cars which were not used in the practice sessions. Edwards maintained his pole position advantage going into the first turn followed by Harvick and Vickers. Vickers moved into second place after exiting turn two, while Biffle moved ahead of Harvick for third

Josepha Weber

Josepha Weber was a German soprano of the classical era. She was a sister-in-law of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the first to perform the role of The Queen of the Night in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute, she was born in Zell im Wiesental, in present-day Baden-Württemberg, the daughter of Fridolin Weber. She had three younger sisters: Aloysia, an early love interest of Mozart and sang in his operas; the composer Carl Maria von Weber was the son of her father's half brother. Josepha grew up in Mannheim, moved with her family first to Munich to Vienna, following the singing career of her sister Aloysia. By 1789 she was the prima donna in the theatrical troupe run by Johann Friedel at the suburban Theater auf der Wieden. Following Friedel's death in that year, the theater was taken over by Emanuel Schikaneder, who retained her in the new company he formed, she appears to have been an important member of the troupe: the collaborative opera Der Stein der Weisen, a sort of ancestor to The Magic Flute, includes no arias for coloratura soprano because at the time it was written Hofer was on maternity leave.

At the premiere of The Magic Flute in 1791, Hofer took the role of the Queen of the Night, a famously demanding coloratura part. She continued to perform this role until 1801, when she relinquished it at age 43. Hofer premiered other roles, she was again the Queen of the Night in Schikaneder and Winter's sequel to The Magic Flute, Das Labyrinth oder der Kampf mit den Elementen. She was the first to perform the role of Oberon in Paul Wranitzky’s opera, she married twice. Her first husband was the musician Franz de Paula Hofer. Hofer was employed as a violinist at the Imperial court, her second husband was the singer Sebastian Meier. Meier was the first to perform the role of Pizarro in Beethoven's opera Fidelio. Josepha Meier retired from singing in 1805, died in Vienna on 29 December 1819. Of her singing, the New Grove says, "According to contemporary reports, she commanded a high tessitura but had a rough edge to her voice and lacked stage presence." The former quality equipped her to take on the difficult coloratura passages that Mozart wrote into the Queen of the Night's part.

Except as indicated by footnote all information above is taken from the article "Weber", in the online edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press Buch, David Der Stein der Weisen. A-R Editions, Inc. ISBN 0-89579-616-3 Deutsch, Otto Erich Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press Der Zauberfloete zweyter Theil unter dem Titel: Das Labyrinth oder der Kampf mit den Elementen. Edited by Manuela Jahrmärker und Till Gerrit Waidelich, Tutzing 1992, ISBN 3-7952-0694-4 Oberon, König der Elfen. Singspiel in drei Akten von Paul Wranitzky. Libretto von Karl Ludwig Giesecke. Edited by Christoph-Hellmut Mahling and Joachim Veit. Munich: G. Henle 1993

Charles Spencer Smith

Charles Spencer Smith was a Methodist minister and afterwards bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Born and raised in Canada, Smith moved to the United States at age fourteen and after a series of jobs and two years in the Alabama Legislature, he became an ordained minister, pastoring in several southern states before being assigned to the Chicago Conference of the AME Church. Exposed to the work of the Sunday School Union there, he proposed that a similar organization be established for the AME Church, he founded the organization and the first publishing house in the country owned by a person of African descent using steam presses. After his appointment as Bishop, Smith traveled and was assigned conferences in Canada, the Caribbean and several in the United States. Upon retiring from conference work, he became the historian of the AME Church and wrote at least two books. Charles Spencer Smith was born on 16 March 1852 in Colborne, Canada to Catherine and Nehemiah Henry Smith, he attended public schooling there until aged twelve.

Apprenticed to learn furniture finishing, he lost his apprenticeship when the factory in which he was employed burned. Smith moved to Buffalo, New York at the age of fourteen and worked as a general laborer for a boarding house until 1868. Moving to Chicago in that year, he worked as a porter for a barber shop until gaining employment as a deckhand an laborer on the ships working in the Great Lakes region. In 1969, Smith went south to Louisville, Kentucky to apply for work with the Freedmen's Bureau as a teacher. Smith's first post was in a school in Louisville, but due to threats from the Ku Klux Klan, he removed to teach in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Afterwards he taught in Jackson, where he became a minister licensed by the African Methodist Episcopal Church, taught at Yazoo City and several county schools in Mississippi, his first mission for the AME Church was in 1872 in Mississippi. The following year, Smith transferred to the Alabama Conference and was assigned a pastorate in Union Springs, Alabama.

He became active in politics and was elected to the 1874 Alabama House of Representatives, during the Reconstruction period, but lost his seat in 1876. In April 1876, he married Katie Josephine Black in Tennessee; the couple had three children. Smith decided to further his education and attended Central Tennessee College and Meharry Medical College obtaining is M. D. in 1880. During his schooling, he was reassigned to the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Conference and filled pastoral vacancies at various churches in Pittsburgh. Completing his medical degree, Smith asked for a transfer to the Illinois Conference and was appointed to Bloomington. While in Illinois, he worked as an agent for the Sunday School Publishing House established in Chicago by David C. Cook, affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal Church; the work they were doing impressed him and when he proposed to the council of Bishops that a similar union be established for the AME Church. In 1882, Smith founded the Sunday School Union of the AME Church in Nashville and served as its treasurer and the corresponding secretary until 1900.

He purchased a property, set up a publishing house. This was the first steam printing business run by an African American in the country; the Union published two journals, The Child's Recorder and Our Sunday School Review, both of which were edited by Smith. His wife died on July 28, 1885 while visiting her sister in Jackson and three years in December 1888, Smith married Christine Shoecraft, a teacher from Indiana. In 1900, Smith became a bishop of the AME Church and was assigned to the Twelfth Episcopal District, which included the Ontario and Nova Scotia Provinces of Canada; that year, the Louisiana Conferences were assigned to him. In 1904, he was reassigned to South Africa and two years to West Africa. In 1908, Smith was assigned to the Georgia Conference and in 1912, he was assigned to the Texas Conference, before being reassigned to Canada and Bermuda along with Michigan in 1916. Smith traveled extensively, throughout the United States, in the Caribbean and Africa, speaking at numerous conferences.

He was appointed as the church historiographer. Smith died on February 1923 at his home in Detroit, Michigan, he wrote numerous pamphlets during his lifetime, as well as a history of the history of the AME Church and a book, Glimpses of Africa, which chronicled his 1894 trip to the continent. His papers, spanning the period from 1875 to 1923 are housed at the Bentley Historical Library in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Mason, Karen. "Charles S. Smith papers: circa 1875-1923". Bentley Historical Library. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Roseman, Jean. "Reverend Charles Spencer Smith". Civic Scope. Nashville, Tennessee. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Wright Jr. Richard R.. Centennial encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church: containing principally the biographies of the men and women, both ministers and laymen, whose labors during a hundred years, helped make the A. M. E. Church what it is: short historical sketches... and general information about African Methodism and the Christian church in general.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Book Concern of the A. M. E. Church. OCLC 48151266

Bone Symphony

Bone Symphony were a short-lived synthpop / new wave active in the early 1980s. The group consisted of Scott Wilk on lead vocals and synthesizer, Marc Levinthal and keyboard artist Jacob Magnusson. All band members played synthesizer keyboards, they were signed to Capitol Records and released only one record, Bone Symphony EP, in 1983. They are most famous for their song "One Foot in Front of the Other" which appeared in the film Revenge of the Nerds, an episode of Family Guy, the film Ted 2. "L. A.-based Bone Symphony takes a more conventional approach, landing somewhere between Orchestral Manoeuvers In The Dark and Real Life, directly on top of Heaven 17." "The name Bone Symphony is intended to'combine visceral aspects with intellectual ones,' and musically, that's what they succeed in doing about half the time...". Outside of Bone Symphony, Wilk found a career as a composer for film and television, spanning three decades. Beginning in 1982, for an episode of CBS Afternoon Playhouse, he and Levinthal wrote the score for the film Valley Girl, which featured Nicolas Cage in his first starring role.

Scott Wilk - lead vocals, synthesizer Marc Levinthal - guitar, bass synthesizer and sequencer, drum machine, Roland TR-808 Jacob Magnusson - keyboard Bone Symphony EP Soundtrack appearancesRevenge of the Nerds - "One Foot In Front of the Other" Family Guy - "One Foot In Front of the Other" Ted 2 - "One Foot In Front of the Other" Bone Symphony discography at Discogs

Princess Theresa of Liechtenstein

Theresa Maria Josepha Martha was a Princess of Liechtenstein and of Bavaria. Theresa was the tenth child and ninth daughter of Aloys II, Prince of Liechtenstein and his wife, Countess Franziska Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau, she was a younger sister of Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein and an older sister of Franz I, Prince of Liechtenstein. On 12 April 1882, in Vienna, Theresa married Prince Arnulf of Bavaria, youngest son of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria and Auguste Ferdinande of Austria, they had one child, who died in the First World War. She is buried in the Theatinerkirche in Munich